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Alkylating agent rechallenge in metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

L De Mestier, Department of Gastroenterology, Beaujon University Hospital (APHP), Clichy, France.

A rechallenge is common after initial efficacy of alkylating-based chemotherapy (ALK) in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET). High MGMT expression seems associated with lower response to ALK. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of ALK rechallenge in PanNET. Read More

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Shape memory polymer (SMP) scaffolds with improved self-fitting properties.

J Mater Chem B 2021 May 15;9(18):3826-3837. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

"Self-fitting" shape memory polymer (SMP) scaffolds prepared as semi-interpenetrating networks (semi-IPNs) with crosslinked linear-poly(ε-caprolactone)-diacrylate (PCL-DA, M∼10 kg mol) and linear-poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA, M∼15 kg mol) [75/25 wt%] exhibited robust mechanical properties and accelerated degradation rates versus a PCL-DA scaffold control. However, their potential to treat irregular craniomaxillofacial (CMF) bone defects is limited by their relatively high fitting temperature (T∼55 °C; related to the T of PCL) required for shape recovery (i.e. Read More

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Nanomaterial-based delivery vehicles for therapeutic cancer vaccine development.

Authors:
Jie Liang Xiao Zhao

Cancer Biol Med 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety & CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing 100190, China.

Nanomaterial-based delivery vehicles such as lipid-based, polymer-based, inorganics-based, and bio-inspired vehicles often carry distinct and attractive advantages in the development of therapeutic cancer vaccines. Based on various delivery vehicles, specifically designed nanomaterials-based vaccines are highly advantageous in boosting therapeutic and prophylactic antitumor immunities. Specifically, therapeutic vaccines featuring unique properties have made major contributions to the enhancement of antigen immunogenicity, encapsulation efficiency, biocompatibility, and stability, as well as promoting antigen cross-presentation and specific CD8 T cell responses. Read More

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Effectively Promoting Activity and Stability of a MnCoO-Based Cathode by Constructed Heterointerfaces for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, China.

The development of multiphase composite electrocatalysts plays a key role in achieving the efficient and durable operation of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). Herein, a self-assembled nanocomposite is developed as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst for IT-SOFCs through a coprecipitation method. The nanocomposite is composed of a doped (MnMg)ScCoO (MMSCO) spinel oxide (84 wt %), an orthorhombic perovskite phase (11. Read More

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Treatment of COPD with Long-Acting Bronchodilators: Association Between Early and Longer-Term Clinically Important Improvement.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021 3;16:1215-1226. Epub 2021 May 3.

Global Specialty & Primary Care, GSK, Brentford, Middlesex, UK.

Introduction: This post hoc analysis of the "Early MAXimization of bronchodilation for improving COPD stability" (EMAX) trial investigated whether patients achieving early clinically important improvement (CII) sustained longer-term improvements and lower risk of clinically important deterioration (CID).

Methods: Patients were randomized to umeclidinium/vilanterol, umeclidinium, or salmeterol for 24 weeks. The patient-reported outcomes (PROs) Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI), Evaluating Respiratory Symptoms, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) were assessed. Read More

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Basic Concepts of Russia's Fiscal Policy: Experience for China Part 2.

Authors:
Xu Wenhong

Stud Russ Econ Dev 2021 6;32(2):133-140. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Russian, Eastern European and Central Asian Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 10000 Beijing, China.

Financial activities are the government's material means of leveraging financial resources, maintaining the exercise of political power and achieving administrative goals through financial revenues and expenditures. Successive administrations have been learning lessons from their predecessors, exploring the government's financial goals in response to Russia's severe economic and social problems and constantly adjusting themselves according to the changing situation. These goals include privatization and property right reform (expansion of the financial base), transfer payment and redistribution (consolidation of the public base of the regime), economic regulation (stimulation of economic growth, exchange rate stability, reduction of inflation, and tax neutrality), and the guarantee of financial security (budget balance and expansion of reserves), which have gradually led to a set of relatively stable financial rules in the years. Read More

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Achieving High Pseudocapacitance Anode by An Nanocrystallization Strategy for Ultrastable Sodium-Ion Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007, United States.

Conversion/alloying type anodes have shown great promise for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) because of their high theoretical capacity. However, the poor structural stability derived from the large volume expansion and short lifetime impedes their further practical applications. Herein, we report a novel anode with a pomegranate-like nanostructure of SnPO particles homogeneously dispersed in the robust N-doped carbon matrix. Read More

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Flexibility Effects of a Flapping Mechanism Inspired by Insect Musculoskeletal System on Flight Performance.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 22;9:612183. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Flying animals such as insects display great flight performances with high stability and maneuverability even under unpredictable disturbances in natural and man-made environments. Unlike man-made mechanical systems like a drone, insects can achieve various flapping motions through their flexible musculoskeletal systems. However, it remains poorly understood whether flexibility affects flight performances or not. Read More

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Immediate Implant Solution to Improve Long-Term Esthetics, Enhance Patient Satisfaction.

