448 results match your criteria academy osseointegration


Histological and Histomorphometric Comparison of Innovative Dental Implants Laser Obtained: Animal Pilot Study.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 7;14(8). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Civil, Architecture and Environmental Engineering, University of L'Aquila, 67100 L'Aquila, Italy.

Objective: Evaluation of the in vivo bone response of two innovative titanium surfaces ytterbium laser active fiber obtained (L1-L2) compared to a sandblasted and acid etched (SBAE) during early phase of osseointegration.

Material And Methods: Three implant groups with the same macroscopic features were obtained (L1-L2-SBAE) to promote specific surface characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy, profilometric evaluation, X-ray spectrometry, and diffraction analysis were performed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Multimodal Analysis of the Tissue Response to a Bone-Anchored Hearing Implant: Presentation of a Two-Year Case Report of a Patient With Recurrent Pain, Inflammation, and Infection, Including a Systematic Literature Review.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 30;11:640899. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Osseointegration is a well-established concept used in applications including the percutaneous Bone-Anchored Hearing System (BAHS) and auricular rehabilitation. To date, few retrieved implants have been described. A systematic review including cases where percutaneous bone-anchored implants inserted in the temporal bone were retrieved and analyzed was performed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Determination of Immediate-loaded Single Implants' Stability with Periotest.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2020 Nov 1;21(11):1245-1248. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Dentistry, Patna Medical College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India.

Aim And Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the stability of immediate-loaded single implants with periotest.

Materials And Methods: In this study, dental implants with a length ranging from 10 to 13 mm and diameter of 3.0-4. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

The influence of hydroxyapatite coating on continuous migration of a Zweymuller-type hip stem: a double-blinded randomised RSA trial with 5-year follow-up.

Hip Int 2021 Apr 12:11207000211006782. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Xpert Clinics, Orthopaedic Surgery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background And Purpose: Adding hydroxyapatite to a stem to enhance ingrowth is a matter of debate, even less is known about the long-term effect on stability by adding hydroxyapatite (HA). Continuous migration in the first 2-5 years is an indicator of failed osteointegration or pending failure, enhancing the risk of loosening within 10 years after initial surgery. We performed a double-blinded randomised RSA trial with 5-year follow-up, to compare and analyse migration characteristics of the hydroxyapatite uncoated (HA-) and hydroxyapatite coated (HA+) Zweymuller-type hip stem. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Successful salvage via re-osseointegration of a loosened implant in a patient with transtibial amputation.

Prosthet Orthot Int 2021 Feb;45(1):76-80

1Clinical Laboratory for Bionic Extremity Reconstruction, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria 2Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria 3Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, UK 4AUVA Trauma Hospital Lorenz Böhler-European Hand Trauma Center, Vienna, Austria 5Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, AUVA Research Center, Vienna, Austria 6Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden 7Biomechatronics Group, Center for Extreme Bionics, MIT Media Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Case Description: Osseointegration is a relatively new technique for prosthetic limb attachment that offers various improvements for patients with amputation and facilitates joint preservation. We present a case of implant loosening during rehabilitation in a patient with transtibial amputation that was successfully managed through a combination of measures, aiming to promote re-osseointegration of the implant.

Objectives: Not much is known about structured management of adverse events after osseointegration. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

OCCLUSAL TRAUMA OF IMPLANT-SUPPORTED METAL-CERAMIC CROWN: A CASE REPORT.

Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(2):371-374

STATE INSTITUTION "DNIPROPETROVSK MEDICAL ACADEMY OF THE MINISTRY OF HEALTH OF UKRAINE", DNIPRO, UKRAINE.

In this article there is a clinical case of occlusion trauma of implant-supported metal-ceramic crown for prosthetics of central incisor. Its uniqueness is the possibility to save dental implant after acute occlusion impact, which was strong enough to break ceramic facing of fixed denture, but not able to destroy bone and implant components. The occlusion force located at the incisal edge of the crown induced a reverse torque to the implant and did not result in its failure or bone resorption. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Impacts of Crystalline Structure and Different Surface Functional Groups on Drug Release and the Osseointegration Process of Nanostructured TiO.

