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Social and Clinical Determinants of COVID-19 Outcomes: Modeling Real-World Data from a Pandemic Epicenter.

medRxiv 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Importance: As the United States continues to accumulate COVID-19 cases and deaths, and disparities persist, defining the impact of risk factors for poor outcomes across patient groups is imperative.

Objective: Our objective is to use real-world healthcare data to quantify the impact of demographic, clinical, and social determinants associated with adverse COVID-19 outcomes, to identify high-risk scenarios and dynamics of risk among racial and ethnic groups.

Design: A retrospective cohort of COVID-19 patients diagnosed between March 1 and August 20, 2020. Read More

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Blockchain Personal Health Records: Systematic Review.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 13;23(4):e25094. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Blockchain technology has the potential to enable more secure, transparent, and equitable data management. In the health care domain, it has been applied most frequently to electronic health records. In addition to securely managing data, blockchain has significant advantages in distributing data access, control, and ownership to end users. Read More

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Sensitivity to geometric shape regularity in humans and baboons: A putative signature of human singularity.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, NeuroSpin, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette, France;

Among primates, humans are special in their ability to create and manipulate highly elaborate structures of language, mathematics, and music. Here we show that this sensitivity to abstract structure is already present in a much simpler domain: the visual perception of regular geometric shapes such as squares, rectangles, and parallelograms. We asked human subjects to detect an intruder shape among six quadrilaterals. Read More

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An emergency care research course for healthcare career preparation.

BMC Med Educ 2021 Apr 12;21(1):206. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, USA.

Background: University students have limited opportunities to gain healthcare clinical exposure within an academic curriculum. Furthermore, traditional pre-medical clinical experiences like shadowing lack active learning components. This may make it difficult for students to make an informed decision about pursuing biomedical professions. Read More

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Association of psychological distress and religious coping tendencies in parents of children recently diagnosed with cancer: A cross-sectional study.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Apr 12:e28991. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

The Justin Michael Ingerman Center for Palliative Care, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose: Parents of children with cancer exhibit high levels of psychological distress. Parents of children with serious illness report religion and spirituality are important coping resources. We sought to describe characteristics of religion, religious coping, social support, and resiliency in parents of children newly diagnosed with cancer and examine associations between psychological distress and self-reported religious coping, religiosity, resiliency, and social support. Read More

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Deep Segmentation of Point Clouds of Wheat.

Front Plant Sci 2021 24;12:608732. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

National Plant Phenomics Centre, Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, United Kingdom.

The 3D analysis of plants has become increasingly effective in modeling the relative structure of organs and other traits of interest. In this paper, we introduce a novel pattern-based deep neural network, Pattern-Net, for segmentation of point clouds of wheat. This study is the first to segment the point clouds of wheat into defined organs and to analyse their traits directly in 3D space. Read More

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Nitrogen monoxide as dopant for enhanced selectivity of isomeric monoterpenes in drift tube ion mobility spectrometry with H ionization.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute for Instrumental Analytics and Bioanalytics, Mannheim University of Applied Sciences, Paul-Wittsack-Strasse 10, 68163, Mannheim, Germany.

The ion mobility spectra of the isomeric monoterpenes α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, and limonene in drift tube ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) with H radioactive ionization are highly similar and difficult to distinguish. The aim of this work was to enhance the selectivity of IMS by the addition of nitrogen monoxide (NO) as dopant and to investigate the underlying changes in ion formation responsible for the modified ion signals observed in the ion mobility spectra. Even though H-based-IMS systems have been used in hyphenation with gas chromatography (GC) for profiling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the investigation of ion formation still remains challenging and was exemplified by the investigated monoterpenes. Read More

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Neuropsychological spectrum in early PD: insights from controlled and automatic behavioural regulation.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

HM CINAC (Centro Integral en Neurociencias), University Hospital HM Puerta del Sur, CEU San Pablo University, Spain; Network Center for Biomedical Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases, Carlos III Institute, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Initial changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) are marked by loss of automatic movements and decline of some cognitive functions. Yet, the exact profile and extent of cognitive impairments in early stages of PD as well as their mechanisms related to automatic motor dysfunction remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the neuropsychological changes in early PD and their association to automatic and controlled modes of behavioural control. Read More

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Isolation of an Antiaromatic 9-Hydroxy Fluorenyl Cation.

