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Comparison of Outcomes After Robotic-Assisted or Conventional Total Hip Arthroplasty at a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up: A Systematic Review.

JBJS Rev 2021 06 16;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Ascension Borgess Orthopedics, Kalamazoo, Michigan.

Background: This systematic review aimed to present an updated analysis of the evidence comparing outcomes between robotic-assisted total hip arthroplasty (robotic THA) and conventional manual total hip arthroplasty (manual THA).

Methods: A PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) systematic review was performed using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase. Controlled studies comparing primary robotic THA and manual THA utilizing patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) at a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included. Read More

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Detection Methods for Early Caries Diagnosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Caries Res 2021 Jun 15:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Operative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

The aim was to appraise the evidence on the performance of various means for the detection of incipient caries in vivo. Five databases of published and unpublished research were searched for studies from January 2000 to October 2019. Search terms included "early caries" and "caries detection. Read More

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Comparison between Cerebroplacental Ratio and Umbilicocerebral Ratio in Predicting Adverse Perinatal Outcome in Pregnancies Complicated by Late Fetal Growth Restriction: A Multicenter, Retrospective Study.

Fetal Diagn Ther 2021 Jun 15:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Center for High Risk Pregnancy and Fetal Care, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy.

Introduction: The role of cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) or umbilicocerebral ratio (UCR) to predict adverse intrapartum and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by late fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial.

Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study involving 5 referral centers in Italy and Spain, including singleton pregnancies complicated by late FGR, as defined by Delphi consensus criteria, with a scan 1 week prior to delivery. The primary objective was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the CPR and UCR for the prediction of a composite adverse outcome, defined as the presence of either an adverse intrapartum outcome (need for operative delivery/cesarean section for suspected fetal distress) or an adverse perinatal outcome (intrauterine death, Apgar score <7 at 5 min, arterial pH <7. Read More

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Volume of the whale shark and their mechanism of vertical feeding.

Zoology (Jena) 2021 May 3;147:125932. Epub 2021 May 3.

Okinawa Churashima Research Center, Okinawa Churashima Foundation, 888, Motobu-cho, Okinawa, 905-0206, Japan; Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium, 424, Motobu-cho, Okinawa, 905-0206, Japan.

The present study provides a noninvasive method to estimate the body volume of sharks (Elasmobranchii, Selachii) using a computational geometric model. This method allows the volume of sharks to be estimated from lateral and ventral photographs assuming an elliptical body cross-sectional geometry. A comparison of the estimated and actual body volumes of several shark species showed that the estimation error was < 0. Read More

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Direct 3D ultrasound fusion for transesophageal echocardiography.

Comput Biol Med 2021 May 21;134:104502. Epub 2021 May 21.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital and Laboratory of Cardiac Imaging and 3D Printing, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Background: Real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE) has been increasingly used in clinic for fast 3D analysis of cardiac anatomy and function. However, 3D TEE still suffers from the limited field of view (FoV). It is challenging to adopt conventional multi-view fusion methods to 3D TEE images because feature-based registration methods tend to fail in the ultrasound scenario, and conventional intensity-based methods have poor convergence properties and require an iterative coarse-to-fine strategy. Read More

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Convolutional neural networks to identify malformations of cortical development: A feasibility study.

Seizure 2021 May 31;91:81-90. Epub 2021 May 31.

Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA USA.

Objective: To develop and test a deep learning model to automatically detect malformations of cortical development (MCD).

Methods: We trained a deep learning model to distinguish between diffuse cortical malformation (CM), periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH), and normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We trained 4 different convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures. Read More

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Medical image recognition and segmentation of pathological slices of gastric cancer based on Deeplab v3+ neural network.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 May 29;207:106210. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of General Surgery Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning 110004, China. Electronic address:

Objective: In order to improve the efficiency of gastric cancer pathological slice image recognition and segmentation of cancerous regions, this paper proposes an automatic gastric cancer segmentation model based on Deeplab v3+ neural network.

Methods: Based on 1240 gastric cancer pathological slice images, this paper proposes a multi-scale input Deeplab v3+ network, _and compares it with SegNet, ICNet in sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and Dice coefficient.