Compend Contin Educ Dent 2021 Apr;42(4):g1-g4

Faculty Member, Advanced Education in General Dentistry Residency Program, University of Cincinnati Medical Center; Private Practice limited to Periodontics and Dental Implants, Milford, Ohio; Diplomate, American Board of Periodontology; Diplomate, International Congress of Oral Implantologists.

Fixed prostheses offer various advantages over conventional removable devices for immediate restoration of a fractured tooth in the esthetic zone. In this case report, a fixed solution is employed through the use of a same-day provisional restoration attached to an immediately placed dental implant. Utilizing biologics and an implant system that allows for excellent primary stability, this treatment modality offers a predictable method for achieving immediate implant placement and provisionalization. Read More

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Enhancing Visible-Light Photocatalysis Endohedral Functionalization of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Organic Dyes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Organic Chemistry Department, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

The encapsulation of an organic dye, 10-phenylphenothiazine (), in the inner cavity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as a breaking heterogenization strategy is presented. The material was microscopically and spectroscopically characterized, showing intense photoemission when illuminated with visible light at the nanoscale. Thus, was employed as a heterogeneous photocatalyst in single electron transfer dehalogenation reactions under visible light irradiation. Read More

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Radical Carboxylative Cyclizations and Carboxylations with CO.

Acc Chem Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry & Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, P. R. China.

ConspectusCarbon dioxide (CO) is not only a greenhouse gas and a common waste product but also an inexpensive, readily available, and renewable carbon resource. It is an important one-carbon (C1) building block in organic synthesis for the construction of valuable compounds. However, its utilization is challenging owing to its thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness. Read More

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Development of Stable Chimeric IL-15 for Trans-Presentation by the Antigen Presenting Cells.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:646159. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Science, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, India.

IL-15 is one of the important biologics considered for vaccine adjuvant and treatment of cancer. However, a short half-life and poor bioavailability limit its therapeutic potential. Herein, we have structured IL-15 into a chimeric protein to improve its half-life enabling greater bioavailability for longer periods. Read More

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A Machine-Learning Approach to Measure the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk in Female Basketball Players.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;21(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Economics, Engineering, Society and Business Organization (DEIM), University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy.

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury represents one of the main disorders affecting players, especially in contact sports. Even though several approaches based on artificial intelligence have been developed to allow the quantification of ACL injury risk, their applicability in training sessions compared with the clinical scale is still an open question. We proposed a machine-learning approach to accomplish this purpose. Read More

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Self-Assembly of Nanosheet-Supported Fe-MOF Heterocrystals as a Reusable Catalyst for Boosting Advanced Oxidation Performance via Radical and Nonradical Pathways.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemistry, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397, Japan.

Heterojunction catalysts have drawn increasing interest for the visible light-driven Fenton reaction and bring tremendous opportunities for environmental remediation. Herein, a BiOI/MIL-53(Fe) Z-scheme heterojunction (named BMFe) was synthesized for the first time via a facile strategy. Compared with pristine BiOI and MIL-53(Fe) catalysts, the two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) heterojunction catalyst manifested remarkable catalytic performance toward degradation of phenol, bisphenol A, methylene blue, and carbamazepine, which is attributed mainly to the interfacial integration and efficient charge separation. Read More

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The rheologically-complex fluid beauty of nail lacquer formulations.

Soft Matter 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60608, USA.

Nail lacquer formulations are multi-ingredient complex fluids with additives that affect color, smell, texture, evaporation rate, viscosity, stability, leveling behavior, consumer's sensory experience, and dried coating's decorative and wear performance. Optimizing and characterizing the formulation rheology is critical for achieving longer shelf-life, better control over the nail painting process and adhesion, continuous manufacturing of large product volumes, and increasing overall consumer satisfaction. Dispensing, bottle filling, brush application, and dripping, as well as perceived tackiness of nail polishes, all involve capillarity-driven pinching flows associated with strong extensional deformation fields. Read More

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Diagnostic and therapeutic nanoenzymes for enhanced chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy.

J Mater Chem B 2021 May;9(18):3925-3934

State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Applying Chemistry Key Lab of Hebei Province, Heavy metal deep remediation in water and resource reuse Key Lab of Hebei, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004, P. R. China.

