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Pulse wave velocity is decreased in acromegaly compared to non-acromegaly study participants with similar cardiovascular risk profile.

Growth Horm IGF Res 2021 Apr 29;57-58:101395. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Almazov National Medical Research Centre, Ulica Akkuratova 2, St. Petersburg 197341, Russia.

Objective: Acromegaly patients were reported to have an increased arterial stiffness that could contribute to the frequent cardiovascular complications in this population. The chronic excess of GH and IGF-1 may lead to arterial stiffening via different mechanisms, including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, however, it is not known whether the activation of GH/IGF-1 axis might influence arterial stiffening independently of cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this prospective case-control study was to compare arterial stiffness assessed with pulse-wave velocity (PWV) in acromegaly versus non-acromegaly group with similar cardiovascular risk profile. Read More

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A reassessment of the role of oxygen scavenging enzymes in the emergence of metronidazole resistance in trichomonads.

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2021 Apr 30;16:38-44. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Institute for Specific Prophylaxis and Tropical Medicine Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology, and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 15, A-1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Trichomonads are an order of parasitic protists which infect a wide range of hosts. The human parasite Trichomonas vaginalis and the bovine parasite Tritrichomonas foetus which also infects cats and swine are of considerable medical and veterinary importance, respectively. Since trichomonads are microaerophiles/anaerobes they are susceptible to 5-nitroimidazoles such as metronidazole. Read More

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Identification of a modified coagulation factor X with enhanced activation properties as potential hemostatic agent.

Blood Cells Mol Dis 2021 Apr 23;89:102570. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Research and Development, CSL Behring Innovation GmbH, Marburg, Germany.

Hemophilia A and hemophilia B are X-linked inherited bleeding disorders caused by a deficiency of coagulation factor VIII and IX, respectively. Standard of care is prophylactic factor replacement therapy; however, the development of neutralizing antibodies against these factors represents serious complications underlining the need for alternative treatment approaches. Human coagulation factor X has a central role within the blood coagulation system making it an attractive target for the development of alternative treatment strategies for patients with hemophilia. Read More

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Integration of hard and soft supervised machine learning for flood susceptibility mapping.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 4;291:112731. Epub 2021 May 4.

Team Soil, Water and Land Use, Wageningen Environmental Research, Droevendaalsesteeg 3, 6708RC, Wageningen, the Netherlands; Civil, Surveying and Environmental Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, 2308, Australia.

Flooding is a destructive natural phenomenon that causes many casualties and property losses in different parts of the world every year. Efficient flood susceptibility mapping (FSM) can reduce the risk of this hazard, and has become the main approach in flood risk management. In this study, we evaluated the prediction ability of artificial neural network (ANN) algorithms for hard and soft supervised machine learning classification in FSM by using three ANN algorithms (multi-layer perceptron (MLP), fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (FART), self-organizing map (SOM)) with different activation functions (sigmoidal (-S), linear (-L), commitment (-C), typicality (-T)). Read More

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Mechanisms of postural control in older adults based on surface electromyography data.

Hum Mov Sci 2021 May 4;78:102803. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Physical Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Tokyo Kasei University, Inariyama2-15-1, Sayama 350-1398, Japan. Electronic address:

Objectives: The present study aimed to clarify the mechanisms of postural control during standing in older adults and document the mechanisms of age-related motor control based on changes in muscle activities.

Methods: A total of 26 healthy male adults (older adult group, ≥65-78 years: n = 16; younger adult group, 20-23 years: n = 10) participated in this study. Ground reaction force and kinematic data of the lower limbs (hip, knee, and ankle), and electromyographic data from 6 postural muscles on the right side were recorded and quantified for each motor phase during rapid voluntary center of pressure (COP) shift. Read More

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MiR-133a delivery to osteoblasts ameliorates mechanical unloading-triggered osteopenia progression in vitro and in vivo.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 4;97:107613. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Orthopaedics, Changxing People's Hospital, Huzhou, Zhejiang 313100, China.

Mechanical unloading-induced bone loss is a clinical challenge, and deep understanding for this disease is necessary for developing novel and effective therapies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, and involved in bone remodeling. In the study, we attempted to explore the potential of miR-133a in regulating osteoblast activation and its anti-osteopenia function both in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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Personalized combination nano-immunotherapy for robust induction and tumor infiltration of CD8 T cells.

