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The Effect of a 3-Minute Mindfulness Intervention, and the Mediating Role of Maximization, on Critical Incident Decision-Making.

Front Psychol 2021 28;12:674694. Epub 2021 May 28.

Centre for Critical and Major Incident Psychology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Objective: In this study, we extend the impact of mindfulness to the concept of least-worst decision-making. Least-worst decisions involve high-uncertainty and require the individual to choose between a number of potentially negative courses of action. Research is increasingly exploring least-worst decisions, and real-world events (such as the COVID-19 pandemic) show the need for individuals to overcome uncertainty and commit to a least-worst course of action. Read More

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Citalopram and Cannabidiol: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence of Pharmacokinetic Interactions Relevant to the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in Young People.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

From the Brain and Mind Centre, Discipline of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Lambert Initiative for Cannabinoid Therapeutics Brain and Mind Centre, School of Psychology, Faculty of Science, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales Orygen Centre for Youth Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonintoxicating constituent of cannabis, exhibits anxiolytic properties in preclinical and human studies and is of interest as a novel intervention for treating anxiety disorders. Existing first-line pharmacotherapies for these disorders include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and other antidepressants. Cannabidiol has well-described inhibitory action on cytochrome P450 (CYP450) drug-metabolizing enzymes and significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between CBD and various anticonvulsant medications (eg, clobazam) have been described in the treatment of epilepsy. Read More

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A meta-analysis of Libet-style experiments.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Psychology, Saarland University, Campus, Geb. A2.4, 66123, Saarbrücken, Germany. Electronic address:

In the seminal Libet experiment (Libet et al., 1983), unconscious brain activity preceded the self-reported, conscious intention to move. This was repeatedly interpreted as challenging the view that (conscious) mental states cause behavior and, prominently, as challenging the existence of free will. Read More

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P2X3 receptors participate in purinergic inhibition of gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

Authors:
Brian F King

Auton Neurosci 2021 Jun 5;234:102830. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

University College London (UCL), Research Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology & Physiology (NPP), Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The ATP analogue α,β-meATP is a potent relaxant of gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but its molecular target is uncertain inside the gut. α,β-meATP relaxed the carbachol-precontracted guinea-pig taenia coli in a concentration-dependent manner (EC, 2.0 ± 0. Read More

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New approach methods supporting read-across: Two neurotoxicity AOP-based IATA case studies.

ALTEX 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Drug Discovery and Safety, Leiden Academic Centre of Drug Research, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Read-across approaches are considered key in moving away from in vivo animal testing towards addressing data-gaps using new approach methods (NAMs). Ample successful examples are still required to substantiate this strategy. Here we present and discuss the learnings from two OECD IATA endorsed read-across case studies. Read More

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Closer to or further from the new normal? business approach through social media analysis.

Heliyon 2021 May 25;7(5):e07106. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Audiovisual Communication and Advertising, Faculty of Communication Sciences, Universidad de Málaga, 29071, Malaga, Spain.

The outbreak of COVID-19 has led to radical change in all social and economic spheres and, even today, the scope of the pandemic cannot be detailed. This unprecedent situation is challenging the global world but particularly for business. The packages of measures internationally imposed as restrictions on commercial activity, isolation and social distancing mean that business should face a transformation in order to survive in each stage of the crisis. Read More

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Effectiveness of Switching Biologics for Severe Asthma Patients in Japan: A Single-Center Retrospective Study.

J Asthma Allergy 2021 3;14:609-618. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Division of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: In Japan, biologic therapy was initiated for patients with severe asthma in 2009. In recent years, four biologics with different mechanisms of action have become available in the clinical setting. However, the efficacy of switching between biologics remains uncertain. Read More

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The diagnostic certainty levels of junior clinicians: A retrospective cohort study.

Health Inf Manag 2021 Jun 11:18333583211019134. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University College London, UK.

Background: Clinical decision-making is influenced by many factors, including clinicians' perceptions of the certainty around what is the best course of action to pursue.

Objective: To characterise the documentation of working diagnoses and the associated level of real-time certainty expressed by clinicians and to gauge patient opinion about the importance of research into clinician decision certainty.

