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Endodontic treatment of various palatal root in maxillary molars: Case series and clinical experience.

J Am Dent Assoc 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Background And Overview: The purpose of this article is to present the variations in maxillary molar palatal root canals and provide a reference for the possible variations in root canal treatment.

Case Description: Five rare cases with palatal canal variation presented in this case series received nonsurgical endodontic treatment successfully. These case reports highlight that understanding and managing the different types of canal configurations in palatal roots of maxillary molars is essential to successful root canal treatment. Read More

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Real-time guided endodontics with a miniaturized dynamic navigation system versus conventional freehand endodontic access cavity preparation: substance loss and procedure time.

J Endod 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Periodontology, Endodontology and Cariology, University Center for Dental Medicine, University of Basel, Mattenstrasse 40, 4058 Basel, Switzerland.

Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate substance loss and time required for access cavity preparation (ACP) by the conventional freehand method (CONV) versus a miniaturized dynamic navigation system of real-time guided endodontics (RTGE) in an in-vitro model utilizing 3D printed teeth.

Methods: Nine human anterior maxillary teeth were selected and micro-CT scanned. Root canals were virtually reduced to 2mm below the cementoenamel junction. Read More

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Use of a pleural access port for the treatment of pyothorax in a cat.

Authors:
Angel Almendros

Open Vet J 2021 Apr-Jun;11(2):283-288. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Veterinary Medical Center, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Background: Pyothorax in cats is treated with intravenous fluids and antibiotics, and while thoracotomy and debridement are less commonly necessary, thoracostomy tubes are the treatment of choice when repeated drainage of the pleural cavity is needed.

Case Description: An 11-month-old British short-haired cat was presented for a sudden onset of lethargy, dyspnea, and tachypnea, following an ovariohysterectomy 10 days prior to the treatment process. Pyrexia and muffled cardiac sounds on the left hemithorax were noted. Read More

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Management of Intracanal Separated File Fragment in a Four-Rooted Mandibular Third Molar.

Case Rep Dent 2021 30;2021:5547062. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

The success of endodontic therapy is attributed to complete arbitration of the bound entities concealed within the complexity and absolute disinfection of the root canal system, thus, deeming it mandatory to effectively negotiate and overcome the challenges posed by obstruction, either iatrogenic or anatomic. To achieve this, considerable depth of knowledge and expertise with reference to variations in root canal morphology and clinical mishap management is substantially as important as developing fine observation skills in conjunction with an appropriate armamentarium and a keen sense of determination, thereby enhancing one's clinical acumen by several folds. In the present case, following rubber dam isolation, the temporary restoration was removed, and the remaining carious dentin was excavated. Read More

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Association between Interleukin-1β Gene Polymorphism and Chronic Periodontitis.

Eur J Dent 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Dow College of Biotechnology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objectives:  Periodontitis is a pathological condition of the oral cavity, originating from multiple factors, including microbial, environmental and genetic factors. The vulnerability to several pathologies has been studied with the relationship to genetic polymorphisms, and one of the most prominent is the single nucleotide polymorphisms throughout the genome. The study aimed to find out the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of interleukin-1β +3954 gene with chronic periodontitis (CP) in Pakistan MATERIALS AND METHODS:  This case-control study was conducted at Dow University of Health Sciences. Read More

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Management of oral biofilms by nisin delivery in adhesive microdevices.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

The Danish National Research Foundation and Villum Foundation's Center for Intelligent Drug Delivery and Sensing Using Microcontainers and Nanomechanics (IDUN), Department of Health Technology, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads 345C, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.

Numerous beneficial microbes thrive in the oral cavity where they form biofilms on dental and mucosal surfaces to get access to nutrients, and to avoid being carried away with the saliva. However, biofilm formation is also a virulence factor as it also protects pathogenic bacteria, providing them with an environment for proliferation causing oral infections. Oral hygiene relies on mechanical removal of biofilms. Read More

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Total Transperineal Laparoscopic Proctectomy for the Treatment of Crohn's Proctitis.

Dis Colon Rectum 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Surgery, Division of Colorectal Surgery, University of Massachusetts, Worcester, Massachusetts.

Introduction: Completion proctectomy is traditionally performed using a combination of abdominal and perineal approaches. Access to and exposure of the pelvis through the abdominal cavity can be limited in patients with prior surgery or inflammatory conditions. We describe a novel technique for a total transperineal approach for proctectomy for Crohn's proctitis, avoiding technical challenges, risks, and recovery associated with abdominal surgery. Read More

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Asymmetric Radical Process for General Synthesis of Chiral Heteroaryl Cyclopropanes.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jul 20;143(29):11121-11129. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Chemistry, Merkert Chemistry Center, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467, United States.

