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Predicting outcome in higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients treated with azacitidine.

Epigenomics 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Second Department of Internal Medicine & Research Unit Hematology Unit, University General Hospital Attikon, Rimini, 12462 Chaidari, Athens, Greece.

5-Azacitidine (5-AZA) is widely used for the treatment of higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. However, response and survival rates vary considerably, while indicated treatment duration remains undefined. For these reasons, factors determining response and survival are of major importance. Read More

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Pharmacological Efficacy of Ginseng against Respiratory Tract Infections.

Molecules 2021 Jul 5;26(13). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia.

Respiratory tract infections are underestimated, as they are mild and generally not incapacitating. In clinical medicine, however, these infections are considered a prevalent problem. By 2030, the third most comprehensive reason for death worldwide will be chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), according to the World Health Organization. Read More

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Evaluation of prescribing practices for gabapentin as an analgesic among veterinary professionals.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings Veterinary Medical Center at Tufts University, North Grafton, MA, USA.

Objective: To describe the prescribing practices for gabapentin as an analgesic within the veterinary community.

Study Design: Anonymous online voluntary survey.

Population: A total of 718 veterinarians within the United States and Canada, including general practitioners and diplomates of the American Colleges of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia, Emergency and Critical Care, Surgery and Internal Medicine. Read More

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COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy in low- and middle-income countries.

Nat Med 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Widespread acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines is crucial for achieving sufficient immunization coverage to end the global pandemic, yet few studies have investigated COVID-19 vaccination attitudes in lower-income countries, where large-scale vaccination is just beginning. We analyze COVID-19 vaccine acceptance across 15 survey samples covering 10 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Asia, Africa and South America, Russia (an upper-middle-income country) and the United States, including a total of 44,260 individuals. We find considerably higher willingness to take a COVID-19 vaccine in our LMIC samples (mean 80. Read More

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Risk sensitivity and theory of mind in human coordination.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jul 15;17(7):e1009167. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Center for Systems and Control, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands.

What humans do when exposed to uncertainty, incomplete information, and a dynamic environment influenced by other agents remains an open scientific challenge with important implications in both science and engineering applications. In these contexts, humans handle social situations by employing elaborate cognitive mechanisms such as theory of mind and risk sensitivity. Here we resort to a novel theoretical model, showing that both mechanisms leverage coordinated behaviors among self-regarding individuals. Read More

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The Cardiac Mineralocorticoid Receptor (MR): A Therapeutic Target Against Ventricular Arrhythmias.

Authors:
Michel F Rossier

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 28;12:694758. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Service of Clinical Chemistry & Toxicology, Hospital of Valais, Sion, Switzerland.

Mineralocorticoid antagonists have been shown to be useful in the treatment of severe heart failure and may even save lives in this context. However, the reason for the beneficial action of these drugs, as well as the physiological role played by the cardiac mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), are still poorly understood. While the proinflammatory action of aldosterone on the heart and the resulting fibrosis partly explain the improvement due to the anti-mineralocorticoid therapy, the reduction in sudden death is probably related to a lower occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias. Read More

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Programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting from the perspective of the conformational dynamics of mRNA and ribosomes.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 14;19:3580-3588. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan.

Programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1 PRF) is a translation mechanism that regulates the relative expression level of two proteins encoded on the same messenger RNA (mRNA). This regulation is commonly used by viruses such as coronaviruses and retroviruses but rarely by host human cells, and for this reason, it has long been considered as a therapeutic target for antiviral drug development. Understanding the molecular mechanism of -1 PRF is one step toward this goal. Read More

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A Descriptive Analysis of Notional Casualties Sustained at the Joint Readiness Training Center: Implications for Health Service Support during Large-Scale Combat Operations.

Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) 2021 Apr-Jun(PB 8-21-04/05/06):3-8

2nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division, Fort Carson, CO.

Introduction: The Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC) offers a laboratory for study of combat casualty care delivery during brigade-sized collective training exercises. We describe the casualty outcomes during largescale combat operations as part of a JRTC rotation.

