25,305 results match your criteria academic literature


How might access to postgraduate medical education in regional and rural locations be best improved? A scoping review.

Aust J Rural Health 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Centre for Medical and Health Sciences Education, School of Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Rural medical education is known as one of the most effective strategies in improving rural recruitment and retention. The aim was to identify modes of delivery to improve access to rural postgraduate medical education. Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework was used for conducting scoping reviews. Read More

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Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: Targets for the Academic Memory Disorders Clinic.

Neurotherapeutics 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Neurology, Boston University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Boston University CTE Center, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 E Concord St, Suite B7800, MA, 02118, Boston, USA.

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with exposure to repetitive head impacts, such as those from contact sports. The pathognomonic lesion for CTE is the perivascular accumulation of hyper-phosphorylated tau in neurons and other cell process at the depths of sulci. CTE cannot be diagnosed during life at this time, limiting research on risk factors, mechanisms, epidemiology, and treatment. Read More

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Surgical outcomes for people with serious mental illness are poorer than for other patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Med J Aust 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Surgical Outcomes Research Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW.

Objective: To assess the association between having a serious mental illness and surgical outcomes for adults, including in-hospital and 30-day mortality, post-operative complications, and hospital length of stay.

Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of publications in English to 30 July 2018 of studies that examined associations between having a serious mental illness and surgical outcomes for adults who underwent elective surgery. Primary outcomes were in-hospital and 30-day mortality, post-operative complications, and length of hospital stay. Read More

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Compression hosiery to avoid post-thrombotic syndrome (CHAPS) protocol for a randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN73041168).

BMJ Open 2021 Apr 12;11(4):e044285. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Academic Section of Vascular Surgery, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Introduction: Up to 50% of patients develop post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) after an above knee deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The aim of the study was to determine the effect of graduated compression stockings in preventing PTS after DVT.

Methods And Analysis: Pragmatic, UK multicentre randomised trial in adults with first above knee DVT. Read More

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Development of a core outcome set for venous leg ulceration (CoreVen) research evaluations (protocol).

J Tissue Viability 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Alliance for Research and Innovation in Wounds, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland; School of Nursing and Midwifery, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland.

Background: A venous leg ulcer is a chronic leg wound caused by poor venous blood circulation in the lower limbs. It is a recurring condition causing pain, malodour, reduced mobility, and depression. Randomised controlled trials evaluating treatments for venous leg ulcers provide important evidence to inform clinical decision-making. Read More

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Industrial hemp as an agricultural crop in Ghana.

J Cannabis Res 2021 Apr 12;3(1). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, 182# Nanhu Avenue, East Lake High-tech Development Zone, Wuhan, 430073, People's Republic of China.

Background: Cannabis is one of humanity's oldest crops with several uses, from food to clothing and medicine. It remains one of the most controversial crops whose production, possession, and usage are regulated differently across jurisdictions. Academic research and advocacy have resulted in the redefinition of the legal status of cannabis in several countries. Read More

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Capsular closure versus unrepaired interportal capsulotomy after hip arthroscopy in patients with femoroacetabular impingement, results of a patient-blinded randomised controlled trial.

Hip Int 2021 Apr 12:11207000211005762. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Specialized Center of Orthopaedic Research & Education (SCORE), Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Xpert Orthopaedic Surgery Clinic, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Hip capsular management after hip arthroscopy remains a topic of debate. Most available current literature is of poor quality and are retrospective or cohort studies. As of today, no clear consensus exists on capsular management after hip arthroscopy. Read More

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Reviewing financing barriers and strategies for urban nature-based solutions.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 10;289:112371. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Sustainable Finance Lab, Utrecht University School of Economics, Kriekenpitplein 21-22, 3584, EC, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Obtaining public and/or private finance for upscaling urban nature-based solutions (NBS) is a key barrier for reaching urban sustainability goals, including climate mitigation and adaptation. We carry out a systematic review of the academic literature to understand the key barriers and corresponding strategies for financing urban NBS. First, we report on specific financing challenges and strategies found for NBS uptake in four urban ecological domains: buildings, facades and roofs; urban green space (parks, trees); allotment gardens (including urban agriculture); and green-blue infrastructure. Read More

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Dental hygiene faculty perspectives on thesis advising in graduate education.

