21,829 results match your criteria acid glu


Longer charged amino acids favor β-strand formation in hairpin peptides.

J Pept Sci 2021 Jun 10:e3333. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Interactions between charged amino acids significantly influence the structure and function of proteins. The encoded charged amino acids Asp, Glu, Arg, and Lys have different number of hydrophobic methylenes linking the backbone to the charged functionality. It remains to be fully understood how does this difference in the number of methylenes affect protein structure stability. Read More

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Asp-376-Glu substitution endows target-site resistance to AHAS inhibitors in , an invasive weed in tropical rice fields.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2021 May 17;27(5):969-983. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Malaysia.

(L.) Buchenau is a problematic weed in rice fields and water canals of Southeast Asia, and in Malaysia this invasive aquatic weed species has evolved multiple resistance to synthetic auxin herbicide and acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) inhibitors. In this study, it was revealed that, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at amino acid position 376, where C was substituted to G at the third base of the same codon (GAC to GAG), resulting in Aspartate (Asp) substitution by Glutamate (Glu) was the contributing resistance mechanism in the population to AHAS inhibitors. Read More

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sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil of .

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Jun;71(6)

Yunnan Institute of Microbiology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, PR China.

A novel Gram-stain positive, facultatively anaerobic, motile, irregularly rod-shaped bacterium, designated GY 10621, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of in Beihai City, Guangxi Province, PR China, and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. GY 10621 was positive for catalase and oxidase. Growth occurred at 4-42 °C (optimum 30-37 °C), at pH 5. Read More

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Effects of Anaerobic Fermentation on Black Garlic Extract by : Changes in Flavor and Functional Components.

Front Nutr 2021 21;8:645416. Epub 2021 May 21.

Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential application of probiotics in the development of novel functional foods based on black garlic. The single-factor analysis (extraction temperatures, solid-to-liquid ratios, and extraction times) and the response surface methodology were firstly used to optimize hot water extraction of soluble solids from black garlic. The optimal extraction conditions were temperature 99. Read More

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γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase-activatable near-infrared nanoassembly for tumor fluorescence imaging-guided photothermal therapy.

Theranostics 2021 13;11(14):7045-7056. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Engineering, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, P. R. China.

Precise treatment of tumors is attracting increasing attention. Molecular probes simultaneously demonstrating the diagnostic signal and pharmacological effect in response to tumor microenvironment are highly desired. γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a biomarker with significantly up-regulated expression in the tumor area. Read More

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Jiedu Tongluo Granules Ameliorates Post-stroke Depression Rat Model Regulating NMDAR/BDNF Signaling Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:662003. Epub 2021 May 20.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Region, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Post-stroke depression (PSD) is one of the most common stroke complications, which seriously affects stroke's therapeutic effect and brings great pain for patients. The pathological mechanism of PSD has not been revealed. Jiedu Tongluo granules (JDTLG) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine for PSD treatment which is widely used in clinical treatment. Read More

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S-Sulfocysteine - Investigation of cellular uptake in CHO cells.

J Biotechnol 2021 Jun 4;335:27-38. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Merck Life Science, Upstream R&D, Frankfurter Strasse 250, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany. Electronic address:

For the generation of therapeutic proteins in cell culture, high producing clones are used. These clones have a high demand in amino acids to support cell growth and productivity. l-cysteine (Cys) is critical in highly concentrated feeds due to low stability of Cys and low solubility of the oxidation product cystine at neutral pH. Read More

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A cross-sectional survey of preschool children: Exploring heavy metal exposure, neurotransmitters, and neurobehavioural relationships and mediation effects.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 2;220:112391. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

School of Public Health, North China University of Science and Technology, 21 Bohai Road, Cao Fei Dian, Tangshan, Hebei 063210, China; The Laboratory Animal Center, North China University of Science and Technology, 21 Bohai Road, Cao Fei Dian, Tangshan, Hebei 063210, China. Electronic address:

Background: Exposure to heavy metals has been considered harmful and can cause cognitive deficits in preschool children.

Objective: To investigate the possible mediation effect of neurotransmitters on the relationship of heavy metal exposure with neurobehaviour.

Methods: The levels of blood heavy metals and neurotransmitters, along with the neurobehavioural scores, were determined in preschool children. Read More

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Dynamic variations in serum amino acid and the related gene expression in liver, ovary, and oviduct of pigeon during one egg-laying cycle.

