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"One-stitch" bioorthogonal prodrug activation based on cross-linked lipoic acid nanocapsules.

Biomaterials 2021 Apr 17;273:120823. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

College of Chemistry and National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, 29 Wangjiang Road, Chengdu, 610064, China. Electronic address:

Bioorthogonal prodrug activation is fascinating but suffers from staggered administration of prodrug and trigger, which would not only reduce the therapeutic effect but bring great inconvenience for clinical application. Herein, we report a new cross-linked lipoic acid nanocapsules (cLANCs) based two-component bioorthogonal nanosystem for "one-stitch" prodrug activation. Due to the reversible stability of cLANCs, the loaded prodrug and trigger cannot release in advance while can react upon arrival in the tumor tissue. Read More

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Correlation networks of air particulate matter ( ): a comparative study.

Appl Netw Sci 2021 23;6(1):32. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Energy Technologies Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.

Over the last decades, severe haze pollution constitutes a major source of far-reaching environmental and human health problems. The formation, accumulation and diffusion of pollution particles occurs under complex temporal scales and expands throughout a wide spatial coverage. Seeking to understand the transport patterns of haze pollutants in China, we review a proposed framework of time-evolving directed and weighted air quality correlation networks. Read More

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Unveiling the Necrocapitalist Dimensions of the Shadow Carceral State: On Pay-to-Stay to Recoup the Cost of Incarceration.

J Contemp Crim Justice 2021 Feb 21;37(1):66-87. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

The expansion of monetary sanctions constitutes what Beckett and Murakawa describe as the "shadow carceral state," where covert penal power is expanded through institutional annexation by blending civil, administrative, and criminal legal authority. A growing body of work on monetary sanctions has begun to dissect covert penal power by tracing increased civil and administrative pipelines to incarceration, civil financial alternatives to criminal sanctions, and innovations to generate criminal justice revenue. However, institutional annexation and innovation in the form of contemporary pay-to-stay practices remain understudied and undertheorized. Read More

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February 2021

Fish tissues for biomonitoring toxic and essential trace elements in the Lower Amazon.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 26;283:117024. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Animal Pathology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Santiago de Compostela, 27002, Lugo, Spain.

Brazilian soils can have high concentrations of toxic elements, mainly mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As), metals also associated with anthropogenic activities (e.g. intensive agriculture, mining, deforestation and hydroelectric plants). Read More

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Characterization of monomeric and soluble aggregated Aβ in Down's syndrome and Alzheimer's disease brains.

Neurosci Lett 2021 May 10;754:135894. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden.

The major characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are amyloid plaques, consisting of aggregated beta amyloid (Aβ) peptides, together with tau pathology (tangles, neuropil treads and dystrophic neurites surrounding the plaques), in the brain. Down's syndrome (DS) individuals are at increased risk to develop AD-type pathology; most DS individuals have developed substantial pathology already at the age of 40. DS individuals have an extra copy of chromosome 21, harbouring the amyloid precursor protein gene (APP). Read More

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Raman Spectroscopy of Marine Microplastics - A short comprehensive compendium for the environmental scientists.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Mar 26;168:105313. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry, Laboratory of Spectroscopy and Intermolecular Interactions, Pasteura 1, 02-093, Warsaw, Poland; University of Warsaw Biological and Chemical Research Centre, Żwirki I Wigury 101 st., 02-089, Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:

The aim of this paper is to present a short practical introduction to Raman spectroscopy for all non-specialist in chemistry and physics who are working with (marine) microplastics and nanoplastics. The continually growing polymer presence in the global ocean system constitutes a crucial interdisciplinary issue. To adequately address the problem of microplastics impact on the marine environment, its ecotoxicity, fate, sources, accumulation and weathering, one should characterise the debris found. Read More

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Quantification Approaches for Fatigue Crack Resistance of Thermoplastic Tape Layered Composites with Multiple Delaminations.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 17;14(6). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Institute of Materials Science and Testing of Polymers, Montanuniversität Leoben, Otto Glöckel-Straße 2/II, 8700 Leoben, Austria.

Automated tape placement with in-situ consolidation (ATPisc) is a layer-wise manufacturing process in which the achievement of proper interlayer bonding constitutes one of the most challenging aspects. In the present study, unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic laminates were produced following different manufacturing protocols using ATPisc. The interlayer bonding of the laminates produced was characterized by mode I fatigue fracture tests with double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens. Read More

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Hot and Cold Tumors: Is Endoglin (CD105) a Potential Target for Vessel Normalization?

