4,850 results match your criteria accompanied glial


Fasudil enhances the phagocytosis of myelin debris and the expression of neurotrophic factors in cuprizone-induced demyelinating mice.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Apr 7:135880. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurology, Bethune Hospital Affiliated to Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, 030032, China; The Key Research Laboratory of Benefiting Qi for Acting Blood Circulation Method to Treat Multiple Sclerosis of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Research Center of Neurobiology, Shanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Taiyuan, 030024, China; Institute of Brain Science, Shanxi Key Laboratory of Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Diseases, Medical School of Shanxi Datong University, Datong, 037009, China. Electronic address:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is mainly associated with the neuroinflammation and demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS), in which the failure of remyelination results in persistent neurological dysfunction. Fasudil, a typical Rho kinase inhibitor, has been exhibited beneficial effects on several models of neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we showed that Fasudil promoted the uptake of myelin debris by microglia via cell experiments and through a cuprizone (CPZ)-induced demyelinating model. Read More

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The CD200R1 microglial inhibitory receptor as a therapeutic target in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Apr 6;18(1):88. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Cerebral Ischemia and Neurodegeneration, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques de Barcelona-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August-Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.

Background: It is suggested that neuroinflammation, in which activated microglial cells play a relevant role, contributes to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Consequently, the modulation of microglial activation is a potential therapeutic target to be taken into account to act against the dopaminergic neurodegeneration occurring in this neurological disorder. Several soluble and membrane-associated inhibitory mechanisms contribute to maintaining microglial cells in a quiescent/surveillant phenotype in physiological conditions. Read More

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Disease-modifying treatment with I2 imidazoline receptor ligand LSL60101 in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model: A Comparative study with donepezil.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Pharmacology Section. Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, and Institut de Neurociències, University of Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, 27-31, E-08028, Barcelona, Spain.

Background And Purpose: The development of effective therapeutic strategies against Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a challenge. I2 Imidazoline receptors (I2-IR) ligands have a neuroprotective role in AD. Moreover, co-treatment of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with neuroprotective agents has shown better effects on the prevention of dementia. Read More

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Unique metabolic phenotype and its transition during maturation of juvenile male germ cells.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21513

Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Human male reproductive development has a prolonged prepubertal period characterized by juvenile quiescence of germ cells with immature spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) precursors (gonocytes) present in the testis for an extended period of time. The metabolism of gonocytes is not defined. We demonstrate with mitochondrial ultrastructure studies via TEM and IHC and metabolic flux studies with UHPLC-MS that a distinct metabolic transition occurs during the maturation to SSCs. Read More

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Glial Cells in Glaucoma: Friends, Foes, and Potential Therapeutic Targets.

Front Neurol 2021 16;12:624983. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, affecting ~80 million people by 2020 (1, 2). The condition is characterized by a progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons accompanied by visual field loss. The underlying pathophysiology of glaucoma remains elusive. Read More

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Viscoelastic properties of white and gray matter-derived microglia differentiate upon treatment with lipopolysaccharide but not upon treatment with myelin.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Mar 29;18(1):83. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Anatomy & Neurosciences, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1108, 1081, HZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The biomechanical properties of the brain have increasingly been shown to relate to brain pathology in neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Inflammation and demyelination in MS induce significant changes in brain stiffness which can be linked to the relative abundance of glial cells in lesions. We hypothesize that the biomechanical, in addition to biochemical, properties of white (WM) and gray matter (GM)-derived microglia may contribute to the differential microglial phenotypes as seen in MS WM and GM lesions. Read More

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SGTA associates with intracellular aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases.

Mol Brain 2021 03 23;14(1):59. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Neurology and Stroke Medicine, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan.

Intracellular aggregates are a common pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases such as polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Aggregates are mainly formed by aberrant disease-specific proteins and are accompanied by accumulation of other aggregate-interacting proteins. Although aggregate-interacting proteins have been considered to modulate the formation of aggregates and to be involved in molecular mechanisms of disease progression, the components of aggregate-interacting proteins remain unknown. Read More

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GFAP hyperpalmitoylation exacerbates astrogliosis and neurodegenerative pathology in PPT1-deficient mice.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(13)

Institute of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Xinxiang Medical University, 453000 Xinxiang, China;

The homeostasis of protein palmitoylation and depalmitoylation is essential for proper physiological functions in various tissues, in particular the central nervous system (CNS). The dysfunction of PPT1 (PPT1-KI, infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis [INCL] mouse model), which catalyze the depalmitoylation process, results in serious neurodegeneration accompanied by severe astrogliosis in the brain. Endeavoring to determine critical factors that might account for the pathogenesis in CNS by palm-proteomics, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was spotted, indicating that GFAP is probably palmitoylated. Read More

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AAV2-mediated and hypoxia response element-directed expression of bFGF in neural stem cells showed therapeutic effects on spinal cord injury in rats.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Mar 15;12(3):274. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, 6009, Australia.

