62,963 results match your criteria acid gaba

Intracisternal administration of tanshinone IIA-loaded nanoparticles leads to reduced tissue injury and functional deficits in a porcine model of ischemic stroke.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2021 Jun 5;10:18-30. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Regenerative Bioscience Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, United States.

Background: The absolute number of new stroke patients is annually increasing and there still remains only a few Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatments with significant limitations available to patients. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is a promising potential therapeutic for ischemic stroke that has shown success in pre-clinical rodent studies but lead to inconsistent efficacy results in human patients. The physical properties of Tan-IIA, including short half-life and low solubility, suggests that Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle-assisted delivery may lead to improve bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. Read More

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Endogenous neuroprotective mechanism of ATP2B1 in transcriptional regulation of ischemic preconditioning.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):1170-1183. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University in Nanning China.

Ischemic stroke is the main cause of disability and mortality in the world. Clinical studies have shown that patients who undergo mild transient ischemic attack (TIA) before more severe ischemic stroke have lower clinical severity of stroke and better functional prognosis. This phenomenon is called ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Read More

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Neural Autoantibodies in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum in Clinical High Risk for Psychosis, First-Episode Psychosis, and Healthy Volunteers.

Front Psychiatry 2021 26;12:654602. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Brain and Mind Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

The pathophysiological role of neural autoantibodies in acute psychotic disorders is receiving increased attention. However, there is still an ongoing debate, whether predominantly psychotic manifestations of autoimmune encephalitides exist that may remain undetected and, thus, untreated. Furthermore, it is discussed if such conditions can be diagnosed based on serum antibody results or if a reliable diagnosis requires additional cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) results. Read More

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Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Depressed Subjects Treated With Electroconvulsive Therapy-A Systematic Review of Literature.

Front Psychiatry 2021 25;12:608857. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be the most effective acute treatment for otherwise treatment resistant major depressive episodes, and has been used for over 80 years. Still, the underlying mechanism of action is largely unknow. Several studies suggest that ECT affects the cerebral neurotransmitters, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. Read More

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Overview of the Neuroprotective Effects of the MAO-Inhibiting Antidepressant Phenelzine.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Psychiatry (Neurochemical Research Unit), University of Alberta, 12-105B Clinical Sciences Building, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G3, Canada.

Phenelzine (PLZ) is a monoamine oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting antidepressant with anxiolytic properties. This multifaceted drug has a number of pharmacological and neurochemical effects in addition to inhibition of MAO, and findings on these effects have contributed to a body of evidence indicating that PLZ also has neuroprotective/neurorescue properties. These attributes are reviewed in this paper and include catabolism to the active metabolite β-phenylethylidenehydrazine (PEH) and effects of PLZ and PEH on the GABA-glutamate balance in brain, sequestration of reactive aldehydes, and inhibition of primary amine oxidase. Read More

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Discovery of multifunctional anti-Alzheimer's agents with a unique mechanism of action including inhibition of the enzyme butyrylcholinesterase and γ-aminobutyric acid transporters.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Mar 31;218:113397. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Physicochemical Drug Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Medyczna 9, 30-688, Kraków, Poland. Electronic address:

Looking for an effective anti-Alzheimer's agent is very challenging; however, a multifunctional ligand strategy may be a promising solution for the treatment of this complex disease. We herein present the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel hydroxyethylamine derivatives displaying unique, multiple properties that have not been previously reported. The original mechanism of action combines inhibitory activity against disease-modifying targets: β-secretase enzyme (BACE1) and amyloid β (Aβ) aggregation, along with an effect on targets associated with symptom relief - inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and γ-aminobutyric acid transporters (GATs). Read More

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Extrasynaptic δ-subunit containing GABA receptors.

Ayla Arslan

J Integr Neurosci 2021 Mar;20(1):173-184

School of Advanced Studies, University of Tyumen, 9 Marta Street 2k1, 625000 Tyumen, Russia.

γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABARs) are GABA gated heteropentameric chloride channels responsible for the adult brain's primary inhibition. In specific brain cells, such as in the hippocampus, one of the subtypes of GABARs, the δ subunit containing GABARs (δ-GABARs), is predominantly expressed and located in extrasynaptic or perisynaptic positions. δ-GABARs mediate a slow constant inhibitory current called tonic inhibition. Read More

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Tracking pre-mRNA maturation across subcellular compartments identifies developmental gene regulation through intron retention and nuclear anchoring.