Methods: During JRTC rotation 20-02, 2/4 Infantry Brigade Combat Team (IBCT) participated in force on force operations as part of a joint and multinational task force. Read More

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Improving Terminology to Describe Coronary Artery Procedures: JACC Review Topic of the Week.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jul;78(2):180-188

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is treated with medical therapy with or without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The latter 2 options are commonly referred to as "myocardial revascularization" procedures. We reason that this term is inappropriate because it is suggestive of a single treatment effect of PCI and CABG (ie, the reestablishment of blood flow to ischemic myocardium) and obscures key mechanisms, such as the improvement in coronary flow capability in the absence of ongoing ischemia, the reperfusion in the presence of ischemia, and the prevention of myocardial infarction from CAD progression. Read More

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Battling COVID-19 with dysfunctional federalism: Lessons from India.

South Econ J 2021 Apr 25;87(4):1267-1299. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Mercatus Center George Mason University Arlington VA USA.

The Indian federation is highly centripetal, and historically, this has left states without the requisite legislative and fiscal authority to take independent action and initiate policies of significance. Consequently, India's response to the global COVID-19 pandemic was to impose a very severe countrywide lockdown using the mandate of the Union (federal) government. This centralized one-size-fits-all diktat was imposed despite high variations across states in resources, healthcare capacity, and incidence of COVID-19 cases. Read More

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Assessment of Paroxetine Molecular Interactions with Selected Monoamine and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Transporters.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 11;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 2 dr. A. Jurasza St., 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Thus far, many hypotheses have been proposed explaining the cause of depression. Among the most popular of these are: monoamine, neurogenesis, neurobiology, inflammation and stress hypotheses. Many studies have proven that neurogenesis in the brains of adult mammals occurs throughout life. Read More

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The Enigmatic Metallothioneins: A Case of Upward-Looking Research.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 1;22(11). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Institute of Philosophy, Saarland University, D-66123 Saarbruecken, Germany.

In the mid-1950s, Bert Lester Vallee and his colleague Marvin Margoshes discovered a molecule referred to today as metallothionein (MT). Meanwhile, MTs have been shown to be common in many biological organisms. Despite their prevalence, however, it remains unclear to date what exactly MTs do and how they contribute to the biological function of an organism or organ. Read More

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Early Effects of the Soluble Amyloid β Peptide in Rat Cortical Neurons: Modulation of Signal Transduction Mediated by Adenosine and Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 19;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Regional Center for Biomedical Research (CRIB), University of Castilla-La Mancha, 02071 Albacete, Spain.

The amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is a central player in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The alteration of Aβ homeostasis may impact the fine-tuning of cell signaling from the very beginning of the disease, when amyloid plaque is not deposited yet. For this reason, primary culture of rat cortical neurons was exposed to Aβ, a non-oligomerizable form of Aβ. Read More

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Gas Monitoring in Human Frontal Sinuses-Stability Considerations and Gas Exchange Studies.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jun 28;21(13). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

National Center for International Research on Green Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Acute rhinosinusitis is a common infectious disease, which, in more than 90% of cases, is caused by viruses rather than by bacteria. Even so, antibiotics are often unnecessarily prescribed, and in the long run this contributes to the alarming level of antibiotics resistance. The reason is that there are no good guiding tools for defining the background reason of the infection. Read More

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Using System Identification to Construct an Inherent Model of Pupillary Light Reflex to Explore Diabetic Neuropathy.

Brain Sci 2021 Jun 25;11(7). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Institute of Electrical and Control Engineering, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan.

This study proposed a pupillary light reflex (PLR) inherent model based on the system identification method to demonstrate the dynamic physiological mechanism of the PLR, in which pupillary constriction and dilation are controlled by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. This model was constructed and verified by comparing the simulated and predicted PLR response with that of healthy participants. The least root-mean-square error (RMSE) of simulated PLR response was less than 0. Read More

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Extreme Low-Resolution Activity Recognition Using a Super-Resolution-Oriented Generative Adversarial Network.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Jun 8;12(6). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

National Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science on Synthetic Vision, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

Activity recognition is a fundamental and crucial task in computer vision. Impressive results have been achieved for activity recognition in high-resolution videos, but for extreme low-resolution videos, which capture the action information at a distance and are vital for preserving privacy, the performance of activity recognition algorithms is far from satisfactory. The reason is that extreme low-resolution (e. Read More

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The Role of PARP Inhibitors in the Ovarian Cancer Microenvironment: Moving Forward From Synthetic Lethality.