Molecules 2021 Mar 19;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 2, 30387 Krakow, Poland.

In implantable materials, surface topography and chemistry are the most important in the effective osseointegration and interaction with drug molecules. Therefore, structural and surface modifications of nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO) layers are reported in the present work. In particular, the modification of annealed TiO samples with -OH groups and silane derivatives, confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, is shown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Retrospective Study: Lateral Ridge Augmentation Using Autogenous Dentin: Tooth-Shell Technique vs. Bone-Shell Technique.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 19;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Dental Academy for Continuing Professional Development, Karlsruhe, Lorenzstrasse 7, 76135 Karlsruhe, Germany.

In the literature, autogenous dentin is considered a possible alternative to bone substitute materials and autologous bone for certain indications. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to use autogenous dentin for lateral ridge augmentation. In the present retrospective study, autogenous dentin slices were obtained from teeth and used for the reconstruction of lateral ridge defects (tooth-shell technique (TST): 28 patients (15 females, 13 males) with 34 regions and 38 implants). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Characterization and evaluation of a femtosecond laser-induced osseointegration and an anti-inflammatory structure generated on a titanium alloy.

Regen Biomater 2021 Mar 13;8(2):rbab006. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Institute of Medical Service Support, Institute of Systems Engineering, Academy of Military Sciences, Tianjin, China.

Cell-material interactions during early osseointegration of the bone-implant interface are critical and involve crosstalk between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The surface properties of titanium implants also play a critical role in cell-material interactions. In this study, femtosecond laser treatment and sandblasting were used to alter the surface morphology, roughness and wettability of a titanium alloy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Strontium ranelate incorporated 3D porous sulfonated PEEK simulating MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation.

Regen Biomater 2021 Feb 28;8(1):rbaa043. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Department of Pharmacy, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200336, China.

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been used as an implant material because it has similar mechanical properties to natural bone. However, inferior osseointegration and bioinertness hamper the clinical application of PEEK. In this study, the surfaces of sulfonated three-dimensional (3D) PEEK porous structures were loaded with different concentrations of strontium ranelate, a compound commonly used in the treatment or prevention of osteoporosis by promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Gradient Biomineralized Silk Fibroin Nanofibrous Scaffold with Osteochondral Inductivity for Integration of Tendon to Bone.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 03 10;7(3):841-851. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, P. R. China.

Enthesis injury repair remains a huge challenge because of the unique biomolecular composition, microstructure, and mechanics in the interfacial region. Surgical reconstruction often creates new bone-scaffold interfaces with mismatched properties, resulting in poor osseointegration. To mimic the natural interface tissue structures and properties, we fabricated a nanofibrous scaffold with gradient mineral coating based on 10 × simulated body fluid (SBF) and silk fibroin (SF). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Microbiological findings in early and late implant loss: an observational clinical case-controlled study.

BMC Oral Health 2021 03 11;21(1):112. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Institute of Functional Interfaces, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.

Background: Implants are a predictable and well-established treatment method in dentistry. Nevertheless, looking at possible failures of dental implants, early and late loss have to be distinguished. The intent of the study was to report microbiological findings on the surface of implants with severe peri-implantitis, which had to be explanted. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Exosome-functionalized polyetheretherketone-based implant with immunomodulatory property for enhancing osseointegration.

Bioact Mater 2021 Sep 15;6(9):2754-2766. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

School of Materials Science and Engineering & National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510641, China.

The host immune response effecting on biomaterials is critical to determine implant fates and bone regeneration property. Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) derived exosomes (Exos) contain multiple biosignal molecules and have been demonstrated to exhibit immunomodulatory functions. Herein, we develop a BMSC-derived Exos-functionalized implant to accelerate bone integration by immunoregulation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Carbon fiber reinforced polymers for implantable medical devices.