Genome Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

University of California, Los Angeles;

Steps of mRNA maturation are important gene regulatory events that occur in distinct cellular locations. However, transcriptomic analyses often lose information on the subcellular distribution of processed and unprocessed transcripts. We generated extensive RNA-seq datasets to track mRNA maturation across subcellular locations in mouse embryonic stem cells, neuronal progenitor cells, and postmitotic neurons. Read More

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GABA transporter sustains IL-1β production in macrophages.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 7;7(15). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, Guangdong Laboratory of Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition Control, National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry, College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Accumulating evidence shows that nervous system governs host immune responses; however, how γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system shapes the function of innate immune cells is poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that GABA transporter (GAT2) modulates the macrophage function. GAT2 deficiency lowers the production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in proinflammatory macrophages. Read More

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Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus Glycogen Regulation of Metabolic-Sensory Neuron AMPK and Neurotransmitter Expression: Role of Lactate.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School Basic Pharmaceut. Toxicol Sci., University of Louisiana at Monroe, United States.

Astrocyte glycogen is dynamically remodeled during metabolic stability and provides oxidizable L-lactate equivalents during neuro-glucopenia. Current research investigated the hypothesis that ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) glycogen metabolism controls gluco-stimulatory nitric oxide (NO) and/or gluco-inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neuron 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and transmitter marker, e.g. Read More

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Exercise Ameliorates Fluoride-induced Anxiety- and Depression-like Behavior in Mice: Role of GABA.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Jinzhong, 030801, Shanxi, China.

Fluoride exposure caused anxiety- and depression-like behavior in mice. Meanwhile, exercise contributes to relieve anxiety and depression. However, the effects of exercise on anxiety- and depression-like behavior in fluorosis mice remain unclear. Read More

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Children with Autism and Their Typically Developing Siblings Differ in Amplicon Sequence Variants and Predicted Functions of Stool-Associated Microbes.

mSystems 2021 Apr 6;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Systems Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA

The existence of a link between the gut microbiome and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is well established in mice, but in human populations, efforts to identify microbial biomarkers have been limited due to a lack of appropriately matched controls, stratification of participants within the autism spectrum, and sample size. To overcome these limitations, we crowdsourced the recruitment of families with age-matched sibling pairs between 2 and 7 years old (within 2 years of each other), where one child had a diagnosis of ASD and the other did not. Parents collected stool samples, provided a home video of their ASD child's natural social behavior, and responded online to diet and behavioral questionnaires. Read More

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Filling the Gap in Understanding the Mechanism of GABAR and Propofol Using Computational Approaches.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Key Laboratory of Drug-Targeting and Drug Delivery System of the Education Ministry and Sichuan Province, Sichuan Engineering Laboratory for Plant-Sourced Drug and Sichuan Research Center for Drug Precision Industrial Technology, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

γ-Aminobutyric acid type-A receptors (GABARs) play a critical role in neural transmission by mediating the inhibitory neural firing and are the target of many psychiatric drugs. Among them, propofol is one of the most widely used and important general anesthetics in clinics. Recent advances in structural biology revealed the structure of a human GABAR in both open and closed states. Read More

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Metal Affinity/Selectivity of Monophosphate-Containing Signaling/Lipid Molecules.

J Chem Theory Comput 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.

Monophosphate, an essential component of nucleic acids, as well as cell membranes and signaling molecules, is often bound to metal cations. Despite the biological importance of monophosphate-containing cell-signaling or lipid molecules, their propensity to bind the two most abundant cellular dications, Mg and Ca, in a particular mode (inner/outer shell, mono/bidentate) is not well understood. Whether they prefer binding to Mg than to Ca and if they can outcompete the carboxylates of excitatory Asp/Glu and inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitters in binding to Mg/Ca remain unclear. Read More

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Dysbiosis of the Human Oral Microbiome During the Menstrual Cycle and Vulnerability to the External Exposures of Smoking and Dietary Sugar.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 19;11:625229. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Centre for Translational Microbiome Research, Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Physiological hormonal fluctuations exert endogenous pressures on the structure and function of the human microbiome. As such, the menstrual cycle may selectively disrupt the homeostasis of the resident oral microbiome, thus compromising oral health. Hence, the aim of the present study was to structurally and functionally profile the salivary microbiome of 103 women in reproductive age with regular menstrual cycle, while evaluating the modifying influences of hormonal contraceptives, sex hormones, diet, and smoking. Read More

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Influence of Potential Gene Polymorphisms on Propofol Dosage Regimen in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Hysterectomy.