Front Oncol 2021 14;11:689829. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.

PARP inhibitors (PARPi) have shown promising clinical results and have revolutionized the landscape of ovarian cancer management in the last few years. While the core mechanism of action of these drugs has been largely analyzed, the interaction between PARP inhibitors and the microenvironment has been scarcely researched so far. Recent data shows a variety of mechanism through which PARPi might influence the tumor microenvironment and especially the immune system response, that might even partly be the reason behind PARPi efficacy. Read More

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Distinct roles for dopamine clearance mechanisms in regulating behavioral flexibility.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3SR, UK.

Dopamine plays a crucial role in adaptive behavior, and dysfunctional dopamine is implicated in multiple psychiatric conditions characterized by inflexible or inconsistent choices. However, the precise relationship between dopamine and flexible decision making remains unclear. One reason is that, while many studies have focused on the activity of dopamine neurons, efficient dopamine signaling also relies on clearance mechanisms, notably the dopamine transporter (DAT), which predominates in striatum, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), which predominates in cortex. Read More

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Drug discovery strategies for novel leukotriene A4 hydrolase inhibitors.

Expert Opin Drug Discov 2021 Jul 16:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Global Discovery Chemistry, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland.

IntroductionLeukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) is the final and rate limiting enzyme regulating the biosynthesis of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a pro-inflammatory lipid mediator implicated in a large number of inflammatory pathologies. Inhibition of LTA4H not only prevents LTB4 biosynthesis but also induces a lipid mediator class-switch within the 5-lipoxygenase pathway, elevating biosynthesis of the anti-inflammatory lipid mediator Lipoxin A4. Ample preclinical evidence advocates LTA4H as attractive drug target for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Read More

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[Domestic violence in Val Camonica: survey on the accesses to the emergency deparment in the period post Covid-19].

Assist Inferm Ric 2021 Apr-Jun;40(2):87-91

. Domestic violence in Val Camonica: survey on the accesses to the emergency deparment in the period post Covid-19.

Introduction: The lock-down due to COVID-19 has caused hard times to everybody, but especially for women victim of domestic violence, locked up in their own home with violent partners. Read More

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Intraoperative Spinal Cord Monitoring: Focusing on the Basic Knowledge of Orthopedic Spine Surgeon and Neurosurgeon as Members of a Team Performing Spine Surgery under Neuromonitoring.

Spine Surg Relat Res 2021 10;5(3):120-132. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan.

An intraoperative functional spinal cord monitoring system is a technology used by spine and spinal cord surgeons to perform a safe surgery and to gain further surgical proficiency. However, no existing clinical neurophysiological method used in the operating room can monitor all complex spinal cord functions. Therefore, by observing the activities of certain neural action potentials transferred via limited neural tissues, surgeons need to deductively estimate the function of the whole spinal cord. Read More

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A Case Report of College Students' Rating of a Shared Decision-Making Tool for Taking Antidepression Medication.

Authors:
Janet Reis

J Patient Exp 2021 13;8:23743735211007352. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

College of Health Sciences, Boise State University, ID, USA.

Forty-nine students enrolled at a medium size public university volunteered to review an interactive decision-making tool constructed to present the pros and cons of taking antidepression medication. The tool is built according to guidelines for shared decision-making with 7 educational sections followed by 4 queries on expectations about antidepressants, 3 key knowledge questions, and determination of readiness to take action. The most frequently cited reason for the content being helpful was improved understanding (78%) followed by increased personal confidence (37%) and helped me take action (14%). Read More

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The effect of high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation intensity on motor performance in healthy adults: a randomized controlled trial.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2021 Jun 26;18(1):103. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.