Nanozymes, as a kind of artificial mimic enzymes, have superior catalytic capacity and stability. As lack of O2 in tumor cells can cause resistance to drugs, we designed drug delivery liposomes (MnO2-PTX/Ce6@lips) loaded with catalase-like nanozymes of manganese dioxide nanoparticles (MnO2 NPs), paclitaxel (PTX) and chlorin e6 (Ce6) to consume tumor's native H2O2 and produce O2. Based on the catalysis of MnO2 NPs, a large amount of oxygen was produced by MnO2-PTX/Ce6@lips to burst the liposomes and achieve a responsive release of the loaded drug (paclitaxel), and the released O2 relieved the chemoresistance of tumor cells and provided raw materials for photodynamic therapy. Read More

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Continued anti-VEGF treatment does not prevent recurrences in eyes with stable neovascular age-related macular degeneration using a treat-and-extend regimen: a retrospective case series.

Eye (Lond) 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Swiss Eye Institute, Rotkreuz, and Berner Augenklinik am Lindenhofspital, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: The continuation of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment after achieving stability in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration has generally been advocated. In our own patients, we thought to assess whether continued anti-VEGF treatment is capable of preventing recurrences.

Methods: In this retrospective observational case series, patients with stable disease either opted to continue treatment every 12-14 weeks (Group 1) or stopped treatment with subsequent follow-up visits every 8-12 weeks (Group 2). Read More

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Anisotropic Evaporator with a T-Shape Design for High-Performance Solar-Driven Zero-Liquid Discharge.

Small 2021 May 3:e2100969. Epub 2021 May 3.

State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730000, China.

Solar-driven evaporation is regarded as a sustainable wastewater treatment strategy for clean water recovery and salt condensation. However, achieving both high evaporation rate and long-term stability remain challenging due to poor thermal management and rapid salt accumulation and blocking. Here, a T-shape solar-driven evaporator, composed of a surface-carbonized longitudinal wood membrane (C-L-wood) is demonstrated as the top "" for solar harvesting/vapor generation/salt collection and another piece of natural L-wood as the support "" for brine transporting and thermally insulating. Read More

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Dual-frequency Doppler velocimeter based on delay interferometric optical phase-locking.

Opt Lett 2021 May;46(9):2103-2106

We present a dual-frequency laser Doppler velocimeter (DF-LDV) relying on a DF laser source (DFLS) generated by optical phase-locking two individual lasers to a common unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which allows achieving high stability regardless of the DF separation of the lasers. This DFLS is evaluated using an optical frequency comb, testifying to the generation of DFLS with large DF separation up to terahertz with flexible tunability and high stability. Demonstration of DF-LDV using the DFLS of ${\sim}1. Read More

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A longitudinal investigation of cognitive functioning and its relationship to symptom severity and academic functioning in treatment seeking youth with AHDH.

Scand J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Psychol 2021 23;9:52-63. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Children with ADHD tend to present with poorer cognitive functioning leaving them more vulnerable to a range of negative outcomes. To date, only a handful of longitudinal studies have examined the stability of Wechsler composite scores in children and adolescents with ADHD, and none of them used a more recent version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC), than the WISC-III.

Objective: The present study investigates the cognitive stability and its longitudinal relationship with the severity of the child's ADHD symptoms and school grades. Read More

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A Real-Time Stability Control Method Through sEMG Interface for Lower Extremity Rehabilitation Exoskeletons.

Front Neurosci 2021 13;15:645374. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Robotics and Intelligent System, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

Herein, we propose a real-time stable control gait switching method for the exoskeleton rehabilitation robot. Exoskeleton rehabilitation robots have been extensively developed during the past decade and are able to offer valuable motor ability to paraplegics. However, achieving stable states of the human-exoskeleton system while conserving wearer strength remains challenging. Read More

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Low-Temperature Induced Enhancement of Photoelectric Performance in Semiconducting Nanomaterials.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, Beijing Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy and Sensor, Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101400, China.

The development of light-electricity conversion in nanomaterials has drawn intensive attention to the topic of achieving high efficiency and environmentally adaptive photoelectric technologies. Besides traditional improving methods, we noted that low-temperature cooling possesses advantages in applicability, stability and nondamaging characteristics. Because of the temperature-related physical properties of nanoscale materials, the working mechanism of cooling originates from intrinsic characteristics, such as crystal structure, carrier motion and carrier or trap density. Read More

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Continuous Resonance Tuning without Blindness by Applying Nonlinear Properties of PIN Diodes.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 16;21(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Communication and Information Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.