J Dent Educ 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Forsyth School of Dental Hygiene, MCPHS University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose/objectives: There is little research regarding dental hygiene faculty perspectives on advising graduate students through the thesis process. This study explored dental hygiene faculty's experiences when advising DH graduate students through the thesis process and understanding their perspectives on the factors impacting completion of the thesis.

Methods: This qualitative phenomenological research study utilized virtual focus groups with a purposive sample of graduate DH thesis advisors (n = 18) from institutions with a thesis-based Master of Science degree. Read More

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Sinonasal mucosal melanoma: treatment strategies and survival rates for a rare disease entity : A single center experience and review of literature.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 26, 8036, Graz, Austria.

Background: Sinonasal mucosal melanoma (SNMM) is a rare disease entity comprising 0.4-1.3% of all melanomas. Read More

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Knowledge graphs and their applications in drug discovery.

Authors:
Finlay MacLean

Expert Opin Drug Discov 2021 Apr 12:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Target Identification., BenevolentAI, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Introduction: Knowledge graphs have proven to be promising systems of information storage and retrieval. Due to the recent explosion of heterogeneous multimodal data sources generated in the biomedical domain, and an industry shift toward a systems biology approach, knowledge graphs have emerged as attractive methods of data storage and hypothesis generation.

Areas Covered: In this review, the author summarizes the applications of knowledge graphs in drug discovery. Read More

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A Case Report of an Individual's Experience Participating in a Traditional Costa Rican Ayahuasca Ceremony.

J Psychedelic Psychiatry 2020 ;2(3):25-27

University of Texas Health San Antonio.

Historical evidence has shown the potential efficacy of psychedelic drugs in the treatment of psychiatric diseases. Reporting psychedelic drug experiences in biomedical academic literature is critical to the progress of psychedelic psychiatry research and the potential implementation of psychedelics as therapeutics. Ayahuasca is a plant-based compound with hallucinogenic properties used by South American shamans to treat various psychological ailments. Read More

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January 2020

A review of machine learning experiments in equity investment decision-making: why most published research findings do not live up to their promise in real life.

Int J Data Sci Anal 2021 Apr 5:1-22. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

The numerical nature of financial markets makes market forecasting and portfolio construction a good use case for machine learning (ML), a branch of artificial intelligence (AI). Over the past two decades, a number of academics worldwide (mostly from the field of computer science) produced a sizeable body of experimental research. Many publications claim highly accurate forecasts or highly profitable investment strategies. Read More

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Narrative Review of Clinical Productivity and Teaching in Emergency Medicine.

Cureus 2021 Apr 5;13(4):e14309. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Emergency Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA.

Emergency medicine educators are subject to external pressures to increase clinical productivity while maintaining quality teaching. Strategies to mitigate this perceived conflict include alterations in staffing and incentive compensation with educational value units. There is a paucity of information describing the effect of clinical demands on teaching metrics in emergency medicine. Read More

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The cost-effectiveness of computer navigation in primary total knee replacement: a scoping review.

EFORT Open Rev 2021 Mar 1;6(3):173-180. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

University of Melbourne Department of Surgery, Fitzroy, Australia.

Despite additional costs associated with the use of computer navigation technology in total knee replacement (TKR), its impact on quality-adjusted life years following surgery has not been demonstrated. Cost-effectiveness evaluations require a balanced assessment of both quality and cost metrics.This review sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of computer navigation, identify barriers to translation, and suggest directions for further investigation. Read More

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Survey of Anesthesiologists on Topical Vasoconstrictors and Intravenous Tranexamic Acid for Endoscopic Sinus Surgery.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2021 Apr 12:34894211005940. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Objectives: Topical vasoconstrictors and intravenous tranexamic acid (IV TXA) are safe and efficacious to decrease bleeding and improve the surgical field during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). The purpose of this study was to investigate practice patterns, awareness of clinical evidence, and comfort levels among anesthesia providers regarding these hemostatic agents for ESS.

