805,157 results match your criteria activation cells


Hemopexin Modulates Expression of Complement Regulatory Proteins in Rat Glomeruli.

Curr Issues Mol Biol 2021 Sep 7;43(2):1081-1089. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Virginia Tech., Carilion School of Medicine, 1970 Roanoke Blvd, Salem, VA 24153, USA.

In systemic hemolysis and in hematuric forms of kidney injury, the major heme scavenging protein, hemopexin (HPX), becomes depleted, and the glomerular microvasculature (glomeruli) is exposed to high concentrations of unbound heme, which, in addition to causing oxidative injury, can activate complement cascades; thus, compounding extent of injury. It is unknown whether unbound heme can also activate specific complement regulatory proteins that could defend against complement-dependent injury. Isolated rat glomeruli were incubated in media supplemented with HPX-deficient (HPX) or HPX-containing (HPX) sera as a means of achieving different degrees of heme partitioning between incubation media and glomerular cells. Read More

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September 2021

A Loss of Nuclear-Cytoskeletal Interactions in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Differentiation Induced by a Micro-Grooved Collagen Substrate Enabling the Modeling of an In Vivo Cell Arrangement.

Authors:
Kazuaki Nagayama

Bioengineering (Basel) 2021 Sep 12;8(9). Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Micro-Nano Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Ibaraki University, Nakanarusawa-cho, Hitachi 316-8511, Japan.

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) remodel vascular walls actively owing to mechanical cues and dedifferentiate to the synthetic phenotype from contractile phenotype in pathological conditions. It is crucial to clarify the mechanisms behind the VSMC phenotypic transition for elucidating their role in the vascular adaptation and repair and for designing engineered tissues. We recently developed novel micro-grooved collagen substrates with "wavy wrinkle" grooves to induce cell-substrate adhesion, morphological polarization, and a tissue-like cell arrangement with cytoskeletal rearrangements similar to those in vascular tissue in vivo. Read More

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September 2021

Genetically Encoded Sensor Cells for the Screening of Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) Effectors in Herbal Extracts.

Biosensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 16;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul 04620, Korea.

Although in vitro sensors provide facile low-cost ways to screen for biologically active targets, their results may not accurately represent the molecular interactions in biological systems. Cell-based sensors have emerged as promising platforms to screen targets in biologically relevant environments. However, there are few examples where cell-based sensors have been practically applied for drug screening. Read More

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September 2021

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) attenuates staphylococcal alpha-hemolysin (Hla)-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation via ROS-MAPK pathways and EGCG-Hla interactions.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Sep 22;100:108170. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China. Electronic address:

Alpha-hemolysin (Hla), the virulence factor secreted by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), plays a critical role in infection and inflammation, which is a severe health burden worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a drug against Hla. Read More

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September 2021

Medical gas plasma promotes blood coagulation via platelet activation.

Biomaterials 2020 Oct 17;278:120433. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Department of General, Visceral, and Thoracic Surgery, Greifswald University Medical Center, Sauerbruchstr., 17475, Greifswald, Germany.

Major blood loss still is a risk factor during surgery. Electrocauterization often is used for necrotizing the tissue and thereby halts bleeding (hemostasis). However, the carbonized tissue is prone to falling off, putting patients at risk of severe side effects, such as dangerous internal bleeding many hours after surgery. Read More

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October 2020

Time-programmed activation of dual polyprodrugs for synergistic cascade oxidation-chemotherapy.

Biomaterials 2021 Sep 20;278:121136. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Institutes for Life Sciences, School of Medicine, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China; National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China; Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Engineering of the Ministry of Education and Innovation Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

Combination therapy using multiple drugs with time-programmed administration is promising for enhanced cancer treatment. However, it is still challenging to achieve time-programmed drug release from a single nanocarrier. Here, dual polyprodrugs of hemicyanine dye (CyNH) and doxorubicin (DOX) are developed to achieve time-programmed prodrug activation for synergistic cascade oxidation therapy and chemotherapy. Read More

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September 2021

CircPTK2 inhibits the tumorigenesis and metastasis of gastric cancer by sponging miR-134-5p and activating CELF2/PTEN signaling.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Sep 14;227:153615. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth people's Hospital, Shanghai 200233, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: CircRNAs are a new subset of noncoding RNAs formed by covalent closed loops and play crucial roles in the regulation of cancer gene expression. However, the roles and underlying mechanisms of circRNAs in gastric cancer (GC) remain indistinct. This study aimed to explore the role and mechanism of hsa_circ_0006421 (circPTK2) in GC. Read More

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September 2021

Intracellular zinc during cell activation and zinc deficiency.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Sep 20;68:126864. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Institute of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, University Hospital, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074, Aachen, Germany. Electronic address:

Introduction: Zinc is an essential trace element having manifold functions within living cells. Zinc deficiency but also zinc excess impairs cell-specific functions whereas a balanced zinc level is required for an adequate cell behavior.