Metamaterial antennas consisting of periodical units are suitable for achieving tunable properties by employing active elements to each unit. However, for compact metamaterials with a very limited number of periodical units, resonance blindness exists. In this paper, we introduce a method to achieve continuous tuning without resonance blindness by exploring hence, taking advantage of nonlinear properties of PIN diodes. Read More

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Current Understanding of the Structure, Stability and Dynamic Properties of Amyloid Fibrils.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 21;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Global Center for Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Amyloid fibrils are supramolecular protein assemblies represented by a cross-β structure and fibrous morphology, whose structural architecture has been previously investigated. While amyloid fibrils are basically a main-chain-dominated structure consisting of a backbone of hydrogen bonds, side-chain interactions also play an important role in determining their detailed structures and physicochemical properties. In amyloid fibrils comprising short peptide segments, a steric zipper where a pair of β-sheets with side chains interdigitate tightly is found as a fundamental motif. Read More

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eDNA-Mediated Cutaneous Protection Against UVB Damage Conferred by Staphylococcal Epidermal Colonization.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 9;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Biofilm Research Laboratory, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Institute of Dental Sciences, Hebrew University-Hadassah, Jerusalem 91120, Israel.

The human skin is a lush microbial habitat which is occupied by a wide array of microorganisms. Among the most common inhabitants are spp., namely and, in ≈20% of healthy individuals, . Read More

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Li(BH)(NH) Nanoconfined in SBA-15 as Solid-State Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China.

Solid electrolytes with high Li-ion conductivity and electrochemical stability are very important for developing high-performance all-solid-state batteries. In this work, Li(BH)(NH) is nanoconfined in the mesoporous silica molecule sieve (SBA-15) using a melting-infiltration approach. This electrolyte exhibits excellent Li-ion conduction properties, achieving a Li-ion conductivity of 5. Read More

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Strategies and applications of covalent organic frameworks as promising nanoplatforms in cancer therapy.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Apr;9(16):3450-3483

Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China. and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China.

Cancer nanomedicine is the best option to face the limits of conventional chemotherapy and phototherapy methods, and thus the intensive quest for new nanomaterials to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety is still underway. Owing to their low density, well-defined structures, large surface area, finely tunable pore size, and metal ion free features, covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have been extensively studied in many research fields. The recent great interest in nanoscale COFs to improve the properties of bulk COFs has led to broadening of their applicability in the biomedical field, such as nanocarriers with an outstanding loading capacity and efficient delivery of therapeutic agents, smart theranostic nanoplatforms with excellent stability, high ROS generation, light-to-heat conversion capabilities, and different response and diagnostic characteristics. Read More

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Biologically Inspired Scalable-Manufactured Dual-layer Coating with a Hierarchical Micropattern for Highly Efficient Passive Radiative Cooling and Robust Superhydrophobicity.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 28;13(18):21888-21897. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080, China.

Bioinspired materials for temperature regulation have proven to be promising for passive radiation cooling, and super water repellency is also a main feature of biological evolution. However, the scalable production of artificial passive radiative cooling materials with self-adjusting structures, high-efficiency, strong applicability, and low cost, along with achieving superhydrophobicity simultaneously remains a challenge. Here, a biologically inspired passive radiative cooling dual-layer coating (Bio-PRC) is synthesized by a facile but efficient strategy, after the discovery of long-horned beetles' thermoregulatory behavior with multiscale fluffs, where an adjustable polymer-like layer with a hierarchical micropattern is constructed in various ceramic bottom skeletons, integrating multifunctional components with interlaced "ridge-like" architectures. Read More

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Polymorphic forms of antiandrogenic drug nilutamide: structural and thermodynamic aspects.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Apr;23(16):9695-9708

G. A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Akademicheskaya St., 153045 Ivanovo, Russia.

Attempts to obtain new cocrystals of nonsteroidal antiandrogenic drug nilutamide produced alternative polymorphic forms of the compound (Form II and Form III) and their crystal structures were elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Apart from the cocrystallization technique, lyophilization was found to be an effective strategy for achieving polymorph control of nilutamide, which was difficult to obtain by other methods. The physicochemical properties and relative stability of the commercial Form I and newly obtained Form II were comprehensively investigated by a variety of analytical methods (thermal analysis, solution calorimetry, solubility, and sublimation), whereas for Form III, only a handful of experimental parameters were obtained due to the elusive nature of the polymorph. Read More

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Improving source inversion performance of airborne pollutant emissions by modifying atmospheric dispersion scheme through sensitivity analysis combined with optimization model.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 19;284:117186. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Key Laboratory of Beijing on Regional Air Pollution Control, College of Environmental & Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, China.

Estimating accurately airborne pollutant emissions source information (source strength and location) is important for achieving effective air pollution management or adequate emergency responses to accidents. Inversion method is one of the useful tools to identify the source parameters. The atmospheric dispersion scheme has been proven to be the key to determining the source inversion performance by influencing the accuracy of the dispersion models. Read More

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