Methods: A total of 767 attending anesthesiologists, residents, and certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) at 5 United States academic centers were invited to participate in a survey regarding their experience with IV TXA and 3 topical vasoconstrictor medications (oxymetazoline, epinephrine, and cocaine) during ESS. Read More

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A systematic review of outcome reporting in incisional hernia surgery.

BJS Open 2021 Mar;5(2)

Department of Surgery, Royal Devon & Exeter NHS Foundation Trust, Exeter, UK.

Background: The incidence of incisional hernia is up to 20 per cent after abdominal surgery. The management of patients with incisional hernia can be complex with an array of techniques and meshes available. Ensuring consistency in reporting outcomes across studies on incisional hernia is important and will enable appropriate interpretation, comparison and data synthesis across a range of clinical and operative treatment strategies. Read More

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The puzzle of the walk-to-run transition in humans.

Gait Posture 2021 Apr 3;86:319-326. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Sport Sciences - Performance and Technology, Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark. Electronic address:

Background: The walk-to-run transition, which occurs during gradually increasing locomotion speed, has been addressed in research at least eight decades back.

Research Question: Why does the walk-to-run transition occur? In the present review, we focus on the reason for the transition, more than on the consequences of it. The latter has historically constituted a primary focus. Read More

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Towards developing a comprehensive conceptual understanding of positive hospital culture and approaches to healthcare organisational culture change in Australia.

J Health Organ Manag 2021 Apr;ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)

Centre for Health Systems and Safety Research, Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Sydney, Australia.

Purpose: The key aim of this narrative literature review, therefore, is to identify the key conceptual categories that inform the construction of positive person-centred culture within hospitals, and how these frameworks are brought to bear upon organisational culture within healthcare systems in Australia.

Design/methodology/approach: This narrative review presents a thematic synthesis of literature identified through a systematic search protocol undertaken across 19 academic databases and Google Scholar as an additional search tool. Thematic qualitative analysis was performed on the research results to determine the common themes within the diverse literature presented within this study. Read More

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The informed consent process in health research with under-served populations: a realist review protocol.

Syst Rev 2021 Apr 9;10(1):103. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Unit of Academic Primary Care, Warwick Medical School, Warwick University, Coventry, England.

Background: The informed consent process aims to provide potential participants with information about health research that enables them to make an informed decision as to whether they choose to participate, or not. However, it remains unclear as to whether the process is effective for those who are under-served in health research. It is a pivotal issue within health research that the diversity of people who participate is broadened. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab in patients with advanced mesothelioma in the open-label, single-arm, phase 2 KEYNOTE-158 study.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has few treatment options. Pembrolizumab showed preliminary clinical benefit in programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive MPM. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab monotherapy in patients with previously treated MPM irrespective of PD-L1 status in the KEYNOTE-158 study. Read More

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REDASA: A Secure Continually Updating Web-Source Processing Pipeline supporting a REaltime DAta Synthesis and Analysis of Scientific Literature.

J Med Internet Res 2021 04 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

PanSurg Collaborative, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, GB.

Background: The scale and quality of the global scientific response to the COVID-19 pandemic has unquestionably saved lives. However, COVID-19 has also triggered an unprecedented "infodemic"; the velocity and volume of data production has overwhelmed many key stakeholders such as clinicians and policymakers who have been unable to process structured and unstructured data for evidence-based decision making. Current solutions which aim to alleviate this data synthesis challenge are unable to capture heterogeneous web data in "real-time" for the production of concomitant answers and are not based on the high-quality information in response to a free-text query. Read More

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