Results: The sensitivity of Deeplab v3+ is 91. Read More

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Facile and rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibody based on a noncompetitive fluorescence polarization immunoassay in human serum samples.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jun 5;190:113414. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Division of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8628, Japan; Innovative Research Centre for Preventive Medical Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601, Japan; Institute of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601, Japan. Electronic address:

Antibody detection methods for viral infections have received broad attention due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, there remains an ever-increasing need to quantitatively evaluate the immune response to develop vaccines and treatments for COVID-19. Here, we report an analytical method for the rapid and quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibody in human serum by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). Read More

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Quantitative Assessment of Age-dependent changes in Porphyrins from Fluorescence Images of Ultraviolet Photography by Image Processing.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Jun 12:102388. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Skin is the first line of defense against harmful external environmental factors. Lots of skin flora living on the skin surface deal with skin health care and skin disease treatment and prevention, such as bacteria, which form the unique and complex skin micro-ecological system. Propionibacterium acnes (P. Read More

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A 1-km hourly air-temperature model for 13 northeastern U.S. states using remotely sensed and ground-based measurements.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 12;200:111477. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; Institute for Exposomic Research, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA.

Background: Accurate and precise estimates of ambient air temperatures that can capture fine-scale within-day variability are necessary for studies of air temperature and health.

Method: We developed statistical models to predict temperature at each hour in each cell of a 927-m square grid across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic United States from 2003 to 2019, across ~4000 meteorological stations from the Integrated Mesonet, using inputs such as elevation, an inverse-distance-weighted interpolation of temperature, and satellite-based vegetation and land surface temperature. We used a rigorous spatial cross-validation scheme and spatially weighted the errors to estimate how well model predictions would generalize to new cell-days. Read More

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Artificial Intelligence and Cellular Segmentation in Tissue Microscopy Images.

Am J Pathol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Radiology and Committee on Medical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA, 60637. Electronic address:

With applications in object detection, image feature extraction, image classification, and image segmentation, artificial intelligence is enabling high-throughput analysis of image data in a variety of biomedical imaging disciplines, ranging from radiology and pathology to cancer biology and immunology. Specifically, a growth in research surrounding deep learning has led to widespread application of computer vision techniques to analyze and mine data from biomedical images. The availability of open-source software packages and the development of novel, trainable deep neural network architectures has led to an increase in accuracy of cell detection and segmentation algorithms. Read More

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A new method for broad-scale modeling and projection of plant assemblages under climatic, biotic, and environmental cofiltering.

Conserv Biol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Environmental Science Center, Qatar University, Doha, P.O. Box 2713, Qatar.

There is increasing interest in broad-scale analysis, modeling, and prediction of the distribution and composition of plant species assemblages under climatic, environmental, and biotic filtering, particularly for conservation purposes. We devised a method (broad-scale analysis & modeling of plant assemblages under climatic-biotic-environmental co-filtering, BAM-PACC) for reliably predicting the impact of climate change on arbitrarily large assemblages of plant communities, while also considering competing biotic and abiotic factors. When applied to a large set of plant communities in the Swiss Alps, BAM-PACC explained presences/absences of 175 plant species in 608 plots with >87% cross-validated accuracy, predicted decreases in α, β, and γ diversity by 2040 under both moderate and extreme climate scenarios, and identified plant species likely to be favored/disfavored by climate change. Read More

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The selection of indicators from initial blood routine test results to improve the accuracy of early prediction of COVID-19 severity.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253329. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

The Geriatric Respiratory Department, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

The global pandemic of COVID-19 poses a huge threat to the health and lives of people all over the world, and brings unprecedented pressure to the medical system. We need to establish a practical method to improve the efficiency of treatment and optimize the allocation of medical resources. Due to the influx of a large number of patients into the hospital and the running of medical resources, blood routine test became the only possible check while COVID-19 patients first go to a fever clinic in a community hospital. Read More

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Value of spectral detector computed tomography for the early assessment of technique efficacy after microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0252678. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Objectives: To investigate whether virtual monoenergetic images (VMI) and iodine maps derived from spectral detector computed tomography (SDCT) improve early assessment of technique efficacy in patients who underwent microwave ablation (MWA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in liver cirrhosis.

Methods: This retrospective study comprised 39 patients with 49 HCC lesions treated with MWA. Biphasic SDCT was performed 7. Read More

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Exploiting Causality for Improved Prediction of Patient Volumes by Gaussian Processes.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Jun 15;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Estimating and surveillance volumes of patients are of great importance for public health and resource allocation. In many situations, the change of these volumes is correlated with many factors, e.g. Read More

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Enriched Random Forest for High Dimensional Genomic Data.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2021 Jun 15;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Ensemble methods such as random forest works well on high-dimensional datasets. However, when the number of features is extremely large compared to the number of samples and the percentage of truly informative feature is very small, performance of traditional random forest decline significantly. To this end, we develop a novel approach that enhance the performance of traditional random forest by reducing the contribution of trees whose nodes are populated with less informative features. Read More

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Investigation of high correlation with carcass traits of SNPs of the PLCB1, C/EBPα, and TDRKH genes and the combinations of SNPs using the MDR method in the Hanwoo.