Method: This was a single-centre retrospective cohort study of non-consultant grade clinicians and their assessments of patients admitted from the emergency department between 01 March 2019 and 31 March 2019. Read More

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Patient notification about suspected hospital-associated outbreaks of invasive mold infections: Considerations for public health and hospital personnel.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2021 Jun 10:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

A common type of fungal disease investigation involves hospital-associated clusters of invasive mold infections (IMIs), which typically occur among immunocompromised patients. Responding to IMI clusters can be challenging for public health and hospital personnel for several reasons such as difficulty of confirming the existence of an outbreak, difficulty of determining source. Although many resources exist to guide patient notification about healthcare incidents (eg, bloodborne exposures, disease outbreaks), IMI clusters involve special considerations related to the complex diseases, uncertain exposures, and differential benefits and risks of notification. Read More

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Group-level physiological synchrony and individual-level anxiety predict positive affective behaviors during a group decision-making task.

Psychophysiology 2021 Jun 6:e13857. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Psychology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel.

Joint performance can lead to the synchronization of physiological processes among group members during a shared task. Recently, it has been shown that synchronization is indicative of subjective ratings of group processes and task performance. However, different methods have been used to quantify synchronization, and little is known about the effects of the choice of method and level of analysis (individuals, dyads, or triads) on the results. Read More

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Piperine treating sciatica through regulating inflammation and MiR-520a/P65 pathway.

Chin J Nat Med 2021 Jun;19(6):412-421

Mongolia Medical School, Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot 010110, China.

Although the etiology of sciatica remains uncertain, there is increasing evidence that the disease process of sciatica is associated with the levels of inflammatory factors. Piperine, an alkaloid isolated from Piper nigrum, has previously been demonstrated to inhibit inflammation and analgesic effects. The purpose of this study is to verify the regulatory relationship between miR-520a and p65 and to explore how miR-520a/P65 affects the level of cytokines under the action of piperine, so as to play a therapeutic role in sciatica. Read More

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Bayesian approaches to benefit-risk assessment for diagnostic tests.

J Biopharm Stat 2021 Jun 6:1-18. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Food and Drug Administration, Center for Device and Radiological Health, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

Benefit-risk assessment plays an important role in the evaluation of medical devices. Unlike the therapeutic devices, the diagnostic tests usually affect patient life indirectly since subsequent therapeutic treatment interventions (such as proper treatment in time, further examination or test, no action, etc.) will depend on correct diagnosis and monitoring of the disease status. Read More

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Temporal binding as multisensory integration: Manipulating perceptual certainty of actions and their effects.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Psychology III, University of Würzburg, Röntgenring 11, 97070, Würzburg, Germany.

It has been proposed that statistical integration of multisensory cues may be a suitable framework to explain temporal binding, that is, the finding that causally related events such as an action and its effect are perceived to be shifted towards each other in time. A multisensory approach to temporal binding construes actions and effects as individual sensory signals, which are each perceived with a specific temporal precision. When they are integrated into one multimodal event, like an action-effect chain, the extent to which they affect this event's perception depends on their relative reliability. Read More

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Is the Devil in ?

Entropy (Basel) 2021 May 19;23(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

International Center for Mathematical Modeling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-351 95 Växjö, Sweden.

This note is a part of my effort to rid quantum mechanics (QM) nonlocality. Quantum nonlocality is a two faced Janus: one face is a genuine quantum mechanical nonlocality (defined by the Lüders' projection postulate). Another face is the nonlocality of the hidden variables model that was invented by Bell. Read More

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Information Structures for Causally Explainable Decisions.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 May 13;23(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Business Analytics, University of Colorado School of Business, and MoirAI, 503 N. Franklin Street, Denver, CO 80218, USA.

For an AI agent to make trustworthy decision recommendations under uncertainty on behalf of human principals, it should be able to explain its recommended decisions make preferred outcomes more likely and what risks they entail. Such rationales use causal models to link potential courses of action to resulting outcome probabilities. They reflect an understanding of possible actions, preferred outcomes, the effects of action on outcome probabilities, and acceptable risks and trade-offs-the standard ingredients of normative theories of decision-making under uncertainty, such as expected utility theory. Read More

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Potential Application of Combined Therapy with Lectins as a Therapeutic Strategy for the Treatment of Bacterial Infections.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 May 2;10(5). Epub 2021 May 2.