Biomaterials 2021 Apr 23;271:120719. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX, 77030, USA; Department of Surgery, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, 77030, USA; Department of Radiation Oncology, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. Electronic address:

Carbon fibers reinforced polymers (CFRPs) are prolifically finding applications in the medical field, moving beyond the aerospace and automotive industries. Owing to its high strength-to-weight ratio, lightness and radiolucency, CFRP-based materials are emerging to replace traditional metal-based medical implants. Numerous types of polymers matrices can be incorporated with carbon fiber using various manufacturing methods, creating composites with distinct properties. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Osseointegration of a novel dental implant in canine.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 22;11(1):4317. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Outpatient Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Capital Medical University, Tian Tan Xi Li No. 4, Beijing, 100050, People's Republic of China.

This study aimed to compare and verify the osseointegration performance of a novel implant (NI) in vivo, which could provide a useful scientific basis for the further development of NIs. Thirty-two NIs treated with hydrofluoric acid and anodization and sixteen control implants (CIs) were placed in the mandibles of 8 beagles. Micro-CT showed that the trabecular number (Tb. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Consensus Report by the Italian Academy of Osseointegration on the Use of Antibiotics and Antiseptic Agents in Implant Surgery.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2021 Jan-Feb;36(1):103-105

Purpose: Beneficial aspects of short and ultrashort antibiotic administration protocols could be clinically correlated to the reduced side effects on the gastrointestinal microflora. The aim of this Consensus Conference was to establish the necessity of an antibiotic prophylaxis and its dosage to reduce the risk of early implant failure in healthy (ASA 1 or 2), periodontally healthy patients, undergoing basic dental implant surgery (straightforward cases). Additionally, the need for an antiseptic protocol, used before and after the implant surgery, was evaluated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Assessing the Functional Properties of TiZr Nanotubular Structures for Biomedical Applications, through Nano-Scratch Tests and Adhesion Force Maps.

Molecules 2021 Feb 9;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Center for Surface Science and Nanotechnology, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest, Romania.

In this work we present the results of a functional properties assessment via Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)-based surface morphology, surface roughness, nano-scratch tests and adhesion force maps of TiZr-based nanotubular structures. The nanostructures have been electrochemically prepared in a glycerin + 15 vol.% HO + 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Regulation of extracellular bioactive cations in bone tissue microenvironment induces favorable osteoimmune conditions to accelerate bone regeneration.

Bioact Mater 2021 Aug 23;6(8):2315-2330. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

The design of orthopedic biomaterials has gradually shifted from "immune-friendly" to "immunomodulatory," in which the biomaterials are able to modulate the inflammatory response via macrophage polarization in a local immune microenvironment that favors osteogenesis and implant-to-bone osseointegration. Despite the well-known effects of bioactive metallic ions on osteogenesis, how extracellular metallic ions manipulate immune cells in bone tissue microenvironments toward osteogenesis and subsequent bone formation has rarely been studied. Herein, we investigate the osteoimmunomodulatory effect of an extracellular bioactive cation (Mg) in the bone tissue microenvironment using custom-made poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)/MgO-alendronate microspheres that endow controllable release of magnesium ions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

In Situ Regulation of Macrophage Polarization to Enhance Osseointegration Under Diabetic Conditions Using Injectable Silk/Sitagliptin Gel Scaffolds.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Feb 16;8(3):2002328. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology Chinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai 200050 China.

As a chronic inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus creates a proinflammatory microenvironment around implants, resulting in a high rate of implant loosening or failure in osteological therapies. In this study, macroporous silk gel scaffolds are injected at the bone-implant interface for in situ release of sitagliptin that can regulate macrophage response to create a prohealing microenvironment in diabetes mellitus disease. Notably, it is discovered that sitagliptin induces macrophage polarization to the M2 phenotype and alleviates the impaired behaviors of osteoblasts on titanium (Ti) implants under diabetic conditions in a dose-dependent manner. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Recent Progress in Animal Studies of the Skin- and Bone-integrated Pylon With Deep Porosity for Bone-Anchored Limb Prosthetics With and Without Neural Interface.