Genes Genomics 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Center for Bio-Medical Engineering Core Facility, Dankook University, Cheonan-si, 31116, Republic of Korea.

Background: Recently, many researchers focus on the best way to produce high-quality meat, as the trend in food consumption today is to focus on quality. In general, consumers' preferences in beef differ depending on taste and meatiness. Therefore, researchers are interested in how the marbling score affects the flavors of meat or the various factors that make up the meatiness to captivate the consumers' tastes. Read More

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TIRADS, SRE and SWE in INDETERMINATE thyroid nodule characterization: Which has better diagnostic performance?

Radiol Med 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Radiological, Oncological, and Pathological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: To assess Strain Ratio (SRE) and Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) accuracy alone and with TIRADS classification, for the risk stratification of indeterminate thyroid nodules.

Materials And Methods: 128 Patients with 128 indeterminate nodules candidates for thyroidectomy underwent preoperative staging neck ultrasound and were classified according to K-TIRADS score. After TIRADS evaluation, semi-quantitative (SRE) and quantitative (SWE expressed in kPa) elastosonography were performed and relative diagnostic performances, alone and in combination, were compared through ROC curves analysis. Read More

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Feasibility and accuracy of printed models of complex cardiac defects in small infants from cardiac computed tomography.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Pediatric and Congenital Cardiology, Children's Hospital, CHU Toulouse, 330 avenue de Grande Bretagne, TSA 70034, 31059, Toulouse Cedex 9, France.

Background: Three-dimensional (3-D) printed models are increasingly used to enhance understanding of complex anatomy in congenital heart disease.

Objective: To assess feasibility and accuracy of 3-D printed models obtained from cardiac CT scans in young children with complex congenital heart diseases.

Materials And Methods: We included children with conotruncal heart anomalies who were younger than 2 years and had a cardiac CT scan in the course of their follow-up. Read More

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ginal Article Unintended Consequences of Expanding Electronic Pathology Reporting: The Inverse Relationship Between Data Completeness and Data Quality.

J Registry Manag 2020 ;47(3):122-126

Background: In 2016, the New Jersey State Cancer Registry (NJSCR) began expanding electronic laboratory reporting. As a result, the number of electronic pathology reports (EPRs) submitted to NJSCR increased markedly from 2015 to 2017. EPRs are more likely to contain incomplete or missing race than North American Association of Central Cancer Registry (NAACCR) abstracts from hospitals and physician offices. Read More

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Multicenter analysis and a rapid screening model to predict early novel coronavirus pneumonia using a random forest algorithm.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26279

Department of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou 310014.

Abstract: Early determination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia from numerous suspected cases is critical for the early isolation and treatment of patients.The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a rapid screening model to predict early COVID-19 pneumonia from suspected cases using a random forest algorithm in China.A total of 914 initially suspected COVID-19 pneumonia in multiple centers were prospectively included. Read More

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Bioinformatics analysis of the key potential ceRNA biomarkers in human thymic epithelial tumors.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26271

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang.

Background: Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs), originating from the thymic epithelial cells, are the most common primary neoplasms of the anterior mediastinum. Emerging evidence demonstrated that the competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) exerted a crucial effect on tumor development. Hence, it is urgent to understand the regulatory mechanism of ceRNAs in TETs and its impact on tumor prognosis. Read More

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Adaptation of the World Health Organization Electronic Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide App for Mobile Devices in Nepal and Nigeria: Protocol for a Feasibility Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Jun 15;10(6):e24115. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Centre for Global Mental Health, Health Service and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychology, Psychiatry & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: There is a growing global need for scalable approaches to training and supervising primary care workers (PCWs) to deliver mental health services. Over the past decade, the World Health Organization Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG) and associated training and implementation guidance have been disseminated to more than 100 countries. On the basis of the opportunities provided by mobile technology, an updated electronic Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide (e-mhGAP-IG) is now being developed along with a clinical dashboard and guidance for the use of mobile technology in supervision. Read More

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Constructing High-Fidelity Phenotype Knowledge Graphs for Infectious Diseases With a Fine-Grained Semantic Information Model: Development and Usability Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jun 15;23(6):e26892. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Suzhou Institute of Systems Medicine, Suzhou, China.