Material And Methods: This study deals with the impact of cellular priming due to stimulation with interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 or the chemokine CXCL12a and its subsequent influence on the intracellular free zinc concentration. Read More

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September 2021

Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission mediates corneal injury induced by alkali burn.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute of Geriatrics, Affiliated People's Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, 330006, PR China; Department of Neurology, Affiliated People's Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, 330006, PR China. Electronic address:

Corneal alkali burn, as one of the most serious ophthalmic emergencies, is difficult to be cured by conservative treatments. It is well known that oxidative stress, inflammation, and neovascularization are the main causes of corneal damage after alkali burn, but its underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we reported that the expression and phosphorylation (Ser616) of mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 were up-regulated at day 3 after alkali burn, while mitochondrial fusion protein Mfn2 was down-regulated. Read More

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September 2021

Defining the structure of the NF-ĸB pathway in human immune cells using quantitative proteomic data.

Cell Signal 2021 Sep 22:110154. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Centre for Immunobiology, Institute of Infection, Immunity & Inflammation, College of Medicine, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, United Kingdom.. Electronic address:

The NF-ĸB transcription factor is a critical regulator of immune homeostasis and inflammatory responses and is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease. The pathways to NF-ĸB activation are paradigms for signal-induced ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, control of transcription factor function by subcellular localisation, and the control of gene transcription and physiological processes by signal transduction mechanisms. Despite the importance of NF-ĸB in disease, the NF-ĸB pathway remains unexploited for the treatment of inflammatory disease. Read More

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September 2021

Targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway: A therapeutic strategy in COVID-19 patients.

Immunol Lett 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, AB25 2ZD, Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Some COVID-19 patients suffer complications from anti-viral immune responses which can lead to both a dangerous cytokine storm and development of blood-borne factors that render severe thrombotic events more likely. The precise immune response profile is likely, therefore, to determine and predict patient outcomes and also represents a target for intervention. Anti-viral T cell exhaustion in the early stages is associated with disease progression. Read More

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September 2021

A new PD-1-specific nanobody enhances the antitumor activity of T-cells in synergy with dendritic cell vaccine.

Cancer Lett 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Nanobody Research, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, 530021, PR China; College of Stomatology, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, 530021, PR China. Electronic address:

Despite the many successes and opportunities presented by PD-1 blockade in cancer therapies, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies still face multiple challenges. Herein we report a strategy based on a nanobody (Nb) to circumvent these obstacles. A new PD-1-blocking Nb (PD-1 Nb20) in combination with tumor-specific dendritic cell (DC)/tumor-fusion cell (FC) vaccine that aims to improve the activation, proliferation, cytokine secretion, and tumor cell cytotoxicity of CD8 T-cells. Read More

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September 2021

Tannic Acid Protects Aged Brain Against Cerebral Hypoperfusion via Modulation of Nrf2 and Inflammatory Pathways.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Sep 22:136263. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Electrophysiology Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran. Electronic address:

Current study purposed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Tannic Acid (TA) on mild chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model in rats. Male Wistar rats were subjected to permanent Unilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion (UCCAO), followed by TA treatment (0.05% w/v) in drinking water for one month. Read More

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September 2021

DNA-PKcs kinase activity stabilizes the transcription factor Egr1 in activated immune cells.

J Biol Chem 2021 Sep 22:101209. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Division of Surgical Research, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, United States of America; Arkansas Children's Research Institute, Little Rock, Arkansas, United States of America. Electronic address:

DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is known primarily for its function in DNA double-stranded break repair and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). However, DNA-PKcs also has a critical yet undefined role in immunity impacting both myeloid and lymphoid cell lineages spurring interest in targeting DNA-PKcs for therapeutic strategies in immune-related diseases. To gain insight into the function of DNA-PKcs within immune cells, we performed a quantitative phosphoproteomic screen in T cells to identify phosphorylation targets of DNA-PKcs. Read More

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September 2021

Mast cells-derived exosomes worsen the development of experimental cerebral malaria.