Mil Med 2021 01;186(Suppl 1):688-695

School of Biological Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332, USA.

Introduction: The three major unresolved problems in bone-anchored limb prosthetics are stable, infection-free integration of skin with a percutaneous bone implant, robust skeletal fixation between the implant and host bone, and a secure interface of sensory nerves and muscles with a prosthesis for the intuitive bidirectional prosthetic control. Here we review results of our completed work and report on recent progress.

Materials And Methods: Eight female adult cats received skin- and bone-integrated pylon (SBIP) and eight male adult cats received SBIP-peripheral neural interface (PNI) pylon into the right distal tibia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Optimized Nanointerface Engineering of Micro/Nanostructured Titanium Implants to Enhance Cell-Nanotopography Interactions and Osseointegration.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2020 02 23;6(2):969-983. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials CAS, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, P. R. China.

The success of orthopedic implants requires rapid and complete osseointegration which relies on an implant surface with optimal features. To enhance cellular function in response to the implant surface, micro- and nanoscale topography have been suggested as essential. The aim of this study was to identify an optimized Ti nanostructure and to introduce it onto a titanium plasma-sprayed titanium implant (denoted NTPS-Ti) to confer enhanced immunomodulatory properties for optimal osseointegration. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2020

On marginal bone level changes around dental implants.

Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2021 Apr 18;23(2):159-169. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry/Dental Material Science, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Peri-implant bone level values have been used as the clinical standard of reference to describe the status of a dental implant, despite the fact that their significance for the long-term survival of the implant has never been properly assessed.

Purpose: To challenge the assumption that the natural course of peri-implant bone loss is the loss of the implant.

Materials And Methods: This article is a narrative review on reasons and interpretations of marginal bone level changes around dental implants. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Advances in Osteoporotic Bone Tissue Engineering.

J Clin Med 2021 Jan 12;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, 060042 Bucharest, Romania.

The increase in osteoporotic fracture worldwide is urging bone tissue engineering research to find new, improved solutions both for the biomaterials used in designing bone scaffolds and the anti-osteoporotic agents capable of promoting bone regeneration. This review aims to report on the latest advances in biomaterials by discussing the types of biomaterials and their properties, with a special emphasis on polymer-ceramic composites. The use of hydroxyapatite in combination with natural/synthetic polymers can take advantage of each of their components properties and has a great potential in bone tissue engineering, in general. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Near-infrared light II - assisted rapid biofilm elimination platform for bone implants at mild temperature.

Biomaterials 2021 Feb 30;269:120634. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, And Department of Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Light-triggered therapy is a prospective method to combat implant-associated infection but near-infrared I (NIR-I) light has insufficient penetrating ability in tissues and local hyperthermia induced by the photothermal treatment may destroy surrounding healthy tissues. Herein, a near-infrared II (NIR-II) phototherapy system composed of upconversion elements doped titanium dioxide nanorods (TiO NRs)/curcumin (Cur)/hyaluronic acid (HA)/bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is designed for biomedical titanium and demonstrated to overcome the above hurdles simultaneously. Incorporation of F, Yb, and Ho not only improves the photocatalytic ability, but also renders the implants with the upconversion capability, so that the NRs can generate enough reactive oxygen species (ROS) when irradiated by the NIR-II laser. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Boron-incorporated micro/nano-topographical calcium silicate coating dictates osteo/angio-genesis and inflammatory response toward enhanced osseointegration.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials CAS, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Orthopedic implant coatings with optimal surface features to achieve favorable osteo/angio-genesis and inflammatory response would be of great importance. However, to date, few coatings are capable of fully satisfying these requirements. In this work, to take advantage of the structural complexity of micro/nano-topography and benefits of biological trace elements, two types of boron-containing nanostructures (nanoflakes and nanolamellars) were introduced onto plasma-sprayed calcium silicate (F-BCS and L-BCS) coatings via hydrothermal treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Chronic Use of a Sensitized Bionic Hand Does Not Remap the Sense of Touch.

