55,262 results match your criteria activation neuronal


Agathisflavone Modifies Microglial Activation State and Myelination in Organotypic Cerebellar Slices Culture.

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Institute of Health Sciences, Federal University of Bahia, Bahia, Brazil.

Oligodendrocytes produce the myelin that is critical for rapid neuronal transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Disruption of myelin has devastating effects on CNS function, as in the demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Microglia are the endogenous immune cells of the CNS and play a central role in demyelination and repair. Read More

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The subiculum sensitizes retrosplenial cortex layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons.

J Physiol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

Key Points: Neurons in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), a cerebral region that connects synaptically with various brain regions, are known to increase neuronal activity in accordance with hippocampal sharp wave-ripples. Pyramidal cells in granular RSC (gRSC) layer 2/3, but not layer 5, exhibit slowly ramping depolarization and considerably delayed spikes in response to a step-pulse current injection. The latencies of delayed spikes in RSC layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons were shortened by a preceding current injection. Read More

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Mapping functional gradients of the striatal circuit using simultaneous microelectric stimulation and ultrahigh-field fMRI in non-human primates: Mapping the dorsal and ventral striatum circuits.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 17:118077. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research, Institute for Basic Science, Suwon, Republic of Korea;; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea;. Electronic address:

Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have significantly enhanced our understanding of the striatal system of both humans and non-human primates (NHP) over the last few decades. However, its circuit-level functional anatomy remains poorly understood, partly because in-vivo fMRI cannot directly perturb a brain system and map its casual input-output relationship. Also, routine 3T fMRI has an insufficient spatial resolution. Read More

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5-Lipoxygenase inhibition reduces inflammation and neuronal apoptosis via AKT signaling after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 20;13. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Chongqing Emergency Center, Chongqing University Center Hospital, School of medicine, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China.

Early brain injury (EBI) is a major contributor to the high mortality and morbidity after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Inflammatory responses and neuronal apoptosis are important causes of EBI. Because 5- lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is known to be involved various central nervous system diseases, we investigated the effects of 5-LOX inhibition during EBI after SAH. Read More

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Cognitive function modulation during aging: a focus on L-alpha-GPE.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Apr;25(7):3015-3027

Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Neuroscience, CNR, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Objective: The objectives of this review are to explore the neuronal pathways and cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in both healthy and impaired cognitive function and to discuss the role of nootropics, in particular, those with cholinergic activity, as promising interventions to preserve and/or improve cognitive performance in patients in the symptomatic pre-dementia stage, known as mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

Materials And Methods: Papers were retrieved by a PubMed search, using different combinations of keywords (e.g. Read More

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Restriction of Cellular Plasticity of Differentiated Cells Mediated by Chromatin Modifiers, Transcription Factors and Protein Kinases.

G3 (Bethesda) 2019 Jul;9(7):2287-2302

Department of Biological Sciences, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY.

Ectopic expression of master regulatory transcription factors can reprogram the identity of specific cell types. The effectiveness of such induced cellular reprogramming is generally greatly reduced if the cellular substrates are fully differentiated cells. For example, in the nematode C. Read More

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Extracellular vesicles derived from M2 microglia reduce ischemic brain injury through microRNA-135a-5p/TXNIP/NLRP3 axis.

Lab Invest 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, PR China.

Accumulating evidences have suggested that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are crucial players in the pathogenesis of ischemic brain injury. This study was designed to explore the specific functions of M2 phenotype microglia-derived EVs in ischemic brain injury progression. The expression of microRNA-135a-5p (miR-135a-5p) in M2 microglia-derived EVs was determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), followed by the identification of expression relationship among miR-135a-5p, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), and nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) by dual luciferase reporter gene assay. Read More

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Curcumin activates Nrf2 through PKCδ-mediated p62 phosphorylation at Ser351.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 19;11(1):8430. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Brain Disease Research, Department for Chronic Disease Convergence Research, Korea National Institute of Health, 187 Osongsaengmyeong2-ro, Osong-eup, Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do, 363-951, South Korea.

Curcumin, a phytochemical extracted from Curcuma longa rhizomes, is known to be protective in neurons via activation of Nrf2, a master regulator of endogenous defense against oxidative stress in cells. However, the exact mechanism by which curcumin activates Nrf2 remains controversial. Here, we observed that curcumin induced the expression of genes downstream of Nrf2 such as HO-1, NQO1, and GST-mu1 in neuronal cells, and increased the level of Nrf2 protein. Read More

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Beyond homeostasis: potassium and pathogenesis during bacterial infections.