Laboratory of Immunopathology Keizo Asami (LIKA), Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife 50670-901, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Antibiotic monotherapy may become obsolete mainly due to the continuous emergence of resistance to available antimicrobials, which represents a major uncertainty to human health. Taking into account that natural products have been an inexhaustible source of new compounds with clinical application, lectins are certainly one of the most versatile groups of proteins used in biological processes, emerging as a promising alternative for therapy. The ability of lectins to recognize carbohydrates present on the cell surface allowed for the discovery of a wide range of activities. Read More

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Sexual Violence and the Coach-Athlete Relationship-a Scoping Review From Sport Sociological and Sport Psychological Perspectives.

Front Sports Act Living 2021 13;3:643707. Epub 2021 May 13.

Institute of Sociology and Gender Studies, German Sport University, Cologne, Germany.

Sexual violence against athletes in elite and leisure sport has become of growing interest in recent years. In line with social media initiatives such as #SportToo and #CoachDontTouchMe and a rise in general media coverage, research in this field indicates an urgent need for action. These recent developments occasionally have led to no-touch policies, which may result in moral panic, uncertainty, and fear of unjustified suspicion among coaches. Read More

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Pressure-controlled intermittent coronary sinus occlusion improves the vasodilatory microvascular capacity and reduces myocardial injury in patients with STEMI.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Oxford Heart Centre, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford, UK.

Background: Preliminary data suggest that pressure-controlled intermittent coronary sinus occlusion (PICSO) might reduce the infarct size (IS) in patients with anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the applicability of this therapy to patients with inferior STEMI and its exact mechanism of action is uncertain.

Methods And Results: Thirty-six patients (27 anterior and 9 inferior) with STEMI underwent PICSO-assisted-primary percutaneous intervention (PPCI) and were compared with matched controls who underwent standard PCI (n = 72). Read More

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Elusive quality: the challenges and ethical dilemmas faced by international non-governmental organisations in sourcing quality assured medical products.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 May;6(Suppl 3)

Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, London, UK

Although medical products that are of sound quality are fundamental to the delivery of healthcare, so too is their availability, affordability, accessibility and acceptability. However, achieving all of these aims consistently and simultaneously may be unfeasible due to a host of barriers-no matter the country. If uncertainty, constraints and conflicting priorities also threaten their delivery, not only does the situation becomes yet more challenging, the morally just course of action becomes yet more opaque. Read More

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Program Evaluation of Population- and System-Level Policies: Evidence for Decision Making.

Med Decis Making 2021 May 27:272989X211016427. Epub 2021 May 27.

Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UK.

Background: Policy evaluations often focus on ex post estimation of causal effects on short-term surrogate outcomes. The value of such information is limited for decision making, as the failure to reflect policy-relevant outcomes and disregard for opportunity costs prohibits the assessment of value for money. Further, these evaluations do not always consider all relevant evidence, other courses of action, or decision uncertainty. Read More

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Implementing a digital intervention for managing uncontrolled hypertension in Primary Care: a mixed methods process evaluation.

Implement Sci 2021 May 26;16(1):57. Epub 2021 May 26.

Academic Unit of Psychology, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Background: A high proportion of hypertensive patients remain above the target threshold for blood pressure, increasing the risk of adverse health outcomes. A digital intervention to facilitate healthcare practitioners (hereafter practitioners) to initiate planned medication escalations when patients' home readings were raised was found to be effective in lowering blood pressure over 12 months. This mixed-methods process evaluation aimed to develop a detailed understanding of how the intervention was implemented in Primary Care, possible mechanisms of action and contextual factors influencing implementation. Read More

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Dapsone Suppresses Disease in Preclinical Murine Models of Pemphigoid Diseases.