Acta Trop 2021 Sep 22:106145. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Bioactive Substances, School of Life Sciences and Biopharmaceutics, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, P. R. China; Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, School of Life Sciences and Biopharmaceutics, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most severe neurological complication caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection. The accumulating evidence demonstrated that mast cells (MCs) and its mediators played a critical role in mediating malaria severity. Earlier studies identified that exosomes were emerging as key mediators of intercellular communication and can be released from several kinds of MCs. Read More

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September 2021

New World Leishmania spp. infection in people living with HIV: concerns about relapses and secondary prophylaxis.

Acta Trop 2021 Sep 22:106146. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Laboratório de Imunidade Natural (LIN), Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil.. Electronic address:

Coinfection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Leishmania impairs immune responses, increases treatment failure and relapse rates in patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL), as well as visceral leishmaniasis (VL). There is insufficient data on the treatment, relapse, and secondary prophylaxis in patients coinfected with HIV/Leishmania in Brazil. This study investigated patients with HIV/ATL and HIV/VL to describe the outcome of leishmaniasis in patients assisted at a referral hospital of Brazilian midwestern region. Read More

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September 2021

Oncogene-dependent sloppiness in mRNA translation.

Mol Cell 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Division of Oncogenomics, Oncode Institute, the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066CX Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Erasmus MC, Rotterdam University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

mRNA translation is a highly conserved and tightly controlled mechanism for protein synthesis. Despite protein quality control mechanisms, amino acid shortage in melanoma induces aberrant proteins by ribosomal frameshifting. The extent and the underlying mechanisms related to this phenomenon are yet unknown. Read More

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September 2021

Studies of SMOOTHENED Activation in Cell-Free and Reconstituted Systems.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2374:161-174

Departments of Oncological Sciences, Biochemistry, and Bioengineering, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Much of our current understanding of Hedgehog signal transduction derives from studies involving intact cells and organisms. Here we describe the use of cell-free and reconstituted systems to study a key step in Hedgehog signal transduction: the activation of SMOOTHENED by membrane lipids. These methods can be adapted to study other steps in Hedgehog signal transduction, particularly those that occur at the membrane. Read More

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January 2022

Neuropathological variability within a spectrum of NMDAR-encephalitis.

Ann Neurol 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Division of Neuropathology and Neurochemistry, Department of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

Objective: To describe the neuropathological features of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-encephalitis in an archival autopsy cohort.

Methods: We examined four autopsies from patients with NMDAR-encephalitis; two patients were untreated, three had comorbidities: small cell lung cancer (SCLC), brain post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), and overlapping demyelination.

Results: The two untreated patients had inflammatory infiltrates predominantly composed of perivascular and parenchymal CD3 /CD8 T cells and CD79a B cells/plasma cells in basal ganglia, amygdala, and hippocampus with surrounding white matter. Read More

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September 2021

The Role of Intracellular Signaling Molecules in the Production of Granulocytic CSF Mononuclear Phagocytes in Stress and Cytostatic Influence.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

E. D. Goldberg Research Institute of Pharmacology and Regenerative Medicine, Tomsk National Research Medical Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia.

Under conditions of steady-state hemopoiesis, nuclear factor NF-κB, in contrast to MAP kinase p38, plays an important role in the maintenance of the initial level of secretory activity of monocytes. The increase in the production of G-CSF under stress conditions (10-h immobilization) is mainly regulated by the alternative p38MARK signaling pathway via activation of p38 synthesis. It was shown that under conditions of cytostatic-induced myelosuppression, the production of protein kinase p38 in cells decreases, and it, like NF-κB, is not the main one in the production of hemopoietin by mononuclear phagocytes. Read More

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September 2021

Bmi1 Regulates Wnt Signaling in Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.

Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is essential for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and terminal differentiation. However, its target genes in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are largely unknown. We performed gene expression profiling assays and found that genes of the Wnt signaling pathway are significantly elevated in Bmi1 null hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Read More

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September 2021

Nuclear UHRF1 is a gate-keeper of cellular AMPK activity and function.

Cell Res 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences and School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.

The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of energy homeostasis. Although much has been learned on how low energy status and glucose starvation activate AMPK, how AMPK activity is properly controlled in vivo is still poorly understood. Here we report that UHRF1, an epigenetic regulator highly expressed in proliferating and cancer cells, interacts with AMPK and serves to suppress AMPK activity under both basal and stressed conditions. Read More

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September 2021

Amniotic fluid stem cell administration can prevent epithelial injury from necrotizing enterocolitis.