Infect Immun 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of California Riverside School of Medicine, California, USA

Potassium is an essential mineral nutrient required by all living cells for normal physiological function. Maintaining intracellular potassium homeostasis during bacterial infection is therefore a requirement for the survival of both host and pathogen. However, pathogenic bacteria require potassium transport not only to fulfill nutritional and chemiosmotic requirements, but potassium has been shown to directly modulate virulence gene expression, antimicrobial resistance, and biofilm formation. Read More

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Inhibiting BDNF/TrkB.T1 receptor improves resiniferatoxin-induced postherpetic neuralgia through decreasing ASIC3 signaling in dorsal root ganglia.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Apr 19;18(1):96. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi Street, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a devastating complication after varicella-zoster virus infection. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to participate in the pathogenesis of PHN. A truncated isoform of the tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor TrkB. Read More

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4R-cembranoid confers neuroprotection against LPS-induced hippocampal inflammation in mice.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Apr 19;18(1):95. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biochemistry, Universidad Central del Caribe School of Medicine, Av. Sta. Juanita, Bayamón, 00960, Puerto Rico.

Background: Chronic brain inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases and disorders. For example, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been associated with impairments in hippocampal-dependent memory. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection is a widely used model to explore the pathobiology of inflammation. Read More

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CAPN1 (Calpain1)-Mediated Impairment of Autophagic Flux Contributes to Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Neuronal Damage.

Stroke 2021 Apr 20:STROKEAHA120032749. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Physiology, Shenyang Medical College, China (Y.L., Y. Yao, Y. Yang, R.C., M.-S.Z.).

Background And Purpose: CAPN1 (calpain1)-an intracellular Ca-regulated cysteine protease-can be activated under cerebral ischemia. However, the mechanisms by which CAPN1 activation promotes cerebral ischemic injury are not defined.

Methods: In the present study, we used adeno-associated virus-mediated genetic knockdown and pharmacological blockade (MDL-28170) of CAPN1 to investigate the role of CAPN1 in the regulation of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway and neuronal damage in 2 models, rat permanent middle cerebral occlusion in vivo model and oxygen-glucose-deprived primary neuron in vitro model. Read More

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Using fast visual rhythmic stimulation to control inter-hemispheric phase offsets in visual areas.

Neuropsychologia 2021 Apr 16:107863. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, UK; Centre for Human Brain Health, University of Birmingham, UK; Institute for Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, UK. Electronic address:

Spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is believed to be important for neural communication and plasticity in human episodic memory, but causal evidence is lacking due to technical challenges. Rhythmic sensory stimulation that has been used to investigate causal relations between oscillations and cognition may be able to address this question. The challenge, however, is that the frequency corresponding to the critical time window for STDP is gamma (∼40 Hz), yet the application of rhythmic sensory stimulation has been limited primarily to lower frequencies (<30 Hz). Read More

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Endogenous β-endorphin Plays a Pivotal Role in Angiotensin II-mediated Central Neurochemical Changes and Pressor Response.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Apr 16:109475. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

Endorphins are endogenous opioid neuropeptides that are mainly produced from pituitary gland in response to pain and different triggers including interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Angiotensin II (Ang II) can stimulate β-endorphin production, but the exact molecular mechanisms involved in this effect, and the role of the released endorphin in Ang II-mediated pressor response remain elusive. Male rats were injected with IL-1β receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, 100 μg/kg), the CRF receptor blocker, astressin (20 μg/rat) or a combination of both, prior to Ang II injection (200 μg/kg). Read More

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Involvement of TRPC5 channels, inwardly rectifying K channels, PLCβ and PIP in vasopressin-mediated excitation of medial central amygdala neurons.

J Physiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND58203, USA.

Key Points: Activation of V vasopressin receptors facilitates neuronal excitability in the medial nucleus of central amygdala (CeM) V receptor activation excites about 80% CeM neurons by opening a cationic conductance and about 20% CeM neurons by suppressing an inwardly rectifying K (Kir) channels The cationic conductance activated by V receptors is identified as TRPC5 channels PLCβ-mediated depletion of PIP is involved in V receptor-elicited excitation of CeM neurons Intracellular Ca release and PKC are unnecessary for V receptor-mediated excitation of CeM neurons ABSTRACT: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) serves as a hormone in the periphery to modulate water homeostasis and a neuromodulator in the brain to regulate a diverse range of functions including anxiety, social behaviors, cognitive activities and nociception. The amygdala is an essential brain region involved in modulating defensive and appetitive behaviors, pain, and alcohol use disorders. Whereas activation of V receptors in the medial nucleus of the central amygdala (CeM) increases neuronal excitability, the involved ionic and signaling mechanisms have not been determined. Read More

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Pharmacological Properties of Violacein at the Human Serotonin 2C Receptor.