Chemistry 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Universität Bremen, Institut fuer Biologie und Chemie, Leobener Str., 28359, Bremen, GERMANY.

Fluorenyl cations are text book examples of 4π electron antiaromatic five-membered ring systems. So far, they were reported only as short-lived intermediates generated under superacidic conditions or by flash photolysis. Our attempt to prepare a m-terphenyl acylium cation by fluoride abstraction from a benzoyl fluoride, gave rise to an isolable 9-hydroxy fluorenyl cation that formed by an intramolecular electrophilic attack at a flanking mesityl group prior to a 1,2-methyl shift and proton transfer to oxygen. Read More

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An Automatic Ontology-Based Approach to Support Logical Representation of Observable and Measurable Data for Healthy Lifestyle Management: Proof-of-Concept Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 9;23(4):e24656. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Health and Nursing Science, Centre for e-Health, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway.

Background: Lifestyle diseases, because of adverse health behavior, are the foremost cause of death worldwide. An eCoach system may encourage individuals to lead a healthy lifestyle with early health risk prediction, personalized recommendation generation, and goal evaluation. Such an eCoach system needs to collect and transform distributed heterogenous health and wellness data into meaningful information to train an artificially intelligent health risk prediction model. Read More

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Early Chemistry of Nicotine Degradation in Heat-Not-Burn Smoking Devices and Conventional Cigarettes: Implications for Users and Second- and Third-Hand Smokers.

J Phys Chem A 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Clean Combustion Research Center (CCRC), Physical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.

Nicotine exposure results in health risks not only for smokers but also for second- and third-hand smokers. Unraveling nicotine's degradation mechanism and the harmful chemicals that are produced under different conditions is vital to assess exposure risks. We performed a theoretical study to describe the early chemistry of nicotine degradation by investigating two important reactions that nicotine can undergo: hydrogen abstraction by hydroxyl radicals and unimolecular dissociation. Read More

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The Effects of Light-to-Moderate Alcohol Consumption on the Cognitive Function of Community Nondemented Male Elderly: A Cohort Study.

Behav Neurol 2021 25;2021:5681913. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Center, Department of Geriatric Psychiatry, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Aim: To investigate the effects of light-to-moderate drinking on the cognitive function of the elderly in a large elderly community cohort. Although heavy drinking is linked with impaired brain functions, the effects of light-to-moderate drinking on the cognitive function of the elderly are still controversial.

Methods: A total of 1469 nondemented elderly men from 15 research centers in 8 cities and provinces were included and divided into two groups: drinking (531 subjects) and nondrinking (938 subjects). Read More

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Mechanistic study of the biosynthesis of R-phenylacetylcarbinol by acetohydroxyacid synthase enzyme using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 Apr 5:108849. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Departamento de Físico-Química, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile. Electronic address:

The biosynthesis of R-phenylacetylcarbinol (R-PAC) by the acetohydroxy acid synthase, (AHAS) is addressed by molecular dynamics simulations (MD), hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM), and QM/MM free energy calculations. The results show the reaction starts with the nucleophilic attack of the C2α atom of the HEThDP intermediate on the C atom of the carbonyl group of benzaldehyde substrate via the formation of a transition state (TS1) with the HEThDP intermediate under 4'-aminopyrimidium (APH) form. The calculated activation free energy for this step is 17. Read More

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Using the Electronic Health Record to Characterize the Hepatitis C Virus Care Cascade.

Public Health Rep 2021 Apr 8:333549211005812. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Center for Immunization and Infection Research in Cancer, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA.

Objectives: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the main causes of hepatocellular carcinoma. Before initiating a multilevel HCV screening intervention, we sought to (1) describe concordance between the electronic health record (EHR) data warehouse and manual medical record review in recording aspects of HCV testing and treatment and (2) estimate the percentage of patients with chronic HCV infection who initiated and completed HCV treatment using manual medical record review.