Biomaterials 2021 Apr 27;274:120844. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA; Biointerfaces Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA. Electronic address:

Identification of tumor-specific mutations, called neoantigens, offers new exciting opportunities for personalized cancer immunotherapy. However, it remains challenging to achieve robust induction of neoantigen-specific T cells and drive their infiltration into the tumor microenvironment (TME). Here, we have developed a novel polyethyleneimine (PEI)-based personalized vaccine platform carrying neoantigen peptides and CpG adjuvants in a compact nanoparticle (NP) for their spatio-temporally concerted delivery. Read More

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One-pot hydrothermal preparation of manganese-doped carbon microspheres for effective deep removal of hexavalent chromium from wastewater.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 21;599:427-435. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450002, China.

Mn-doped activated carbon microspheres (MnO/ACS) with super-high adsorption capacities and deep removal capability for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) were successfully prepared via an ammonium persulfate-assisted hydrothermal method followed by potassium oxalate activation using KMnO and sucrose as raw materials. Their -physical and chemical properties, as well as those of Mn-doped non-activated carbon spheres (MnO/CS), were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, EDS-mapping, XPS, N adsorption-desorption, ICP-AES, and elemental analysis. It was found that the manganese oxide (MnO) particles were uniformly embedded within the carbon spheres via layer-by-layer capture, and the MnO/ACS exhibited strong redox activity because of the multivalent nature of MnO, resulting in excellent adsorption performance via reduction. Read More

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Titanium carbide/zeolite imidazole framework-8/polylactic acid electrospun membrane for near-infrared regulated photothermal/photodynamic therapy of drug-resistant bacterial infections.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 24;599:390-403. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 2 Linggong Road, Dalian, Liaoning 116024, PR China. Electronic address:

Bacteria induced wound infection has become fatal healthcare issues needed to be resolved urgently. It is of vital importance to develop multifunctional therapeutic platforms to fight against increased bacterial antibiotic resistance. Herein, a titanium carbide (MXene)/zeolite imidazole framework-8 (ZIF-8)/polylactic acid (PLA) composite membrane (MZ-8/PLA) was fabricated through in-situ growth of ZIF-8 on MXene and the subsequent electrospinning process. Read More

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A mild method to prepare nitrogen-rich interlaced porous carbon nanosheets for high-performance supercapacitors.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 27;599:381-389. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Key Laboratory for Biomassed Materias and Energy of Ministry of Education/Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center for Optical Agriculture, College of Materials and Energy, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; Guangdong Laboratory of Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address:

In this work, a non-toxic and mild strategy was presented to efficiently fabricate porous and nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheets. Silkworm cocoon (SCs) acted as carbon source and original nitrogen source. Sodium carbonate (NaCO) could facilitate the SCs to expose silk protein and played a catalytic role in the subsequent activation of calcium chloride (CaCl). Read More

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Biomarkers of the severity of honeybee sting reactions and the severity and threshold of systemic adverse events during immunotherapy.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

University Hospital of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Golnik, Slovenia. Electronic address:

Background: A biomarker that could identify individuals at high risk for severe honeybee sting allergic reaction and/or systemic adverse events (SAEs) during venom immunotherapy (VIT) would improve the management of patients with honeybee (HB) venom allergy.

Objective: To identify biomarkers for risk of severe sting reactions or SAEs during VIT.

Methods: We recruited 332 patients undergoing honeybee VIT. Read More

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Replication competence of canine distemper virus in cell lines expressing signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) of goat, sheep and dog origin.

Microb Pathog 2021 May 4:104940. Epub 2021 May 4.

Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)-Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar, 243122, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Cellular receptors play an important role in entry and cell to cell spread of morbillivirus infections. The cells expressing SLAM and Nectin-4 have been used for successful and efficient isolation of canine distemper virus (CDV) in high titre. There are several methods for generation of cells expressing receptor molecules. Read More

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Translational evidence for the Inflammatory Response System (IRS)/Compensatory Immune Response System (CIRS) and neuroprogression theory of major depression.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 May 4:110343. Epub 2021 May 4.

Deakin University, School of Medicine, IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, Barwon Health, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, severe and disabling neuropsychiatric disorder with a heterogenous aetiology. Among the most widely recognized etiological models, immunopathogenesis is a predominant one. Numerous studies have demonstrated aberrant levels of inflammatory markers in the peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain of patients with MDD. Read More

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Social and non-social brain areas in risk behaviour: The role of social context.