EC Pharmacol Toxicol 2019 Jan 1;30(Suppl 1):103-111. Epub 2016 Apr 1.

Department of Biological Sciences, Tennessee State University, United States of America.

The monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) plays a role in many physiological responses by interacting with various receptor subtypes. The 5-HT receptor subtype is a 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is involved in neuronal excitability, spatial learning, mood, and appetite. The microorganism produces a purple pigment, violacein, which can be extracted and purified. Read More

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January 2019

Lentivirus-mediated silencing of CNTN1 enhances gefitinib sensitivity by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jun 31;21(6):433. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

College of Pharmacy, National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Targeted and Innovative Therapeutics, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Kinase Modulators as Innovative Medicine, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, Chongqing 402160, P.R. China.

Contactin-1 (CNTN1), a neuronal cell adhesion molecular, functions in nervous system development and has been associated with carcinogenesis and tumor progression. To investigate the role of CNTN1 in gefitinib resistance in lung adenocarcinoma, lentivirus-mediated short hairpin (sh)RNA was used to silence CNTN1 and its physiological function was analyzed in the A549 cell line. A cell cytotoxicity assay revealed that CNTN1 knockdown enhanced gefitinib sensitivity in the A549 cells. Read More

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SOX Transcription Factors as Important Regulators of Neuronal and Glial Differentiation During Nervous System Development and Adult Neurogenesis.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 31;14:654031. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Laboratory for Human Molecular Genetics, Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

The SOX proteins belong to the superfamily of transcription factors (TFs) that display properties of both classical TFs and architectural components of chromatin. Since the cloning of the / genes, remarkable progress has been made in illuminating their roles as key players in the regulation of multiple developmental and physiological processes. SOX TFs govern diverse cellular processes during development, such as maintaining the pluripotency of stem cells, cell proliferation, cell fate decisions/germ layer formation as well as terminal cell differentiation into tissues and organs. Read More

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Interferon Gamma-Mediated Oxidative Stress Induces Apoptosis, Neuroinflammation, Zinc Ion Influx, and TRPM2 Channel Activation in Neuronal Cell Line: Modulator Role of Curcumin.

Inflammation 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Departmant of Neuroscience, Institute of Health Sciences, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey.

Host defenses in the brain are modulated by the activation of several factors such as oxygen free radical species (ROS), Ca influx, and TRPM2 activation, and they are well-known adverse factors in neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative diseases. Importantly, recent data indicated a protective action of curcumin (CRC) via inhibition of TRPM2 on the inflammation factors, ROS, and apoptosis in hypoxia-induced SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. However, the relationship between interferon gamma (IFNg) exposure and TRPM2 activation in the SH-SY5Y cells are not fully identified. Read More

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New insights on nitric oxide: focus on animal models of schizophrenia.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Apr 15:113304. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Lab. Neuropsiquiatría, Instituto de Fisiología, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 14 Sur 6301, San Manuel, 72570, Puebla, Mexico. Electronic address:

Schizophrenia is a devastating complex disorder charcaterised by a constellation of behavioral deficits with the underlying mechanisms not fully known. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a key signaling molecule implicated in schizophrenia. Three nitric oxide sinthases (NOS), endothelial neuronal and inducible, release NO within the cell. Read More

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Possible Mechanisms of HIV Neuro-Infection in Alcohol Use: Interplay of Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Energy Interruption.

Alcohol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Biomedical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, USA. Electronic address:

Alcohol use and HIV-1 infection have a pervasive impact on brain function, which extends to the requirement, distribution, and utilization of energy within the central nervous system. This affect to neuroenergetics may, in part, explain the exacerbation of HIV-1 disease under the influence of alcohol, particularly the persistence of HIV-associated neurological complications. The objective of this review article is to highlight the possible mechanisms of HIV/AIDS progression in alcohol users from the perspective of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and interruption of energy metabolism. Read More

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Instructive roles of astrocytes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity: neuronal activity-dependent regulatory mechanisms.

FEBS J 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Division of Life Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China.

In the adult hippocampus, synaptic plasticity is important for information processing, learning, and memory encoding. Astrocytes, the most common glial cells, play a pivotal role in the regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. While astrocytes were initially described as a homogenous cell population, emerging evidence indicates that in the adult hippocampus, astrocytes are highly heterogeneous and can differentially respond to changes in neuronal activity in a subregion-dependent manner to actively modulate synaptic plasticity. Read More

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Neuronal androgen receptor is required for activity dependent enhancement of peripheral nerve regeneration.