Background: The results of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies that seek to improve motor performance for people with neurological disorders, by targeting the primary motor cortex, have been inconsistent. One possible reason, among others, for this inconsistency, is that very little is known about the optimal protocols for enhancing motor performance in healthy individuals. The best way to optimize stimulation protocols for enhancing tDCS effects on motor performance by means of current intensity modulation has not yet been determined. Read More

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Catching a Liar Through Facial Expression of Fear.

Front Psychol 2021 8;12:675097. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Psychology, Jiangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, China.

High stakes can be stressful whether one is telling the truth or lying. However, liars can feel extra fear from worrying to be discovered than truth-tellers, and according to the "leakage theory," the fear is almost impossible to be repressed. Therefore, we assumed that analyzing the facial expression of fear could reveal deceits. Read More

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Recent Advances in the Development of Thalidomide-Related Compounds as Anticancer Drugs.

Curr Med Chem 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Pharmacy-Drug Sciences, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70126 Bari, Italy.

Introduction: Thalidomide is an old well-known drug that was first used as morning sickness relief in pregnant women before being withdrawn from the market due to its severe side effects on normal fetal development, However, over the last few decades, the interest in this old drug has been renewed because of its efficacy in several important disorders for instance, multiple myeloma, breast cancer, and HIV-related diseases due to its antiangiogenic and immunomodulatory properties. Unfortunately, even in these cases, many aftereffects as deep vein thrombosis, peripheral neuropathy, constipation, somnolence, pyrexia, pain, and teratogenicity have been reported, showing the requirement of careful and monitored use. For this reason, research efforts are geared toward the synthesis and optimization of new thalidomide analogues lacking in toxic effects to erase these limits and improve the pharmacological profile. Read More

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Neutrophil, Extracellular Matrix Components, and Their Interlinked Action in Promoting Secondary Pathogenesis After Spinal Cord Injury.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER)-Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.

Secondary pathogenesis following primary mechanical damage to the spinal cord is believed to be the ultimate reason for the limitation of currently available therapies. Precisely, the complex cascade of secondary events-mediated scar formation is the sole hurdle in the recovery process due to its inhibitory effect on axonal regeneration, plasticity, and remyelination. Neutrophils initiate this secondary injury along with other extracellular matrix components such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Read More

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Micro-Expressions of Fear During the 2016 Presidential Campaign Trail: Their Influence on Trait Perceptions of Donald Trump.

Front Psychol 2021 2;12:608483. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Communication, University of Colorado Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, CO, United States.

The 2016 United States presidential election was exceptional for many reasons; most notably the extreme division between supporters of Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton. In an election that turned more upon the character traits of the candidates than their policy positions, there is reason to believe that the non-verbal performances of the candidates influenced attitudes toward the candidates. Two studies, before Election Day, experimentally tested the influence of Trump's micro-expressions of fear during his Republican National Convention nomination acceptance speech on how viewers evaluated his key leadership traits of competence and trustworthiness. Read More

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Oops! I Did it Again: The Psychology of Everyday Action Slips.

Authors:
Myrto Mylopoulos

Top Cogn Sci 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Philosophy and Department of Cognitive Science, Carleton University.

We have all had the experience of everyday mistakes like distractedly pouring orange juice into our cereal bowl rather than the milk or inadvertently continuing on our regular route home rather than stopping at the store as we had planned. These so-called "action slips" (Reason, 1984a) are characterized as failures to execute one's intention arising in habitual or highly learned action sequences. This paper argues that a proper understanding of slips, and thus action more generally, requires an understanding of the control structure that implements an agent's guiding intentions. Read More

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Evaluation of microbiological air parameters and the fungal community involved in the potential risks of biodeterioration in a cultural heritage of humanity, Ouro Preto, Brazil.

Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Science, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Brazil.

The research of the microbiological air quality of a building considered a human historical and cultural heritage site by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization is fundamental for preventive conservation action, mainly because it identifies cultivable fungal species around the collections and suggests the appropriate treatment choice. This study investigated the air microbiological parameters inside the Nossa Senhora da Conceição Church and identified the population of airborne fungi. Sixty filamentous fungal isolates were detected with ten distinct taxa. Read More

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