A highly efficient catalytic method has been developed for asymmetric radical cyclopropanation of alkenes with in situ-generated α-heteroaryldiazomethanes via Co(II)-based metalloradical catalysis (MRC). Through fine-tuning the cavity-like environments of newly-synthesized -symmetric chiral amidoporphyrins as the supporting ligand, the optimized Co(II)-based metalloradical system is broadly applicable to α-pyridyl and other α-heteroaryldiazomethanes for asymmetric cyclopropanation of wide-ranging alkenes, including several types of challenging substrates. This new catalytic methodology provides a general access to valuable chiral heteroaryl cyclopropanes in high yields with excellent both diastereoselectivities and enantioselectivities. Read More

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Angle of Insertion and Torsional Resistance of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 4;14(13). Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Previously published studies have investigated the influence of instrument access on cyclic fatigue resistance. However, no studies have evaluated the relationship between angulated access and torsional resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the angle of access on the torsional resistance of endodontic instruments. Read More

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Case Study 9: Probe-Dependent Binding Explains Lack of CYP2C9 Inactivation by 1-Aminobenzotriazole (ABT).

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2342:765-779

Nonclinical Development, Plexxikon Inc., Berkeley, CA, USA.

The potential for new chemical entities to inhibit the major cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms is routinely evaluated to minimize the risk of developing drugs with drug-drug interaction liabilities. CYP inhibition assays are routinely performed in a high-throughput format to efficiently screen large numbers of compounds. In evaluating a time-saving assay using diclofenac as the CYP2C9 probe substrate, a discrepancy was observed in which minimal inhibition was detected using diclofenac whereas using (S)-warfarin resulted in potent inhibition, supporting the presence of dual-binding sites in the relatively large CYP2C9 active site cavity. Read More

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January 2021

Oral conditions of the pre-Hispanic mummies of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain).

Int J Paleopathol 2021 Jul 13;34:155-162. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Servicio de Patrimonio Histórico, Cabildo de Gran Canaria, Spain. Electronic address:

Objective: To analyse the oral conditions of pre-Hispanic mummies from Gran Canaria (5th-11th centuries AD), comparing the results with published data from the non-mummified population.

Materials: 440 teeth and 764 alveoli of 30 adult mummies.

Methods: Macroscopic examination of pathological and non-pathological features of the oral cavity, using standardized criteria. Read More

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Teledentistry-based Program to Improve Oral Hygiene Indicators in Rural Pakistan-A Protocol.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2021 Apr 1;22(4):406-411. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Centre of Clinical Research, Telemedicine and Telepharmacy, School of Medicinal and Health Products Sciences, University of Camerino, Macerta, Italy.

Aim: The primary aim of this research protocol is to secure funding to initiate a teledentistry pilot project in order to improve the oral hygiene conditions of the most vulnerable population of rural Sindh in Pakistan, through hands-on training of 1,000 lady health workers by dentists and community dentistry specialists of other colleges led by Jinnah Medical and Dental College.

Materials And Methods: Training courses on digital health consultation would be given to participating healthcare workers. The trainees would be trained on all aspects of dental hygiene including precautions, tooth brushing techniques, and oral care. Read More

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Assessment of Apical Extrusion of Debris during Root Canal Preparation with Different Ni-Ti File Systems: An Study.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2021 Apr 1;22(4):349-352. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Educare Institute of Dental Sciences, Malappuram, Kerala, India.

Aim And Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical extrusion of debris during root canal preparation with the use of different Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) file systems.

Materials And Methods: Totally 60 single-rooted human mandibular premolar teeth with fully formed roots were chosen for the study. The coronal access cavity and all other preparations were done with the use of an access cavity kit and then 60 samples were randomly separated into three investigational groups ( = 20); group I: self-adjusting file, group II: WaveOne Gold, and group III: Mtwo rotary system. Read More

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Optical Access to Olfactory Sensory Neuronsin the Mouse Olfactory Epithelium.

Bio Protoc 2021 Jun 20;11(12):e4055. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

In neuroscience, it is fundamental to understand how sensory stimuli are translated into neural activity at the entry point of sensory systems. In the olfactory system, odorants inhaled into the nasal cavity are detected by ~1,000 types of odorant receptors (ORs) that are expressed by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Since each OSN expresses only one type of odorant receptor, the odor-evoked responses reflect the interaction between odorants and the expressed OR. Read More

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Dental Neglect in Children: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2021 Feb 1;22(2):199-204. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Paediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, Phone: +30 2310999454, e-mail:

Aim: The purpose of this review is to present the most recent bibliography regarding the etiology, risk factor indicators, types of dental neglect, and the epidemiological studies, showing the relationship between neglect and dental caries indices. Moreover, the review will focus on the role of oral healthcare professionals in evaluating such conditions.