Cell Rep 2020 Dec;33(12):108539

Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; Committee on Computational Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; Grossman Institute of Neuroscience, Quantitative Biology, and Human Behavior, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Electrical stimulation of tactile nerve fibers that innervated an amputated hand results in vivid sensations experienced at a specific location on the phantom hand, a phenomenon that can be leveraged to convey tactile feedback through bionic hands. Ideally, electrically evoked sensations would be experienced on the appropriate part of the hand: touch with the bionic index fingertip, for example, would elicit a sensation experienced on the index fingertip. However, the perceived locations of sensations are determined by the idiosyncratic position of the stimulating electrode in the nerve and thus are difficult to predict or control. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

The Role of Epigenetic Functionalization of Implants and Biomaterials in Osseointegration and Bone Regeneration-A Review.

Molecules 2020 Dec 12;25(24). Epub 2020 Dec 12.

Department of Periodontology, Institute of Odontology, University of Gothenburg, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.

The contribution of epigenetic mechanisms as a potential treatment model has been observed in cancer and autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. This review aims to put forward the epigenetic mechanisms as a promising strategy in implant surface functionalization and modification of biomaterials, to promote better osseointegration and bone regeneration, and could be applicable for alveolar bone regeneration and osseointegration in the future. Materials and Methods: Electronic and manual searches of the literature in PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were conducted, using a specific search strategy limited to publications in the last 5 years to identify preclinical studies in order to address the following focused questions: (i) Which, if any, are the epigenetic mechanisms used to functionalize implant surfaces to achieve better osseointegration? (ii) Which, if any, are the epigenetic mechanisms used to functionalize biomaterials to achieve better tissue regeneration? Findings from several studies have emphasized the role of miRNAs in functionalizing implants surfaces and biomaterials to promote osseointegration and bone regeneration, respectively. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Fish Bone Derived Bi-Phasic Calcium Phosphate Coatings Fabricated by Pulsed Laser Deposition for Biomedical Applications.

Mar Drugs 2020 Dec 7;18(12). Epub 2020 Dec 7.

National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, RO-077125 Magurele, Romania.

We report on new biomaterials with promising bone and cartilage regeneration potential, from sustainable, cheap resources of fish origin. Thin films were fabricated from fish bone-derived bi-phasic calcium phosphate targets pulsed laser deposition with a KrF * excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ ≤ 25 ns). Targets and deposited nanostructures were characterized by SEM and XRD, as well as by Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and FTIR spectroscopy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Implants placed into alveoli with periapical lesions: an experimental study in dogs.

Oral Maxillofac Surg 2020 Nov 21. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

ARDEC Academy, Viale Giovanni Pascoli, 67, Rimini, Italy.

Objective: To histologically analyze the effect of a curettage of the granulation tissue on healing at implants installed immediately after the extraction of teeth presenting periapical lesions.

Material And Methods: In seven dogs, the dental pulp was removed from the pulp chamber and from the root canals of the right and left third and the fourth mandibular premolars and of the left second premolar. The chambers were left opened and, after 3 months, apical lesions were present, and the premolars were extracted. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Based on the synergistic effect of Mg and antibacterial peptides to improve the corrosion resistance, antibacterial ability and osteogenic activity of magnesium-based degradable metals.

Biomater Sci 2021 Feb;9(3):807-825

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

To overcome the restricted degradation, poor antiacterial and osteoindctive problems of magnesium and its alloys, this study presented the spinning coating of an antimicrobial peptide (AP)-loaded silk fibroin (SF) composite onto a corrosion-resistant MgO-coated AZ31 Mg alloy via anodization (aMgO) and electrodeposition (eMgO) methods. The composite coatings not only created a smooth and hydrophilic surface, but also obviously improved the corrosion resistance according to the test of corrosion potential and current density. The colonization of E. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021