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 28;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Renal and Cardiovascular Research Unit, Group of Physiopathology of the Vascular Endothelium (ENDOVAS), Biomedical Research Institute of Salamanca (IBSAL), Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain.

Tumors are complex masses formed by malignant but also by normal cells. The interaction between these cells via cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and enzymes that remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM) constitutes the tumor microenvironment (TME). This TME can be determinant in the prognosis and the response to some treatments such as immunotherapy. Read More

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NELF-A controls Drosophila healthspan by regulating heat-shock protein-mediated cellular protection and heterochromatin maintenance.

Aging Cell 2021 Mar 31:e13348. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

NELF-mediated pausing of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) constitutes a crucial step in transcription regulation. However, it remains unclear how control release of RNAPII pausing can affect the epigenome and regulate important aspects of animal physiology like aging. We found that NELF-A dosage regulates Drosophila healthspan: Halving NELF-A level in the heterozygous mutants or via neuronal-specific RNAi depletion improves their locomotor activity, stress resistance, and lifespan significantly. Read More

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Comparative proteome analysis of Actinoplanes utahensis grown on various saccharides based on 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS.

J Proteomics 2021 May 20;239:104193. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Synthesis of Zhejiang Province, College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, PR China; Engineering Research Center of Bioconversion and Biopurification of the Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310014, PR China; The National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Biomanufacturing of Chiral Chemicals, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, PR China.

Comparative proteomes of Actinoplanes utahensis ZJB-03852 grown on various saccharides (glucose, maltotriose, maltose, glucose + maltose) were analyzed using 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Acarbose was detected in all groups except in the glucose only culture. The abundance of acarbose synthesis proteins AcbV, AcbK, AcbL and AcbN was highest in the medium containing mixed glucose and maltose. Read More

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Mitochondria-targeting graphene oxide nanocomposites for fluorescence imaging-guided synergistic phototherapy of drug-resistant osteosarcoma.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Mar 19;19(1):79. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Orthopedics, Chongqing General Hospital, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, 400014, China.

Background: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor occurring in children and young adults. Drug-resistant osteosarcoma often results in chemotherapy failure. Therefore, new treatments aimed at novel therapeutic targets are urgently needed for the treatment of drug-resistant osteosarcoma. Read More

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The impact of regulation changes in the spontaneous reporting system for vaccines on reporting trends and signal detection in Japan.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacy, Tohoku University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sendai, Japan.

Purpose: Spontaneous reporting constitutes one of the most fundamental and important systems for pharmacovigilance. In Japan, important regulation changes in the vaccine spontaneous reporting were implemented between 2009 and 2013; however, no studies had yet assessed the impact of the changes. The objective of this study was to assess the impact on the reporting trends in vaccine reports and on signal detection for vaccines. Read More

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Iron and copper micronutrients influences cadmium accumulation in rice grains by altering its transport and allocation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 2;777:146118. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

School of Environment and Resource, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan 621010, China.

Cadmium (Cd) contamination in rice paddy fields constitutes a serious health issue in some parts of China. Here we study the potential for remediation of Cd contaminated alkaline paddy soil with low iron (Fe) and high copper (Cu) background by altering the concentrations of Fe and Cu in the growing media, which has been only seldom considered. We assessed how these two micronutrients (Cu and Fe) affect the absorption and transport of Cd in rice. Read More

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Brain ACE2 activation following brain aminopeptidase A blockade by firibastat in salt-dependent hypertension.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2021 Mar;135(6):775-791

Laboratory of Central Neuropeptides in the Regulation of Body Fluid Homeostasis and Cardiovascular Functions, INSERM U1050, Paris F-75231 France.

In the brain, aminopeptidase A (APA), a membrane-bound zinc metalloprotease, generates angiotensin III from angiotensin II. Brain angiotensin III exerts a tonic stimulatory effect on the control of blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive rats and increases vasopressin release. Blocking brain angiotensin III formation by the APA inhibitor prodrug RB150/firibastat normalizes arterial BP in hypertensive deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt rats without inducing angiotensin II accumulation. Read More

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Dysregulation of GSK3β-Target Proteins in Skin Fibroblasts of Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 (DM1) Patients.

J Neuromuscul Dis 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Neuropediatrics, University Hospital Essen, Duisburg-Essen University, Germany.