Methods: We examined the medical records for 177 patients (100 randomly selected patients born during 1945-1965 without evidence of HCV testing and 77 adult patients of any birth cohort who had completed HCV testing) with a primary care or relevant specialist visit at an academic health care system in Tampa, Florida, from 2015 through 2018. Read More

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Preliminary results of neutron and X-ray diffraction data collection on a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase under reduced and acidic conditions.

Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun 2021 Apr 31;77(Pt 4):128-133. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.

Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper-center enzymes that are involved in the oxidative cleavage of the glycosidic bond in crystalline cellulose and other polysaccharides. The LPMO reaction is initiated by the addition of a reductant and oxygen to ultimately form an unknown activated copper-oxygen species that is responsible for polysaccharide-substrate H-atom abstraction. Given the sensitivity of metalloproteins to radiation damage, neutron protein crystallography provides a nondestructive technique for structural characterization while also informing on the positions of H atoms. Read More

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Insights into the Decomposition and Oxidation Chemistry of -Xylene in Laminar Premixed Flames.

J Phys Chem A 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Key Laboratory for Power Machinery and Engineering of MOE, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, P. R. China.

This work reports an experimental and kinetic modeling investigation on laminar premixed flame of -xylene at 0.04 atm and equivalence ratios of 0.75, 1. Read More

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An Aromatic Universe-A Physical Chemistry Perspective.

J Phys Chem A 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551, United States.

This Perspective presents recent advances in our knowledge of the fundamental elementary mechanisms involved in the low- and high-temperature molecular mass growth processes to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in combustion systems and in extraterrestrial environments (hydrocarbon-rich atmospheres of planets and their moons, cold molecular clouds, circumstellar envelopes). Molecular beam studies combined with electronic structure calculations extracted five key elementary mechanisms: Hydrogen Abstraction-Acetylene Addition, Hydrogen Abstraction-Vinylacetylene Addition, Phenyl Addition-DehydroCyclization, Radical-Radical Reactions, and Methylidyne Addition-Cyclization-Aromatization. These studies, summarized here, provide compelling evidence that key classes of aromatic molecules can be synthesized in extreme environments covering low temperatures in molecular clouds (10 K) and hydrocarbon-rich atmospheres of planets and their moons (35-150 K) to high-temperature environments like circumstellar envelopes of carbon-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars stars and combustion systems at temperatures above 1400 K thus shedding light on the aromatic universe we live in. Read More

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Multigraph Transformer for Free-Hand Sketch Recognition.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Apr 7;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Learning meaningful representations of free-hand sketches remains a challenging task given the signal sparsity and the high-level abstraction of sketches. Existing techniques have focused on exploiting either the static nature of sketches with convolutional neural networks (CNNs) or the temporal sequential property with recurrent neural networks (RNNs). In this work, we propose a new representation of sketches as multiple sparsely connected graphs. Read More

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Live births after in vitro maturation of oocytes in women who had suffered adnexal torsion and unilateral oophorectomy following conventional ovarian stimulation.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Centre for Reproductive Medicine, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 109, Brussels, Belgium.

Purpose: To report the first successful application of in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes resulting in live births in two anovulatory women who had suffered oophorectomy following ovarian torsion after stimulation with gonadotropins.

Methods: Data abstraction was performed from medical records of two subfertile women with excessive functional ovarian reserve. Both women had previously received gonadotropins for ovulation induction or ovarian stimulation, resulting in ovarian torsion. Read More

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An Intervention for the Transition From Pediatric or Adolescent to Adult-Oriented HIV Care: Protocol for the Development and Pilot Implementation of iTransition.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Apr 7;10(4):e24565. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Hubert Department of Global Health, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Background: In the United States, adolescents and young adults are disproportionately affected by HIV and have poorer HIV-related health outcomes than adults. Health care transition (HCT) from pediatric or adolescent to adult-oriented HIV care is associated with disruptions to youths' care retention, medication adherence, and viral suppression. However, no evidence-based interventions exist to improve HCT outcomes for youth living with HIV. Read More

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Pursuit of an Electron Deficient Titanium Nitride.

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States.