Dev Neurobiol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Cell Biology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Neuronal activity after nerve injury can enhance axon regeneration and the restoration of function. The mechanism for this enhancement relies in part on hormone receptors, and we previously demonstrated that systemic androgen receptor antagonism blocked the effect of exercise or electrical stimulation on enhancing axon regeneration after nerve injury in both sexes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the site of this androgen receptor signaling is both neuronal and involves the classical, genomic signaling pathway. Read More

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Cocaine experience induces functional adaptations in astrocytes: Implications for synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens shell.

Addict Biol 2021 Apr 16:e13042. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Neuroscience, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Astrocytes have become established as an important regulator of neuronal activity in the brain. Accumulating literature demonstrates that cocaine self-administration in rodent models induces structural changes within astrocytes that may influence their interaction with the surrounding neurons. Here, we provide evidence that cocaine impacts astrocytes at the functional level and alters neuronal sensitivity to astrocyte-derived glutamate. Read More

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Neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of pioglitazone in brain tissue adjacent to the ischemic core are mediated by PI3K/Akt and Nrf2/ARE pathways.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Arnold Heller Strasse 3, 24105, Kiel, Germany.

The present study elucidates the neuroprotective mechanisms of the PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) agonist pioglitazone in survival of ischemic neurons following middle cerebral artery occlusion with reperfusion (MCAO). Intracerebroventricular infusion of pioglitazone over 5 days before and 24 or 48 h after MCAO alleviated neurological impairments, inhibited apoptosis 24 h, and activated the PI3K/Akt pathway along with increased phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) and GSK-3β (ser9) in the peri-infarct cortical areas 48 h after MCAO. In primary cortical neurons, pioglitazone suppressed the glutamate-induced release of lactate dehydrogenase by a PPARγ-dependent mechanism. Read More

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Central amygdala inflammation drives pain hypersensitivity and attenuates morphine analgesia in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Pain 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6E 2H7 Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2E1 Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G3.

Abstract: Chronic pain is a highly prevalent symptom associated with the autoimmune disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). The central nucleus of the amygdala plays a critical role in pain processing and modulation. Neuropathic pain alters nociceptive signaling in the central amygdala, contributing to pain chronicity and opioid tolerance. Read More

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Netrin-1 receptor UNC5C cleavage by active δ-secretase enhances neurodegeneration, promoting Alzheimer's disease pathologies.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 16;7(16). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Netrin-1, a family member of laminin-related secreted proteins, mediates axon guidance and cell migration during neural development. T835M mutation in netrin receptor UNC5C predisposes to the late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and increases neuronal cell death. However, it remains unclear how this receptor is molecularly regulated in AD. Read More

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Effect of sensory blockade and rate of sensory stimulation on local heating induced axon reflex response in facial skin.

Auton Neurosci 2021 Apr 7;233:102809. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Physical Therapy, School of Health & Human Sciences; and (2)Departments of Dermatology and Anatomy, Cell Biology, & Physiology, School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Local neuronal circuits in non-glabrous skin drive the initial increase of the biphasic cutaneous vasodilation response to fast non-noxious heating. Voltage-sensitive Na (NaV) channel inhibition blocks the afferent limb of the non-glabrous forearm cutaneous axon reflex. Slow local heating does not engage this response. Read More

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Mechanistic interplay of various mediators involved in mediating the neuroprotective effect of daphnetin.

Pharmacol Rep 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

Daphnetin is a 7, 8 dihydroxy coumarin isolated from different medicinal plants of the Thymelaeaceae family and exhibits copious pharmacological activities including neuroprotection, anti-cancer, anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic and anti-arthritic activity. It has been proved to be an effective neuroprotective agent in several preclinical animal studies and cell line examinations. It is found to interact with different cellular mediators and signaling pathways to confer protection against neurodegeneration. Read More

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Induction of Exaggerated Cytokine Production in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by a Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein S1 and Its Inhibition by Dexamethasone.

Inflammation 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pharmacy, School of Applied Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield, HD1 3DH, UK.

An understanding of the pathological inflammatory mechanisms involved in SARS-CoV-2 virus infection is necessary in order to discover new molecular pharmacological targets for SARS-CoV-2 cytokine storm. In this study, the effects of a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein S1 was investigated in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Stimulation of PBMCs with spike glycoprotein S1 (100 ng/mL) resulted in significant elevation in the production of TNFα, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-8. Read More

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