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common monogenetic muscular disorder of adulthood. This multisystemic disease is caused by CTG repeat expansion in the 3'-untranslated region of the DM1 protein kinase gene called DMPK. DMPK encodes a myosin kinase expressed in skeletal muscle cells and other cellular populations such as smooth muscle cells, neurons and fibroblasts. Read More

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Therapeutic Targeting of Fumaryl Acetoacetate Hydrolase in Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type I.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 11;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Precision Medicine and Metabolism Laboratory, CIC bioGUNE, Bizkaia Technology Park, Bld. 800, Derio, 48160 Bizkaia, Spain.

Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) is the fifth enzyme in the tyrosine catabolism pathway. A deficiency in human FAH leads to hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1), an autosomal recessive disorder that results in the accumulation of toxic metabolites such as succinylacetone, maleylacetoacetate, and fumarylacetoacetate in the liver and kidney, among other tissues. The disease is severe and, when untreated, it can lead to death. Read More

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February 2021

How predictive learning influences choice: Evidence for a GPCR-based memory process necessary for Pavlovian-instrumental transfer.

J Neurochem 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Decision Neuroscience Laboratory, School of Psychology, UNSW SYDNEY, Randwick, NSW, Australia.

Predictive learning endows stimuli with the capacity to signal both the sensory-specific and general motivational properties of their associated rewards or outcomes. These two signals can be distinguished behaviorally by their influence on the selection and performance of instrumental actions, respectively. This review focuses on how sensory-specific predictive learning guides choice between actions that earn otherwise equally desirable outcomes. Read More

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Optimizing the CRISPR/Cas9 system for genome editing in grape by using grape promoters.

Hortic Res 2021 Mar 1;8(1):52. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Grape Science and Enology, and CAS Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, The Innovative Academy of Seed Design, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100093, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

The efficacy of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has been documented, but the optimization of this system, as well as CRISPR/Cas9-mediated multiplex genome editing, has not been explored in this species. Herein, we identified four VvU3 and VvU6 promoters and two ubiquitin (UBQ) promoters in grapevine and demonstrated that the use of the identified VvU3/U6 and UBQ2 promoters could significantly increase the editing efficiency in grape by improving the expression of sgRNA and Cas9, respectively. Read More

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Acute and cumulative effects of scheduling on aircrew fatigue in ultra-short-haul operations.

J Sleep Res 2021 Feb 25:e13305. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.

Aircrew fatigue constitutes a safety hazard in aviation, which authorities attempt to mitigate through flight time limitations. Some gaps in knowledge exist, however. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations of schedule characteristics with fatigue and amount of sleep in the acute 24-h window, and as cumulative effects across the 7-day work period. Read More

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February 2021

Effect of bile acids on the expression of MRP3 and MRP4: An In vitro study in HepG2 cell line.

Ann Hepatol 2021 Feb 11;24:100325. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Departamento de Infectómica y Patogénesis Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México City, Mexico. Electronic address:

Introduction And Objectives: Free and conjugated bile acids (BA's) cannot cross cell membranes; therefore, a particular transport system is required by the cell. Members of the family of ABC (ATP-binding proteins) transporters transfer bile acids in and out of the cell, preventing their accumulation. High intracellular concentrations of bile acids, such as those observed in cholestasis, have been related to oxidative stress and apoptosis, which in many cases are the leading causes of hepatocyte damage. Read More

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February 2021

Involvement of Polyamine Metabolism in the Response of Genotypes to Salt Stress.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jan 30;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology Limassol, Limassol 3036, Cyprus.

Salinity constitutes one of the most important causes leading to severe reduction in plant yield. Several reports correlate the accumulation of polyamines in plants with tolerance to abiotic stress cues. The present study examined three genotypes with differing sensitivities to salinity (TN1. Read More

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January 2021

A unified theory for organic matter accumulation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Feb;118(6)

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089.

Organic matter constitutes a key reservoir in global elemental cycles. However, our understanding of the dynamics of organic matter and its accumulation remains incomplete. Seemingly disparate hypotheses have been proposed to explain organic matter accumulation: the slow degradation of intrinsically recalcitrant substrates, the depletion to concentrations that inhibit microbial consumption, and a dependency on the consumption capabilities of nearby microbial populations. Read More

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February 2021

Mercury-Tolerant Strains Display High Mercuric Reductase Activity and a Protective Effect on Nitrogen Fixation in Nodules Under Mercury Stress.

Front Plant Sci 2020 14;11:560768. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Soil, Plant and Environmental Quality, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ICA-CSIC, Madrid, Spain.