Balkan J Med Genet 2020 Nov 23;23(2):41-48. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

University Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, University "Ss Cyril and Methodius" Medical Faculty, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia.

Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is the most common intravenous anesthetic used in modern medicine. It is postulated that individual differences in genetic factors [polymorphism of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)] in the genes encoding metabolic enzymes, molecular targets and molecular binding sites of propofol can be responsible for susceptibility to propofol effects. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of the cytochrome P450 2B6 isozyme (rs3745274), γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor α1 subunit (rs2279020) and ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (rs1045642) gene polymorphisms on propofol therapeutic outcomes in the patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Read More

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November 2020

Real-world impact of antiepileptic drug combinations with versus without perampanel on healthcare resource utilization in patients with epilepsy in the United States.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Mar 31;118:107927. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Objectives: Combination regimens of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) with various mechanisms of action (MOA) are commonly used in patients with refractory epilepsy. However, outcomes related to combination AEDs with novel MOA, such as perampanel (PER), are not well described. This study compared healthcare resource utilization (HRU) among recipients of PER-based combinations versus recipients of other non-PER-based combinations. Read More

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Molecular mechanisms involved in the prevention and reversal of ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like behavior by rutin: the role of glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform-67, cholinergic, Nox-2-oxidative stress pathways in mice.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Neuropharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Mounting evidences have shown that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-2 (Nox-2) pathway modifies glutamic-acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD) (GABAergic enzyme) and cholinergic systems via oxidative-nitrergic mechanisms in schizophrenia pathology. Rutin, a neuroactive antioxidant compound, with proven neuroprotective property has been shown to reduce schizophrenic-like behavior in mice. This study sought to investigate the mechanisms of action of the psychopharmacological activity of rutin in the preventive and reversal effects of ketamine-induced schizophrenic-like behavior, oxidative-nitrergic stress, cholinergic and GABAergic derangements in mice. Read More

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Structural Characterization of Receptor-Receptor Interactions in the Allosteric Modulation of G Protein-Coupled Receptor (GPCR) Dimers.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 22;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Global AI Drug Discovery Center, College of Pharmacy and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.

G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) oligomerization, while contentious, continues to attract the attention of researchers. Numerous experimental investigations have validated the presence of GPCR dimers, and the relevance of dimerization in the effectuation of physiological functions intensifies the attractiveness of this concept as a potential therapeutic target. GPCRs, as a single entity, have been the main source of scrutiny for drug design objectives for multiple diseases such as cancer, inflammation, cardiac, and respiratory diseases. Read More

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Effects of Dizocilpine, Midazolam and Their Co-Application on the Trimethyltin (TMT)-Induced Rat Model of Cognitive Deficit.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 22;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4, Czech Republic.

Research of treatment options addressing the cognitive deficit associated with neurodegenerative disorders is of particular importance. Application of trimethyltin (TMT) to rats represents a promising model replicating multiple relevant features of such disorders. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists and gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA) receptor potentiators have been reported to alleviate the TMT-induced cognitive deficit. Read More

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The Role of Phospholipase C in GABAergic Inhibition and Its Relevance to Epilepsy.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 19;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Biological Sciences, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 44919, Korea.

Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent seizures due to abnormal hyperexcitation of neurons. Recent studies have suggested that the imbalance of excitation and inhibition (E/I) in the central nervous system is closely implicated in the etiology of epilepsy. In the brain, GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter and plays a pivotal role in maintaining E/I balance. Read More

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Utilizing an Animal Model to Identify Brain Neurodegeneration-Related Biomarkers in Aging.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 23;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) regulates S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), a methyl donor in methylation. Over-expressed SAMe may cause neurogenic capacity reduction and memory impairment. GNMT knockout mice (GNMT-KO) was applied as an experimental model to evaluate its effect on neurons. Read More

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Axonal Modulation of Striatal Dopamine Release by Local γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Signalling.

Cells 2021 Mar 23;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Oxford Parkinson's Disease Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT, UK.