Poult Sci 2021 Apr 14;100(7):101184. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Research Center for Livestock Environmental Control and Smart Production, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, No.1 Weigang Road, Nanjing 210095, China.

The present study was carried to investigate dynamic variations in serum amino acid (AA) contents and the relative mRNA abundance of the AA transporters and AA synthesis-related enzymes in liver, ovary and oviduct of pigeons during one egg-laying cycle (ELC). In experiment 1, seventy laying pigeons (American Silver King) were randomly divided into 14 groups by different days of one ELC (DELC) and arranged as a 2 × 7 factorial design, which included 2 ages (6-mo-old or 12-mo-old) and 7 DELCs. For experiment 2, 35 six-mo-old laying pigeons (American Silver King) were randomly divided into 7 groups by different DELCs and immediately treated with a 12-h fasting. Read More

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Over-expression of SlWRKY46 in tomato plants increases susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea by modulating ROS homeostasis and SA and JA signaling pathways.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 May 27;166:1-9. Epub 2021 May 27.

College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100083, China. Electronic address:

WRKY, as one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs), binds to cis-acting elements of downstream genes to regulate biotic and abiotic stress. However, the role of SlWRKY46 in fungal disease response induced by Botrytis cinerea (B.cinerea) and potential mechanism remains obscure. Read More

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Structure of cell-wall glycopolymers of Micrococcus luteus C01.

Carbohydr Res 2021 May 28;506:108356. Epub 2021 May 28.

N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

Glycopolymers of two types were isolated from the cell wall of Micrococcus luteus C01 by stepwise extraction with cold and hot 10% aq CClCOH. The following structures of the glycopolymers were established by compositional analysis and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy: where L-Glu indicates glutamic acid. Read More

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Structural Analysis of Class I Lanthipeptides from NL19 Reveals an Unusual Ring Pattern.

ACS Chem Biol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61822, United States.

Lanthipeptides are ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide natural products characterized by the presence of lanthionine and methyllanthionine cross-linked amino acids formed by dehydration of Ser/Thr residues followed by conjugate addition of Cys to the resulting dehydroamino acids. Class I lanthipeptide dehydratases utilize glutamyl-tRNA as a cosubstrate to glutamylate Ser/Thr followed by glutamate elimination. A vast majority of lanthipeptides identified from class I synthase systems have been from Gram-positive bacteria. Read More

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Effects of Different Nitrogen Sources and Ratios to Carbon on Larval Development and Bioconversion Efficiency in Food Waste Treatment by Black Soldier Fly Larvae ().

Insects 2021 May 31;12(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Environmental Ecological Engineering, School of Marine Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin 124221, China.

Biowaste treatment by black soldier fly larvae (BSFL, ) has received global research interest and growing industrial application. Larvae farming conditions, such as temperature, pH, and moisture, have been critically examined. However, the substrate carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), one of the key parameters that may affect larval survival and bioconversion efficiency, is significantly less studied. Read More

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Computational Study on Temperature Driven Structure-Function Relationship of Polysaccharide Producing Bacterial Glycosyl Transferase Enzyme.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 28;13(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

Centro de Biotecnología de los Recursos Naturales (CENBio), Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca 3466706, Chile.

Glycosyltransferase (GTs) is a wide class of enzymes that transfer sugar moiety, playing a key role in the synthesis of bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) biopolymer. In recent years, increased demand for bacterial EPSs has been observed in pharmaceutical, food, and other industries. The application of the EPSs largely depends upon their thermal stability, as any industrial application is mainly reliant on slow thermal degradation. Read More

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Critical Amino Acid Variants in HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 Allotypes in the Development of Classical Type 1 Diabetes and Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults in the Japanese Population.

Curr Issues Mol Biol 2021 May 9;43(1):107-115. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Ichinomiya Municipal Hospital, 2-2-22, Bunkyo, Ichinomiya 491-8558, Japan.

The effects of amino acid variants encoded by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II on the development of classical type 1 diabetes (T1D) and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) have not been fully elucidated. We retrospectively investigated the and genes of 72 patients with classical T1D and 102 patients with LADA in the Japanese population and compared the frequencies of and alleles between these patients and the Japanese populations previously reported by another institution. We also performed a blind association analysis with all amino acid positions in classical T1D and LADA, and compared the associations of HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 amino acid positions in classical T1D and LADA. Read More

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Sublingual AKBA Exerts Antidepressant Effects in the Aβ-Treated Mouse Model.