Neuroscience 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Mind, Brain and Behavior Research Center (CIMCYC). University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

The human brain contains social areas that become active when interacting with another human. These are located in the ventral prefrontal and mediodorsal cortices, adjacent to areas involved in reward processing and cognitive control. Human behaviour is strongly influenced by the social context. Read More

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Polybrominated diphenyl ethers quinone exhibits neurotoxicity by inducing DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and p53-driven adaptive response in microglia BV2 cells.

Toxicology 2021 May 4:152807. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Luminescence Analysis and Molecular Sensing (Southwest University), Ministry of Education, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China. Electronic address:

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are world-wide used flame retardants before they were listed as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention. Previously, our studies indicated that a quinone type of PBDE metabolite (PBDEQ) exposure was linked with neurotoxicity via excess free radical formation and oxidative stress. However, it is current unknown the effect of PBDEQ on genetic biomacromolecules DNA and corresponding biological consequences in neurological cells. Read More

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Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) enhances dietary carcinogen-induced DNA damage in colorectal cancer epithelial cells through activation of JNK signaling pathway.

Toxicology 2021 May 4:152806. Epub 2021 May 4.

Section of Biomolecular Medicine. Electronic address:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer death. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) present in cooked meat are pro-carcinogens and considered to be potential risk factors for CRC. Their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects require metabolic activation primarily by cytochrome P450 1 family enzymes (CYPs); the expression of these enzymes can be modulated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and the tumour microenvironment, involving mediators of inflammation. Read More

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Prenatal stress and KCl-induced depolarization modulate cell death, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes, oxidative and inflammatory response in primary cortical neurons.

Neurochem Int 2021 May 4:105053. Epub 2021 May 4.

Laboratory of Pediatric Physical Activity, Infant Center, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brazil; Laboratory of Cellular Biophysics and Inflammation, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brazil. Electronic address:

Maternal stress has been described as an important component in the offspring's cerebral development, altering the susceptibility to diseases in later life. Moreover, the postnatal period is essential for the development and integration of several peripheral and central systems related to the control of homeostasis. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of prenatal stress on the activation of cortical neurons, by performing experiments both under basal conditions and after KCl-induced depolarization. Read More

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Glutaminolysis-induced mTORC1 activation drives non-alcoholic steatohepatitis progression.

J Hepatol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Reus, Spain; Unitat de Recerca Biomèdica (URB-CRB), Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan, Institut d'Investigacio Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain; The Campus of International Excellence Southern Catalonia, Tarragona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: A holistic insight on the relationship between obesity and metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease is an unmet clinical need. Omics investigations can be used to investigate the multifaceted role of altered mitochondrial pathways to promote nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, a major risk factor for liver disease-associated death. There are no specific treatments but remission via surgery might offer an opportunity to examine the signaling processes that govern the complex spectrum of chronic liver diseases observed in extreme obesity. Read More

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Vesicle dynamics during the egress of malaria gametocytes from the red blood cell.

Mol Biochem Parasitol 2021 May 4:111372. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Cellular and Applied Infection Biology, Institute of Biology 2, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany. Electronic address:

Malaria parasites are obligate intracellular pathogens that live in human red blood cells harbored by a parasitophorous vacuole. The parasites need to exit from the red blood cell to continue life-cycle progression and ensure human-to-mosquito transmission. Two types of blood stages are able to lyse the enveloping red blood cell to mediate egress, the merozoites and the gametocytes. Read More

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Stimulation of astrocytic sigma-1 receptor is sufficient to ameliorate inflammation- induced depression.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 4:113344. Epub 2021 May 4.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical University, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Astrocytes play important roles in the development of depression. As a promising target for antidepressant development, sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is reported to promote activation of astrocyte in chronic stress-induced depression in our previous study. However, astrocytes are hyper-activated in inflammation-induced depression, raising concerns of whether stimulation of astrocytic Sig-1R would exert antidepressant-like effect in inflammation-induced depression. Read More

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Hydrogen sulfide attenuates induction and prevents progress of the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinsonism in rat through activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels and suppression of ER stress.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 May 4:115558. Epub 2021 May 4.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Disease, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Purpose: Studies argue in favor of hydrogen sulfide (HS) as the next potent therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases. In present study, we investigated the effect of long term treatment with NaHS (as donor of HS) on induction and progress of the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) -induced Parkinsonism in rat.