J Invest Dermatol 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Dermatology, Allergy, and Venereology, University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lübeck, Germany; Center for Research on Inflammation of the Skin (CRIS), University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lübeck, Germany. Electronic address:

Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) and mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) are autoimmune blistering diseases characterized by mucocutaneous blisters elicited by an autoantibody-mediated immune response against specific proteins of the epidermal basement membrane. The antibiotic dapsone is frequently used to treat both diseases, but its therapeutic effectiveness is uncertain, and its mode of action in these diseases is largely unknown. We evaluated the effect of dapsone in antibody transfer mouse models of EBA and MMP, which do not allow drawing conclusions on clinical treatment regimens but can be instrumental to partially uncover the mode(s) of action of dapsone in these diseases. Read More

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Don't they understand climate science? Reflections in times of crisis in science and politics.

Public Underst Sci 2021 May 22:9636625211011882. Epub 2021 May 22.

Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.

During the 2016 US presidential election, the majority of discussion on the social website 'I fucking love science' claimed that 'climate change is a matter of science, truth and facts but "they", the deniers, do not understand the science', invoking a polarized version of the modern model of legitimation, entangled with the deficit model. This article challenges this narrative to open a dialogue space and identify criteria for dealing with the climate issue under conditions of high uncertainty and complexity. Analysis reveals how the dialogue might experience a stalemate when criticisms against this narrative are based on the need to show an inflicted harm for which this narrative can be blamed. Read More

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Association of DNA biosynthesis with planting value enhancement in hydroprimed maize seeds.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 May 1;28(5):2634-2640. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Division of Seed Science and Technology, ICAR- Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India.

Inadequate plant stand establishment due to insufficient germination is an important bottleneck in achieving the potential yields, specifically under uncertain growing conditions. Hydropriming has been publicized as a useful tool to alleviate the stress-induced consequences. Association of DNA biosynthesis in hydroprimed seeds of maize; hybrid, PEHM 5 and its parental lines (CM150 and CM151) was studied. Read More

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How do the UK public interpret COVID-19 test results? Comparing the impact of official information about results and reliability used in the UK, USA and New Zealand: a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2021 05 20;11(5):e047731. Epub 2021 May 20.

Winton Centre for Risk & Evidence Communication, Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Objectives: To assess the effects of different official information on public interpretation of a personal COVID-19 PCR test result.

Design: A 5×2 factorial, randomised, between-subjects experiment, comparing four wordings of information about the test result and a control arm of no additional information; for both positive and negative test results.

Setting: Online experiment using recruitment platform Respondi. Read More

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Tonic dopamine, uncertainty and basal ganglia action selection.

Neuroscience 2021 May 17;466:109-124. Epub 2021 May 17.

Division of Imaging Science and Technology, Medical School, University of Dundee, DD2 4BF, UK.

To make optimal decisions in uncertain circumstances flexible adaption of behaviour is required; exploring alternatives when the best choice is unknown, exploiting what is known when that is best. Using a computational model of the basal ganglia, we propose that switches between exploratory and exploitative decisions are mediated by the interaction between tonic dopamine and cortical input to the basal ganglia. We show that a biologically detailed action selection circuit model, endowed with dopamine dependant striatal plasticity, can optimally solve the explore-exploit problem, estimating the true underlying state of a noisy Gaussian diffusion process. Read More

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Effects of water currents on fish migration through a Feynman-type path integral approach under [Formula: see text] Liouville-like quantum gravity surfaces.

Theory Biosci 2021 Jun 20;140(2):205-223. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Northern Illinois University, 1425 Lincoln Highway, DeKalb, IL, USA.

A stochastic differential game theoretic model has been proposed to determine optimal behavior of a fish while migrating against water currents both in rivers and oceans. Then, a dynamic objective function is maximized subject to two stochastic dynamics, one represents its location and another its relative velocity against water currents. In relative velocity stochastic dynamics, a Cucker-Smale type stochastic differential equation is introduced under white noise. Read More

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Proposed guidance on cost-avoidance studies in pharmacy practice.

Am J Health Syst Pharm 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Disclaimer: In an effort to expedite the publication of articles related to the COVID-19 pandemic, AJHP is posting these manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time. Read More

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Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer assessment in primary care: a qualitative study of GP views.

BJGP Open 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Reader in Primary Care Cancer Research, The Primary Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

Background: Early diagnosis is key to improve cancer outcomes, and most cancers are diagnosed in primary care after initial symptomatic presentation. Emerging evidence suggests an increase in avoidable cancer deaths owing to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Aim: To understand GPs' views on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the clinical assessment of possible cancer. Read More

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