Biomolecules 2021 May 3;11(5). Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, 71122 Foggia, Italy.

The 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) is the most active compound of proposed for treating neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized in its early phase by alteration in mood. Accordingly, we have previously demonstrated that an intracerebroventricular injection of soluble amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide evokes a depressive-like phenotype in rats. We tested the protective effects of AKBA in the mouse model of an Aβ-induced depressive-like phenotype. Read More

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Study of the Neurotransmitter Changes Adjusted by Circadian Rhythm in Depression Based on Liver Transcriptomics and Correlation Analysis.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China.

Depression has drawn increasing attention from the public around the world in recent years. Studies have shown that liver injury caused by chronic stress is relevant to depression and neurotransmitter changes. It is essential to clarify the relationship between neurotransmitter changes and hepatic gene expression in depression. Read More

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Study on the domain selective inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) by food-derived tyrosine-containing dipeptides.

J Food Biochem 2021 Jun 1:e13779. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

National Engineering Research Center of Seafood, Dalian, P.R. China.

In this article, the selective inhibition of several tyrosine-containing dipeptides on N and C domain of ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) was studied, and the interaction mode of ACE and inhibitors was simulated by molecular docking. MTT assay was used to detect the effect of dipeptide on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The results showed that the food-derived dipeptides AY (Ala-Tyr), LY (Leu-Tyr), and IY (Ile-Tyr) containing tyrosine at the C-terminal were favorable structures for selective inhibition of ACE C-domain. Read More

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Chemical synthesis of peptidoglycan mimetic-disaccharide-tetrapeptide conjugate and its hydrolysis by bacteriophage T5, RB43 and RB49 L-alanyl-D-glutamate peptidases.

PeerJ 2021 19;9:e11480. Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia.

Background: Endolysins of a number of bacteriophages, including coliphages T5, RB43, and RB49, target the peptidoglycans of the bacterial cell wall. The backbone of these bacterial peptidoglycans consist of alternating N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid residues that is further "reinforced" by the peptide subunits. Because of the mesh-like structure and insolubility of peptidoglycans, the processes of the peptidoglycan binding and hydrolysis by enzymes cannot be studied by spectral methods. Read More

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Changes in taste substances during fermentation of fish sauce and the correlation with protease activity.

Food Res Int 2021 Jun 26;144:110349. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Flavor Chemistry, Beijing Technology and Business University (BTBU), Beijing 100048, China.

Anchovy sauce shows different taste profiles under different fermentation time. The change rules of free amino acids was measured by amino acid analyzer, and other taste substances, such as nucleotides and organic acids in anchovy sauce under different fermentation time were also investigated. Moreover, the correlation between protease activity and taste substances in anchovy sauce fermentation was analyzed by orthogonal partial least squares. Read More

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Purinergic P2 and glutamate nmda receptors coupling contribute to osmotically-driven excitability in hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory neurons.

J Physiol 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Key Points: Purinergic and glutamatergic signaling pathways play a key role regulating the activity of hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory neurons (MNNs). However, the precise cellular mechanisms by which ATP and glutamate act in concert to regulate osmotically-driven MNNs neuronal excitability remains unknown. Here, we report that ATP acts on purinergic P2 receptors in MNNs to potentiate in a Ca2 dependent manner extrasynaptic NMDAR function. Read More

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Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neuroprotective effects of Octaviania asterosperma in vitro.

Mycology 2020 Dec 2;12(2):128-138. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Octaviania asterosperma (hypogeous Basidiomycota) We investigated the phenolic composition, and antioxidant, antimicrobial and antigenotoxic effects of methanol extracts of fruiting bodies from Octaviania asterosperma. The total phenolic content (ppm) of O. asterosperma was found to be catechin (54. Read More

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December 2020

Structural Basis for a Dual Function ATP Grasp Ligase That Installs Single and Bicyclic ω-Ester Macrocycles in a New Multicore RiPP Natural Product.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jun 24;143(21):8056-8068. Epub 2021 May 24.

Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, United States.