Background: Phenotypes characterize the clinical manifestations of diseases and provide important information for diagnosis. Therefore, the construction of phenotype knowledge graphs for diseases is valuable to the development of artificial intelligence in medicine. However, phenotype knowledge graphs in current knowledge bases such as WikiData and DBpedia are coarse-grained knowledge graphs because they only consider the core concepts of phenotypes while neglecting the details (attributes) associated with these phenotypes. Read More

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Characteristics of Effective Auditory Training: Implications From Two Training Programs That Successfully Trained Nonnative Cantonese Tone Identification in Monolingual Mandarin and Bilingual Mandarin-Taiwanese Tone Speakers.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2021 Jun 15:1-23. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam.

Purpose Auditory training is important in pedagogical and clinical settings. In search of a more effective perceptual program for training new suprasegmental categories, this study examined the effect of two auditory programs that incorporated five elements that have previously been identified to be effective for training nonnative segmental and suprasegmental speech sounds on the identification of a complex foreign lexical tone system (Cantonese) that contrasts both pitch shapes and pitch heights. To investigate the training outcomes in learners with different tonal systems, monolingual Mandarin-speaking learners who have a smaller native tonal system that contrasts pitch shapes only and bilingual Mandarin-Taiwanese-speaking learners who have a larger native tonal system that contrasts both pitch shapes and pitch heights were recruited for training. Read More

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Predicting Antimicrobial Resistance Using Partial Genome Alignments.

mSystems 2021 Jun 15:e0018521. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Consortium for Advanced Science and Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an important global health threat that impacts millions of people worldwide each year. Developing methods that can detect and predict AMR phenotypes can help to mitigate the spread of AMR by informing clinical decision making and appropriate mitigation strategies. Many bioinformatic methods have been developed for predicting AMR phenotypes from whole-genome sequences and AMR genes, but recent studies have indicated that predictions can be made from incomplete genome sequence data. Read More

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A novel method for the noninvasive estimation of cardiac output with brachial oscillometric blood pressure measurements through an assessment of arterial compliance.

Blood Press Monit 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Centro Clínico y de Investigación SICOR (Soluciones Integrales en Riesgo Cardiovascular) Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia Cellular and Molecular Biology Unit, Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas, Medellín, Colombia.

Objective: To propose and validate a new method for estimating cardiac output based on the total arterial compliance (Ct) formula that does not need an arterial waveform and to apply it to brachial oscillometric blood pressure measurements (OBPMs).

Methods: One hundred subjects with normal heart anatomy and function were included. Reference values for cardiac output were measured with echocardiography, and Ct was calculated with a two-element Windkessel model. Read More

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Can robotic technology mitigate the learning curve of total hip arthroplasty?

Bone Jt Open 2021 Jun;2(6):365-370

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

Aims: Traditionally, acetabular component insertion during total hip arthroplasty (THA) is visually assisted in the posterior approach and fluoroscopically assisted in the anterior approach. The present study examined the accuracy of a new surgeon during anterior (NSA) and posterior (NSP) THA using robotic arm-assisted technology compared to two experienced surgeons using traditional methods.

Methods: Prospectively collected data was reviewed for 120 patients at two institutions. Read More

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3D brain glioma segmentation in MRI through integrating multiple densely connected 2D convolutional neural networks.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2021 Jun;22(6):462-475

School of Medical Instrument and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China.

To overcome the computational burden of processing three-dimensional (3D) medical scans and the lack of spatial information in two-dimensional (2D) medical scans, a novel segmentation method was proposed that integrates the segmentation results of three densely connected 2D convolutional neural networks (2D-CNNs). In order to combine the low-level features and high-level features, we added densely connected blocks in the network structure design so that the low-level features will not be missed as the network layer increases during the learning process. Further, in order to resolve the problems of the blurred boundary of the glioma edema area, we superimposed and fused the T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) modal image and the T2-weighted (T2) modal image to enhance the edema section. Read More

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A novel nomogram with preferable capability in predicting the overall survival of patients after radical esophageal cancer resection based on accessible clinical indicators: A comparison with AJCC staging.

Cancer Med 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Esophageal cancer (EC) is a malignant tumor with high mortality. Nomogram is an important tool used in clinical prognostic assessment. We aimed to establish a novel nomogram to predict the overall survival (OS) of EC patients after radical esophagectomy. Read More

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