Neural stem cell (NSCs) transplantation has been one of the hot topics in the repair of spinal cord injury (SCI). Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is considered a promising nerve injury therapy after SCI. However, owing to a hostile hypoxia condition in SCI, there remains a challenging issue in implementing these tactics to repair SCI. Read More

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Staging of astrocytopathy and complement activation in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

Brain 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Neurology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, 980-8574, Japan.

Aquaporin 4 (AQP4)-IgG-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (AQP4-IgG+NMOSD) is an autoimmune astrocytopathic disease pathologically characterized by the massive destruction and regeneration of astrocytes with diverse types of tissue injury with or without complement deposition. However, it is unknown whether this diversity is derived from differences in pathological processes or temporal changes. Furthermore, unlike for the demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis, there has been no staging of astrocytopathy in AQP4-IgG+NMOSD based on astrocyte morphology. Read More

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Carbonic Anhydrase XII is a Clinically Significant, Molecular Tumor-Subtype Specific Therapeutic Target in Glioma with the Potential to Combat Invasion of Brain Tumor Cells.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 4;14:1707-1718. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Molecular Neuropathology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: The metabolic enzyme carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12/CAXII) emerges as a promising cancer therapeutic target with drug development projects underway. Previous reports proposed the relevance of CA12 in the context of glioma but are limited in patient data quantity, ignore ethnic diversity of patients or rely on semi-quantitative, thereby out of date, methodology. Moreover, little is known on the association of CA12 to brain tumor stemness or on the effect of anti-CAXII-directed monotherapies on glioma stem cells (GSCs), in particular their response regarding mesenchymal differentiation status. Read More

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Multiple Disruptions of Glial-Neuronal Networks in Epileptogenesis That Follows Prolonged Febrile Seizures.

Front Neurol 2021 18;12:615802. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Departments of Anatomy/Neurobiology, Pediatrics, and Neurology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States.

Bi-directional neuronal-glial communication is a critical mediator of normal brain function and is disrupted in the epileptic brain. The potential role of aberrant microglia and astrocyte function during epileptogenesis is important because the mediators involved provide tangible targets for intervention and prevention of epilepsy. Glial activation is intrinsically involved in the generation of childhood febrile seizures (FS), and prolonged FS (febrile status epilepticus, FSE) antecede a proportion of adult temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Read More

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February 2021

Critical Molecular and Cellular Contributors to Tau Pathology.

Biomedicines 2021 Feb 14;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

Tauopathies represent a group of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD) that are characterized by the deposition of filamentous tau aggregates in the brain. The pathogenesis of tauopathies starts from the formation of toxic 'tau seeds' from hyperphosphorylated tau monomers. The presence of specific phosphorylation sites and heat shock protein 90 facilitates soluble tau protein aggregation. Read More

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February 2021

Lysophosphatidic Acid Induces Aerobic Glycolysis, Lipogenesis, and Increased Amino Acid Uptake in BV-2 Microglia.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 17;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Division of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Gottfried Schatz Research Center, Medical University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria.

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) species are a family of bioactive lipids that transmit signals via six cognate G protein-coupled receptors, which are required for brain development and function of the nervous system. LPA affects the function of all cell types in the brain and can display beneficial or detrimental effects on microglia function. During earlier studies we reported that LPA treatment of microglia induces polarization towards a neurotoxic phenotype. Read More

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February 2021

Long-Term Effects of Hippocampal Low-Frequency Stimulation on Pro-Inflammatory Factors and Astrocytes Activity in Kindled Rats.

Cell J 2021 Apr 1;23(1):85-92. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (SBMU), Tehran, Iran. Email:

Objective: Epilepsy is accompanied by inflammation, and the anti-inflammatory agents may have anti-seizure effects. In this investigation, the effect of deep brain stimulation, as a potential therapeutic approach in epileptic patients, was investigated on seizure-induced inflammatory factors.