Among the ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide (RiPP) natural products, "graspetides" (formerly known as microviridins) contain macrocyclic esters and amides that are formed by ATP-grasp ligase tailoring enzymes using the side chains of Asp/Glu as acceptors and Thr/Ser/Lys as donors. Graspetides exhibit diverse patterns of macrocylization and connectivities exemplified by microviridins, that have a caged tricyclic core, and thuringin and plesiocin that feature a "hairpin topology" with cross-strand ω-ester bonds. Here, we characterize chryseoviridin, a new type of multicore RiPP encoded by DS19109 (Phylum Bacteroidetes) and solve a 2. Read More

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Design and preparation of a new multi-targeted drug delivery system using multifunctional nanoparticles for co-delivery of siRNA and paclitaxel.

J Pharm Anal 2021 Apr 23;11(2):163-173. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Drug resistance is a great challenge in cancer therapy using chemotherapeutic agents. Administration of these drugs with siRNA is an efficacious strategy in this battle. Here, the present study tried to incorporate siRNA and paclitaxel (PTX) simultaneously into a novel nanocarrier. Read More

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Developmental toxicity of procymidone to larval zebrafish based on physiological and transcriptomic analysis.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 May 15;248:109081. Epub 2021 May 15.

College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, China. Electronic address:

As a broad-spectrum with low toxicity, procymidone (PCM), is widely used in agriculture and frequently observed in aquatic system, which may cause some impacts on aquatic organisms. Here, to determine the developmental toxicity of PCM, embryonic and larval zebrafish were exposed to PCM at 0, 1, 10, 100 μg/L in dehydrogenated natural water containing 0.01% acetone for 7 days. Read More

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Antioxidant, pancreatic lipase, and α-amylase inhibitory properties of oat bran hydrolyzed proteins and peptides.

J Food Biochem 2021 May 16:e13762. Epub 2021 May 16.

Food Science and Nutrition Program, Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

This work aimed to determine the antioxidant properties of identified hydrolyzed oat proteins and peptides, and their capacity to inhibit lipase and α-amylase. The protein hydrolysates retarded the oxidation of peanut oil by reducing peroxide values (up to 2.5-fold), relative to the control oil. Read More

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Cooperative adsorption of L-tryptophan and sodium ion on a hyper-cross-linked resin: Experimental studies and mathematical modeling.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Jul 1;1648:462211. Epub 2021 May 1.

College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Xin Mofan Road 5, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

The adsorption separation of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) by the weakly polar hyper-cross-linked resin XDA-200 was studied. First, the adsorption equilibria of different species of L-Trp on the resin were compared. Then, the adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics of L-Trp were studied at different pH values. Read More

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Degradation of blue honeysuckle polysaccharides, structural characteristics and antiglycation and hypoglycemic activities of degraded products.

Food Res Int 2021 May 9;143:110281. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

College of Art and Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China. Electronic address:

In this study, HO-Vc (hydrogen peroxide-ascorbic acid) oxidation system under 50 and 70 °C was developed to degrade blue honeysuckle polysaccharides. The results suggested that viscosity-average molecular weight was decreased and reducing sugar content was raised with the rise of time or temperature. The degradation was fitted to the second-order reaction kinetics. Read More

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Reconstruction of the glutamate decarboxylase system in Lactococcus lactis for biosynthesis of food-grade γ-aminobutyric acid.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May 15;105(10):4127-4140. Epub 2021 May 15.

School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China.

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an important bioactive compound, is synthesized through the decarboxylation of L-glutamate (L-Glu) by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as catalysts opens interesting avenues for the biosynthesis of food-grade GABA. However, a key obstacle involved in the improvement of GABA production is how to resolve the discrepancy of optimal pH between the intracellular GAD activity and cell growth. Read More

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Time-resolved spectroscopic and electrophysiological data reveal insights in the gating mechanism of anion channelrhodopsin.

Commun Biol 2021 May 14;4(1):578. Epub 2021 May 14.

Biospectroscopy, Center for Protein Diagnostics (PRODI), Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Channelrhodopsins are widely used in optogenetic applications. High photocurrents and low current inactivation levels are desirable. Two parallel photocycles evoked by different retinal conformations cause cation-conducting channelrhodopsin-2 (CrChR2) inactivation: one with efficient conductivity; one with low conductivity. Read More

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