Methods: The 6-OHDA was injected into medial forebrain bundle of right hemisphere by stereotaxic surgery. Read More

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ERK1/2 kinases and dopamine D2 receptors participate in the anticonvulsant effects of a new derivative of benzoylpyridine oxime and valproic acid.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 4:174150. Epub 2021 May 4.

Laboratory of Molecular Mechanisms of Biological Adaptation, Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address:

Inhibition of the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) induced by the activation of the dopamine D2 receptor signalling cascade may be a promising pharmacological target. The aim of this work was to study the involvement of ERK1/2 and dopamine D2 receptor in the mechanism of the anticonvulsant action of valproic acid (VA) and a new benzoylpyridine oxime derivative (GIZH-298), which showed antiepileptic activity in different models of epilepsy. We showed that subchronic exposure to maximal electroshock seizures (MES) for 5 days reduced the density of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum of mice. Read More

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Molecular mechanism of apelin-13 regulation of colonic motility in rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 4:174149. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 430060, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Electronic address:

Apelin is a novel neuropeptide identified as the endogenous ligand for the apelin receptor. Apelin and its receptor are widely distributed in the gastrointestinal tract. Studies have reported that apelin-13 is involved in modulating gastrointestinal motility; however, the evidence is insufficient and the relevant mechanism is still not fully clear. Read More

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Endothelial Transient Receptor Potential V4 Channels Mediate Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Surgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA. Electronic address:

Background: Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), involving severe inflammation and edema, is a major cause of primary graft dysfunction following transplant. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels modulates vascular permeability. Thus, this study tests the hypothesis that endothelial TRPV4 channels mediate lung IRI. Read More

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TIRR inhibits the 53BP1-p53 complex to alter cell-fate programs.

Mol Cell 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Biological Chemistry & Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address:

53BP1 influences genome stability via two independent mechanisms: (1) regulating DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and (2) enhancing p53 activity. We discovered a protein, Tudor-interacting repair regulator (TIRR), that associates with the 53BP1 Tudor domain and prevents its recruitment to DSBs. Here, we elucidate how TIRR affects 53BP1 function beyond its recruitment to DSBs and biochemically links the two distinct roles of 53BP1. Read More

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Neuroglian regulates Drosophila intestinal stem cell proliferation through enhanced signaling via the epidermal growth factor receptor.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address:

The Drosophila intestine is an excellent system for elucidating mechanisms regulating stem cell behavior. Here we show that the septate junction (SJ) protein Neuroglian (Nrg) is expressed in intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and enteroblasts (EBs) within the fly intestine. SJs are not present between ISCs and EBs, suggesting Nrg plays a different role in this tissue. Read More

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The future belongs to those who prepare for it today.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 May;28(5):783-785

Achucarro Basque Center for Neuroscience, UPV/EHU, Scientific Park, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia, Spain; Ikerbasque, The Basque Foundation for Science, Plaza Euskadi, 5, 48009 Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain; Department of Neurosciences, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Scientific Park, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia, Spain. Electronic address:

Hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) and neurogenesis decline sharply with age, though a small population remains. Two articles in this issue of Cell Stem Cell by Ibrayeva et al. (2021) and Harris et al. Read More

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Sperm chromatin integrity in a man with macrocephaly syndrome.

Andrologia 2021 May 7:e14100. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Animal Biotechnology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Isfahan, Iran.

This study reports chromatin status and ICSI outcomes in a case of sperm macrocephaly syndrome(SMS), showing 100% of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology. Percentages of sperm DNA fragmentation for TUNEL (31.7% versus 6. Read More

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Rapid progression is associated with lymphoid follicle dysfunction in SIV-infected infant rhesus macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 7;17(5):e1009575. Epub 2021 May 7.

Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

HIV-infected infants are at an increased risk of progressing rapidly to AIDS in the first weeks of life. Here, we evaluated immunological and virological parameters in 25 SIV-infected infant rhesus macaques to understand the factors influencing a rapid disease outcome. Infant macaques were infected with SIVmac251 and monitored for 10 to 17 weeks post-infection. Read More

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Tubular cell damage may be the earliest sign of renal extrahepatic manifestation caused by Hepatitis C.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0251392. Epub 2021 May 7.

Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most well-known extrahepatic manifestations caused by hepatitis C infection (HCV). CKD is typically discovered at a late stage. HCV-nephropathy may show different histopathologic patterns, as both glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage have been described. Read More

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