Pediatr Res 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Translational Medicine Program, Division of General and Thoracic Surgery, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Stem cell therapy has been proven to rescue intestinal injury and stimulate intestinal regeneration in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Specifically, stem cells derived from amniotic fluid (AFSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow have shown promising results in the treatment of experimental NEC. This study aims to examine the effects of AFSCs and MSCs on the prevention of intestinal injury during experimental NEC. Read More

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September 2021

Proteasome inhibition by bortezomib parallels a reduction in head and neck cancer cells growth, and an increase in tumor-infiltrating immune cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 24;11(1):19051. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Via Montpellier 1, 00133, Rome, Italy.

Head and neck cancer (HNC) has frequently an aggressive course for the development of resistance to standard chemotherapy. Thus, the use of innovative therapeutic drugs is being assessed. Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor with anticancer effects. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of 1-MHz ultrasound on the proinflammatory interleukin-6 secretion in human keratinocytes.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 24;11(1):19033. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Keratinocytes, the main cell type of the skin, are one of the most exposed cells to environmental factors, providing a first defence barrier for the host and actively participating in immune response. In fact, keratinocytes express pattern recognition receptors that interact with pathogen associated molecular patterns and damage associated molecular patterns, leading to the production of cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin (IL)-6. Herein, we investigated whether mechanical energy transported by low intensity ultrasound (US) could generate a mechanical stress able to induce the release of inflammatory cytokine such IL-6 in the human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. Read More

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September 2021

PIGN spatiotemporally regulates the spindle assembly checkpoint proteins in leukemia transformation and progression.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 24;11(1):19022. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Penn State Cancer Institute, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA.

Phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class N (PIGN) has been linked to the suppression of chromosomal instability. The spindle assembly checkpoint complex is responsible for proper chromosome segregation during mitosis to prevent chromosomal instability. In this study, the novel role of PIGN as a regulator of the spindle assembly checkpoint was unveiled in leukemic patient cells and cell lines. Read More

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September 2021

A novel function of NLRP3 independent of inflammasome as a key transcription factor of IL-33 in epithelial cells of atopic dermatitis.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Sep 24;12(10):871. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 138 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing, 210023, China.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic pruritic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by recurrent eczematous lesions. Interleukin (IL)-33, a cytokine of the IL-1 family, was found to play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. As a key component of the inflammasome, NLRP3 has been mostly described in myeloid cells that to mediate inflammasome activation conducted proinflammatory cytokine production of the IL-1 family. Read More

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September 2021

Anoikis resistance in mammary epithelial cells is mediated by semaphorin 7a.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Sep 24;12(10):872. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Semaphorin-7a (SEMA7A), best known as a neuroimmune molecule, plays a diverse role in many cellular processes and pathologies. Here, we show that SEMA7A promotes anoikis resistance in cultured mammary epithelial cells through integrins and activation of pro-survival kinase AKT, which led us to investigate a role for SEMA7A during postpartum mammary gland involution-a normal developmental process where cells die by anoikis. Our results reveal that SEMA7A is expressed on live mammary epithelial cells during involution, that SEMA7A expression is primarily observed in α6-integrin expressing cells, and that luminal progenitor cells, specifically, are decreased in mammary glands of SEMA7A-/- mice during involution. Read More

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September 2021

Distinct single-component adjuvants steer human DC-mediated T-cell polarization via Toll-like receptor signaling toward a potent antiviral immune response.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Sep;118(39)

Division of Immunology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, 63225 Langen, Germany;

The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the importance of efficient and safe vaccine development. Vaccine adjuvants are essential to boost and tailor the immune response to the corresponding pathogen. To allow for an educated selection, we assessed the effect of different adjuvants on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and their ability to polarize innate and adaptive immune responses. Read More

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September 2021

Activation of immune cell proteasomes in peripheral blood of smokers and COPD patients - implications for therapy.

Eur Respir J 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Comprehensive Pneumology Center (CPC), University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians- University, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Munich, Germany

Immune cells contain a specialised type of proteasome, the immunoproteasome, which is required for intracellular protein degradation. Immunoproteasomes are key regulators of immune cell differentiation, inflammatory activation and autoimmunity. Immunoproteasome function in peripheral immune cells might be altered by smoking and in COPD thereby affecting immune cell responses. Read More

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September 2021