Materials And Methods: In the present experimental study, rats were kindled by chronic administration of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; 34 mg/Kg). Read More

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Overexpression of DSPP promotes the proliferation and migration of astrocytes.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Feb 26:135775. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Astrocytes are activated after central nervous system (CNS) injury, such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Activated astrocytes can form glial scar to block nerve regeneration. Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), a member of the SIBLING (Small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins) family, has been reported to contribute to the proliferation and migration of different types of tumor cells, including glioma. Read More

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February 2021

[Analysis of phosphatidylcholines alterations in human glioblastoma multiform tissues ex vivo].

Biomed Khim 2021 Jan;67(1):81-87

Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (National Research University), Moscow, Russia.

Significant metabolism alteration is accompanying the cell malignization process. Energy metabolism disturbance leads to the activation of de novo synthesis and beta-oxidation processes of lipids and fatty acids in a cancer cell, which becomes an indicator of pathological processes inside the cell. The majority of studies dealing with lipid metabolism alterations in glial tumors are performed using the cell lines in vitro or animal models. Read More

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January 2021

Tissue plasminogen activator worsens experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by complementary actions on lymphoid and myeloid cell responses.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Feb 20;18(1):52. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

UNICAEN, INSERM, GIP Cyceron, Institut Blood and Brain @Caen-Normandie (BB@C), UMR-S U1237, Physiopathology and Imaging of Neurological Disorders (PhIND), Normandie Univ, Caen, France.

Background: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease involved in fibrinolysis. It is released by endothelial cells, but also expressed by neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Interestingly, this enzyme also contributes to pathological processes in the CNS such as neuroinflammation by activating microglia and increasing blood-brain barrier permeability. Read More

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February 2021

Acute treatment with TrkB agonist LM22A-4 confers neuroprotection and preserves myelin integrity in a mouse model of pediatric traumatic brain injury.

Exp Neurol 2021 May 18;339:113652. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Neuroscience, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Department of Medicine (Royal Melbourne Hospital), The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Young children have a high risk of sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI), which can have debilitating life-long consequences. Importantly, the young brain shows particular vulnerability to injury, likely attributed to ongoing maturation of the myelinating nervous system at the time of insult. Here, we examined the effect of acute treatment with the partial tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) agonist, LM22A-4, on pathological and neurobehavioral outcomes after pediatric TBI, with the hypothesis that targeting TrkB would minimize tissue damage and support functional recovery. Read More

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Role of Liver Growth Factor (LGF) in Parkinson's Disease: Molecular Insights and Therapeutic Opportunities.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder with unclear etiology and only symptomatic treatment to date. Toward the development of novel disease-modifying agents, neurotrophic factors represent a reasonable and promising therapeutic approach. However, despite the robust preclinical evidence, clinical trials using glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin have been unsuccessful. Read More

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February 2021

Pharmacological but not physiological GDF15 suppresses feeding and the motivation to exercise.

Nat Commun 2021 02 15;12(1):1041. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Growing evidence supports that pharmacological application of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) suppresses appetite but also promotes sickness-like behaviors in rodents via GDNF family receptor α-like (GFRAL)-dependent mechanisms. Conversely, the endogenous regulation of GDF15 and its physiological effects on energy homeostasis and behavior remain elusive. Here we show, in four independent human studies that prolonged endurance exercise increases circulating GDF15 to levels otherwise only observed in pathophysiological conditions. Read More

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February 2021

Olanzapine-Induced Activation of Hypothalamic Astrocytes and Toll-Like Receptor-4 Signaling via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Were Related to Olanzapine-Induced Weight Gain.

Front Neurosci 2020 13;14:589650. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China.

The antipsychotic drug olanzapine is associated with serious obesity side effects. Hypothalamic astrocytes and associated toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) signaling play an essential role in obesity pathogenesis. This study investigated the effect of olanzapine on astrocytes and TLR4 signaling both and in the rat hypothalamus and their potential role in olanzapine-induced weight gain. Read More

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January 2021

Early Adolescence Prefrontal Cortex Alterations in Female Rats Lacking Dopamine Transporter.

Biomedicines 2021 Feb 5;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Neurology and Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

Monoamine dysfunctions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) can contribute to diverse neuropsychiatric disorders, including ADHD, bipolar disorder, PTSD and depression. Disrupted dopamine (DA) homeostasis, and more specifically dopamine transporter (DAT) alterations, have been reported in a variety of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent studies using female adult rats heterozygous (DAT+/-) and homozygous (DAT-/-) for DAT gene, showed the utility of those rats in the study of PTSD and ADHD. Read More

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February 2021

Serglycin activates pro-tumorigenic signaling and controls glioblastoma cell stemness, differentiation and invasive potential.