Background: Untreated oral diseases, like dental caries, can lead to a variety of negative impacts on children including pain and infection. Read More

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February 2021

SEM Evaluation of Various Intracanal Irrigation Devices on Smear Layer Removal: A Comparative Study.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2021 Feb 1;22(2):184-188. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Majmaah University, Az-Zulfi, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Aim: The present study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of different intracanal irrigation devices on the removal of the smear layer.

Materials And Methods: The recently extracted 80 lower premolars having single canal were chosen for this study. A round diamond bur was used to gain endodontic access and the root canal was entered with a #15 K-file until the tip was just seen at the apical foramen. Read More

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February 2021

A Novel Transforaminal Approach to Presacral Abscess.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jul 10;153:75-78. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Orthopedics, Shanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Taiyuan Shanxi, China.

Background: Presacral abscess is a common disease in the developing countries. Treatments include minimally invasive percutaneous drainage and open surgical debridement. Percutaneous drainage under computed tomography (CT) guidance has been recommended by the American College of Radiology as a good alternative to surgical drainage before elective surgical treatment. Read More

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Digital Support to Multimodal Community-Based Prehabilitation: Looking for Optimization of Health Value Generation.

Front Oncol 2021 17;11:662013. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.

Prehabilitation has shown its potential for most intra-cavity surgery patients on enhancing preoperative functional capacity and postoperative outcomes. However, its large-scale implementation is limited by several constrictions, such as: i) unsolved practicalities of the service workflow, ii) challenges associated to change management in collaborative care; iii) insufficient access to prehabilitation; iv) relevant percentage of program drop-outs; v) need for program personalization; and, vi) economical sustainability. Transferability of prehabilitation programs from the hospital setting to the community would potentially provide a new scenario with greater accessibility, as well as offer an opportunity to effectively address the aforementioned issues and, thus, optimize healthcare value generation. Read More

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Intrathoracic ureteric stent migration through a reno-pleural fistula: a case report of rare antegrade ureteric stenting complication.

BMC Womens Health 2021 07 10;21(1):270. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Urology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Zhongshan Dist, No. 92, Sec. 2, Zhongshan N. Rd, Taipei, 104, Taiwan.

Background: Malignant obstruction and associated hydronephrosis is a common complication of advanced cervical cancer. Percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) followed by antegrade stenting is often required to relieve obstruction as retrograde access fails in considerable proportion of such patients. Reno-pleural fistula is a rare complication of PCN which creates a patent connection between the renal collecting system and the thoracic cavity, and urine accumulation in the pleural space can cause pleural effusion (i. Read More

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Computational evidence of new putative allosteric sites in the acetylcholinesterase receptor.

J Mol Graph Model 2021 Sep 2;107:107981. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Bioinformatics, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), with a rigid structure and buried active site at the end of a deep narrow gorge, is interesting enough to solve the paradox between high catalytic activity and unavailability of the active site in treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this way, the blind docking process is performed on an ensemble of AChE structures created with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to survey the whole space of AChE to find multiple access pathways to the active site and ranking them based on their affinity scores. Our results show that there are other allosteric binding sites in the protein structure whose inhibition, can affect protein function by disrupting the release of the Acetylcholine (AC) degradation products. Read More

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September 2021

A mechanically stable and tunable cryogenic Fabry-Pérot microcavity.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 May;92(5):053906

Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8, Canada.

High-finesse, open-geometry microcavities have recently emerged as a versatile tool for enhancing interactions between photons and material systems with a range of applications in quantum optics and quantum information science. However, mechanical vibrations pose a considerable challenge to their operation within a closed-cycle cryostat, particularly when spatial tunability and free-space optical access are required. Here, we present the design and characterization of a system that can achieve ∼16 pm-rms passive mechanical stability between two high-finesse mirrors with 34% duty cycle while permitting both three-dimensional positioning of the cavity mode and free-space confocal imaging. Read More

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Pregnancy and childbirth after transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery for benign gynecological diseases.

Authors:
Dan Feng Li He

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department Gynecology, Chengdu Women's & Children's Central Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China.

In recent years, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has been utilized as an extended innovation of conventional laparoscopy. Due to its natural advantages, such as easy access to the peritoneal cavity and safe closure of the incision, transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (vNOTES) has become a popular surgical treatment method. Read More

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Postanesthetic Cold Sensibility Test as an Indicator for the Efficacy of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis of Mandibular Molars.

Int J Dent 2021 21;2021:9913221. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Oral and Craniofacial Health Sciences, College of Dental Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE.