Striatal dopamine (DA) release is critical for motivated actions and reinforcement learning, and is locally influenced at the level of DA axons by other striatal neurotransmitters. Here, we review a wealth of historical and more recently refined evidence indicating that DA output is inhibited by striatal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting via GABA and GABA receptors. We review evidence supporting the localisation of GABA and GABA receptors to DA axons, as well as the identity of the striatal sources of GABA that likely contribute to GABAergic modulation of DA release. Read More

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Determination and Application of Nineteen Monoamines in the Gut Microbiota Targeting Phenylalanine, Tryptophan, and Glutamic Acid Metabolic Pathways.

Molecules 2021 Mar 4;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences/Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China.

It has been reported that monoamine neurotransmitters can be produced by gut microbiota, and that several related metabolites of amino acids in these pathways are associated with nervous system (NVS) diseases. Herein, we focused on three pathways, namely, phenylalanine (Phe), tryptophan (Trp), and glutamic acid (Glu), and established an underivatized liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of nineteen monoamine neurotransmitters and related metabolites in the gut microbiota. The neurotransmitters and related metabolites included Phe, tyrosine (Tyr), l-dopa (Dopa), dopamine (DA), 3-methoxytyramine, Trp, hydroxytryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), kynurenine (KN), kynurenic acid (KYNA), melatonin, tryptamine (TA), indole-3-lactic acid (ILA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indolyl-3-propionic acid (IPA), Glu, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and acetylcholine (Ach). Read More

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Fermented Gamma Aminobutyric Acid Improves Sleep Behaviors in Fruit Flies and Rodent Models.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 29;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Food Nutrition, Sangmyung University, Seoul 03016, Korea.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of -fermented γ-aminobutyric acid (LB-GABA) on sleep behaviors in invertebrate and vertebrate models. In , LB-GABA-treated group showed an 8-9%-longer sleep duration than normal group did. LB-GABA-treated group also showed a 46. Read More

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An Interesting Molecule: γ-Aminobutyric Acid. What Can We Learn from Hydra Polyps?

Paola Pierobon

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 29;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent Systems E. Caianiello, CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078 Pozzuoli, Italy.

Neuronal excitability is controlled primarily by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the central and peripheral nervous systems of vertebrate as well as invertebrate organisms. Besides its recognized neurotransmitter functions, GABA also plays a fundamental role in neurogenesis and synaptogenesis during embryonic development. In addition, GABAergic mechanisms are also involved in disorders of various peripheral tissues, ranging from diabetes to hypothyroidism to inflammatory responses. Read More

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Influence of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Genotype on Short-Latency Afferent Inhibition and Motor Cortex Metabolites.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 20;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Institute for Human Movement and Medical Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata City, Niigata 950-3198, Japan.

The Met allele of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene confers reduced cortical BDNF expression and associated neurobehavioral changes. BDNF signaling influences the survival, development, and synaptic function of cortical networks. Here, we compared gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic network activity in the human primary motor cortex (M1) between the Met (Val/Met and Met/Met) and non-Met (Val/Val) genotype groups. Read More

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GABA-Producing Strains Isolated from Camel's Milk as Starters for the Production of GABA-Enriched Cheese.

Foods 2021 Mar 17;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Dairy Research Institute (IPLA-CSIC), Paseo Rio Linares s/n, 33300 Villaviciosa, Spain.

The multiple health benefits attributed to the bioactive compound γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have prompted the food industry to investigate the development of functional GABA-rich foods via the use of GABA-producing microorganisms. This study reports the isolation of six GABA-producing strains from camel's milk; this is the first time that such microorganisms have been isolated from milk. The sequencing and analysis of their genomes, and the characterisation of their technological and safety properties, confirmed their potential as starters. Read More

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Targeting GABA Receptors Improves Post-Stroke Motor Recovery.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 2;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Brain and Mind Centre, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia.

Ischemic stroke remains a leading cause of disability worldwide, with limited treatment options available. This study investigates GABA receptors as novel pharmacological targets for stroke recovery. The expression of 1 and 2 mRNA in mice were determined in peri-infarct tissue following photothrombotic motor cortex stroke. Read More

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The Free-Amino-Acid Content in Six Potatoes Cultivars through Storage.

Molecules 2021 Mar 2;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Food Storage and Technology, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chelmonskiego 37 Street, 51-630 Wroclaw, Poland.

Potatoes of six cultivars ( L.) with red, purple, and yellow flesh were stored at 2 and 5 °C for 3 and 6 months, and the influence of these factors on the content of free amino acids was determined. The potato cultivar and storage time had the greatest impact on the free amino acid content. Read More

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