Matrix Biol Plus 2020 May 11;6-7:100033. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Biochemistry, Biochemical Analysis & Matrix Pathobiology Research Group, Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Greece.

Despite the functional role of serglycin as an intracellular proteoglycan, a variety of malignant cells depends on its expression and constitutive secretion to advance their aggressive behavior. Serglycin arose to be a biomarker for glioblastoma, which is the deadliest and most treatment-resistant form of brain tumor, but its role in this disease is not fully elucidated. In our study we suppressed the endogenous levels of serglycin in LN-18 glioblastoma cells to decipher its involvement in their malignant phenotype. Read More

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Dorsal-Ventral Differences in Retinal Structure in the Pigmented Royal College of Surgeons Model of Retinal Degeneration.

Front Cell Neurosci 2020 18;14:553708. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Retinitis pigmentosa is a family of inherited retinal degenerations associated with gradual loss of photoreceptors, that ultimately leads to irreversible vision loss. The Royal College of Surgeon's (RCS) rat carries a recessive mutation affecting mer proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase (merTK), that models autosomal recessive disease. The aim of this study was to understand the glial, microglial, and photoreceptor changes that occur in different retinal locations with advancing disease. Read More

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January 2021

Apocynin ameliorates NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) induced oxidative damage in the hypoxic human retinal Müller cells and diabetic rat retina.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Jan 30. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

NADPH oxidase (NOX) is a main producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may contribute to the early pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). ROS has harmful effects on endogenous neuro-survival factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) are necessary for the growth and survival of the retina. The role of NOX isoforms NOX4 in triggering ROS in DR is not clear. Read More

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January 2021

Sonic Hedgehog receptor Patched deficiency in astrocytes enhances glucose metabolism in mice.

Mol Metab 2021 Jan 26;47:101172. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

CNRS, Paris-Saclay University, UMR-9197, Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute, F-91198, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Electronic address:

Objective: Astrocytes are glial cells proposed as the main Sonic hedgehog (Shh)-responsive cells in the adult brain. Their roles in mediating Shh functions are still poorly understood. In the hypothalamus, astrocytes support neuronal circuits implicated in the regulation of energy metabolism. Read More

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January 2021

Müller glia-myeloid cell crosstalk accelerates optic nerve regeneration in the adult zebrafish.

Glia 2021 Jun 27;69(6):1444-1463. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Neural Circuit Development and Regeneration Research Group, Department of Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by progressive neuronal loss, eventually lead to functional impairment in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Importantly, these deteriorations are irreversible, due to the very limited regenerative potential of these CNS neurons. Stimulating and redirecting neuroinflammation was recently put forward as an important approach to induce axonal regeneration, but it remains elusive how inflammatory processes and CNS repair are intertwined. Read More

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Reduction of pTau and APP levels in mammalian brain after low-dose radiation.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 26;11(1):2215. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Uniformed Services University (USU), Bethesda, MD, USA.

Brain radiation can occur from treatment of brain tumors or accidental exposures. Brain radiation has been rarely considered, though, as a possible tool to alter protein levels involved in neurodegenerative disorders. We analyzed possible molecular and neuropathology changes of phosphorylated-Tau (pTau), all-Tau forms, β-tubulin, amyloid precursor protein (APP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA-1), myelin basic protein (MBP), and GAP43 in Frontal Cortex (FC), Hippocampus (H) and Cerebellum (CRB) of swine brains following total-body low-dose radiation (1. Read More

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January 2021

Engineered liposomes targeting the gut-CNS Axis for comprehensive therapy of spinal cord injury.

J Control Release 2021 Mar 22;331:390-403. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Medical Research Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, PR China. Electronic address:

Effective curative therapies for spinal cord injury (SCI), which is often accompanied by intestinal complications, are lacking. Potential therapeutic targets include astrocytes and their enteric nervous system counterpart, enteric glial cells (EGCs). Based on shared biomarkers and similar functions of both cell types, we designed an orally administered targeted delivery system in which the neuropeptide apamin, stabilized by sulfur replacement with selenium, was adopted as a targeting moiety, and the liposome surface was protected with a non-covalent cross-linked chitosan oligosaccharide lactate layer. Read More

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