Materials And Methods: This study was conducted on the mandibular first molars of 54 patients (35 males and 19 females) with signs and symptoms of SIP. To anesthetize the affected molars, all patients received a single carpule of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100000 epinephrine using a standardized inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) technique. The cold test was conducted before beginning the endodontic procedures and after gaining lip numbness, and the results were reported as either positive or negative response. Read More

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Influence of Minimally Invasive Access Cavity Designs on the Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Mandibular Molars Subjected to Thermocycling and Dynamic Loading.

J Endod 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated and restored permanent mandibular molars with minimally invasive access cavities subjected to thermocycling and dynamic loading.

Methods: Forty first and second mandibular molars were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 10/group) as follows: group 1, control (intact teeth); group 2, traditional access cavity (TradAC); group 3, conservative access cavity (ConsAC); and group 4, truss access cavity (TrecAC). After endodontic treatment, teeth were restored with SDR core (Dentsply Caulk, Milford, DE) and subjected to thermocycling followed by dynamic and static loading with a multiaxial fatigue testing machine (Instron, Canton, MA). Read More

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Impact of cancelled General Anaesthetic dental extraction appointments on children due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Community Dent Health 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Public Health England, UK.

Background: COVID-19 has resulted in the cancellation of general anaesthetic procedures including dental extractions (GAX) for children in the UK, exacerbating existing inequalities. There is robust evidence that children from deprived and some ethnic backgrounds are at greater risk of caries and are, therefore, more likely to be affected by cancellations.

Aim: To identify the impact of, and possible mitigations for, cancelled general anaesthetic procedures on children in the South East of England. Read More

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Robotically assisted enhanced-view totally extraperitoneal repair (eTEP) of a recurrent umbilical hernia in a patient with peritoneal dialysis.

GMS Interdiscip Plast Reconstr Surg DGPW 2021 9;10:Doc08. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Abteilung für Allgemein-, Viszeral-, Thorax- und Kinderchirurgie, Klinikum Kempten, Klinikverbund Allgäu, Kempten, Germany.

Abdominal wall hernias are frequent in patients with peritoneal dialysis. Guidelines recommend an open hernia repair with extraperitoneal mesh placement to avoid access to the abdominal cavity. We performed a lateral docking robotically assisted enhanced-view totally extraperitoneal repair (eTEP) of a recurrent umbilical hernia with diastasis recti in a patient with peritoneal dialysis due to polycystic kidney disease. Read More

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Accuracy of Root ZXII, E-PEX and FIND apex locators in teeth with vital pulp: an in vivo study.

Braz Oral Res 2021 28;35:e080. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" - Unesp, Araçatuba. School of Dentistry, Department of Endodontics, Araçatuba, SP, Brazil.

This research evaluated, in vivo, the accuracy of three electronic apex locators - EALs (Root ZXII, E-PEX and FIND) in teeth with vital pulp submitted to biopulpectomy, preserving the periodontal stump. For this study, 90 single-rooted teeth with extraction indication were selected. After positive pulpal cold sensitivity test, pulp chamber access was performed. Read More

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[Critical aspects of the transmandibular approach to the oral cavity and oropharynx].

HNO 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Klinik für Mund‑, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie/Plastische Operationen, SRH Zentralklinikum Suhl, Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 2, 98527, Suhl, Deutschland.

Background: In the context of tumor surgery, the median mandibulotomy as an access route to the oral cavity and oropharynx provides an excellent overview of the surgical site. However, it is not regarded entirely unproblematic with regard to early and later complications that may arise.

Objective: The results and complications of the median mandibulotomy will be presented based on data collected from our own patient collective. Read More

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A Narrative Review of update in per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) and endoscopic esophageal surgery.

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(10):909

Department of Surgery, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

The field of endoscopic esophageal surgery is based on the concept of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). Submucosal space surgery or third space surgery with the use of flexible endoscopy allows for decreased morbidity and hospital length of stay with equivalent outcomes for patients. In the case of achalasia, per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) allows for management of refractory cases in setting of previous Heller Myotomy or in patients whom laparoscopic or thoracoscopic surgery is contraindicated. Read More

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Topographic laparoscopy for buffaloes in the quadruped position.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Hospital, Universit Federal do Pará (UFPA).

This study aimed to describe the anatomical topography of the abdominal cavity of buffaloes in the quadruped position to establish the best endosurgical access and vantage points and identify possible limitations. Laparoscopies were performed on 10 healthy female buffaloes obtained from the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia to explore possible access points to the abdomen. Techniques for assessing and possibly observing certain organs and structures through the left and right flanks of 10 animals have been described. Read More

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