Mercury (Hg) is extremely toxic for all living organisms. Hg-tolerant symbiotic rhizobia have the potential to increase legume tolerance, and to our knowledge, the mechanisms underlying Hg tolerance in rhizobia have not been investigated to date. Rhizobial strains of , bv. Read More

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January 2021

Antibody-activated trans-endothelial delivery of mesoporous organosilica nanomedicine augments tumor extravasation and anti-cancer immunotherapy.

Bioact Mater 2021 Jul 14;6(7):2158-2172. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200127, China.

Tumor vasculature constitutes a formidable hurdle for the efficient delivery of cancer nanomedicine into tumors. The leverage of passive pathway through inter-endothelial gaps in tumor blood vessels might account for limited extravasation of nanomedicine into tumor microenvironment (TME). Herein, Annexin A1 antibody-installed mesoporous organosilica nanoplatforms carrying immunotherapeutics of anti-PD-L1 antibody (aPD-L1) and Indoximod are developed to target at caveolar Annexin-A1 protein of luminal endothelial cells and to trigger the active -endothelial transcytosis of nanomedicine mediated by caveolae. Read More

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Genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout library screening identified PTPMT1 in cardiolipin synthesis is crucial to survival in hypoxia in liver cancer.

Cell Rep 2021 Jan;34(4):108676

Department of Pathology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; State Key Laboratory of Liver Research, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Hypoxia, low oxygen (O), is a key feature of all solid cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout library screening is used to identify reliable therapeutic targets responsible for hypoxic survival in HCC. We find that protein-tyrosine phosphatase mitochondrial 1 (PTPMT1), an important enzyme for cardiolipin (CL) synthesis, is the most significant gene and ranks just after hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-1β as crucial to hypoxic survival. Read More

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January 2021

Human endeavor for anti-SARS-CoV-2 pharmacotherapy: A major strategy to fight the pandemic.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 13;137:111232. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Axe Molecular Endocrinology and Nephrology, CHU Research Center and Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, G1V 4G2, Canada. Electronic address:

The global spread of COVID-19 constitutes the most dangerous pandemic to emerge during the last one hundred years. About seventy-nine million infections and more than 1.7 million death have been reported to date, along with destruction of the global economy. Read More

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Tafamidis: A Review in Transthyretin Amyloid Cardiomyopathy.

Authors:
Yvette N Lamb

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2021 Jan 20;21(1):113-121. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Springer Nature, Private Bag 65901, Mairangi Bay, Auckland, 0754, New Zealand.

Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) is a progressive, life-threatening disease characterized by the aggregation and deposition of amyloidogenic misfolded transthyretin (TTR) in the myocardium. The gradual accumulation of insoluble TTR amyloid fibrils can result in restrictive cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Tafamidis (Vyndaqel; Vyndamax), a TTR stabilizer, has been approved for use in the treatment of adults with ATTR-CM in several countries. Read More

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January 2021

Erythrocytes as a preferential target of oxidative stress in blood.

Free Radic Res 2021 Jan 17:1-19. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

ICMR - National Institute of Immunohaematology, Mumbai, India.

Red blood cells (RBC) are specifically differentiated to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood and they lack most organelles, including mitochondria. The autoxidation of hemoglobin constitutes a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nitric oxide, which is produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) or via the hemoglobin-mediated conversion of nitrite, interacts with ROS and results in the production of reactive nitrogen oxide species. Read More

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January 2021

Role of the α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor in the Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis.

Front Physiol 2020 23;11:621769. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biological Sciences (ICB), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Atherosclerosis constitutes a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This slowly progressing, chronic inflammatory disorder of large- and medium-sized arteries involves complex recruitment of immune cells, lipid accumulation, and vascular structural remodeling. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is expressed in several cell types involved in the genesis and progression of atherosclerosis, including macrophages, dendritic cells, T and B cells, vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Read More

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December 2020

The effect of air pollution on immunological, antioxidative and hematological parameters, and body condition of Eurasian tree sparrows.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 8;208:111755. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Hebei Province, College of Life Sciences, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, China. Electronic address:

Air pollution constitutes potential threats to wildlife and human health; therefore, it must be monitored accurately. However, little attention has been given to understanding the toxicological effects induced by air pollution and the suitability of bird species as bioindicators. The Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus), a human commensal species, was used as a study model to examine toxic metal accumulation, retention of particulate matter (PM), immunological and antioxidant capacities, and hematological parameters in birds inhabiting those areas with relatively higher (Shijiazhuang city) or lower (Chengde city) levels of PM and PM in China. Read More

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January 2021