The nitride salt [(PN)Ti≡N{μ-K(OEt)}] () (PN = (-(2-PPr-4-methylphenyl)-2,4,6-MeCH) can be oxidized with two equiv of I or four equiv of ClCPh to produce the phosphinimide-halide complexes (NPN')(PN)Ti(X) (X = I (), Cl (); NPN' = N-(2-NPPr-4-methylphenyl)-2,4,6-MeCH), respectively. In the case of , H was found to be one of the other products; whereas, HCPh and Gomberg's dimer were observed upon the formation of . Independent studies suggest that the oxidation of could imply the formation of the transient nitridyl species [(PN)Ti(≡N•)] (), which can either oxidize the proximal phosphine atom to produce the Ti(III) intermediate [(NPN')(PN)Ti] () or, alternatively, engage in H atom abstraction to form the parent imido (PN)Ti≡NH (). Read More

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A detailed kinetic model for the thermal decomposition of hydroxylamine.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Mar 17;416:125641. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

DICAM - Università di Bologna, Via Terracini 28, 40131 Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

Hydroxylamine may decompose explosively if processed and stored in certain conditions, posing critical safety issues that need to be carefully addressed. A key aspect is related to the characterization of chemical aspects involved in the explosive decomposition of hydroxylamine (HA), requiring accurate and detailed kinetic mechanisms. This work was devoted to the experimental and numerical characterization of the thermal decomposition of aqueous solutions of HA included in the range of 10% to 50%. Read More

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Synthesis of gold(I)-trifluoromethyl complexes and their role in generating spectroscopic evidence for a gold(I)-difluorocarbene species.

Chemistry 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Ghent University: Universiteit Gent, Chemistry, BELGIUM.

Readily-prepared and bench-stable [Au(CF 3 )(NHC)] compounds were synthesized using new methodologies, starting from [Au(OH)(NHC)], [Au(Cl)(NHC)] or [Au(L)(NHC)]HF 2 precursors (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene). The mechanism of formation of these species was investigated. Consequently, a new and straightforward strategy for the mild and selective cleavage of a single carbon-fluorine bond from [Au(CF 3 )(NHC)] complexes was attempted and found to be reversible in the presence of an additional nucleophilic fluoride source. Read More

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SafetyCube: Framework for potential pedestrian risk analysis using multi-dimensional OLAP.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Apr 2;155:106104. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon, South Korea. Electronic address:

In the past decade, the number of road traffic accidents and fatalities has remained about the same level. One of strategies to protect vulnerable road users (VRUs) is to analyze the factors that cause traffic accident and then to deploy safety facilities. However, most traffic safety systems currently in operation rely on historical data, which is post-facto approach. Read More

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Symbolic categorization of novel multisensory stimuli in the human brain.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 2:118016. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Centre for Mind/Brain Sciences, University of Trento, Italy.

When primates (both human and non-human) learn to categorize simple visual or acoustic stimuli by means of non-verbal matching tasks, two types of changes occur in their brain: early sensory cortices increase the precision with which they encode sensory information, and parietal and lateral prefrontal cortices develop a categorical response to the stimuli. Contrary to non-human animals, however, our species mostly constructs categories using linguistic labels. Moreover, we naturally tend to define categories by means of multiple sensory features of the stimuli. Read More

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Lateralized Effect of Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation Location on Verbal Abstraction.

Mov Disord 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Brain Modulation Lab, Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Regionalized thalamic activity has been implicated in language function, and yet the effect of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) on language-related clinical outcomes is underexplored.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if the location of stimulation within the thalamus correlates with changes in language-related neuropsychological outcomes following DBS for essential tremor.

Methods: Thirty patients with essential tremor underwent comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations before and after DBS surgery targeting the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus. Read More

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Cortisol and polycystic ovarian syndrome - a systematic search and meta-analysis of case-control studies.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2021 Apr 5:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Physiology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, SRIHER, Chennai, India.

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has become an emerging disorder affecting women of reproductive age group. Its intricate presentation of signs and symptoms makes it a disease of interest to research. While there are varied hypotheses related to its cause and pathogenesis, role of stress in this disease is yet to be grounded. Read More

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Impact of irrigation practices on Gilgel Abay, Ribb and Gumara fisheries, Tana Sub-Basin, Ethiopia.

Heliyon 2021 Mar 19;7(3):e06523. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Biology, College of Science, Bahir Dar University, P.O. Box 79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

In Ethiopia, particularly in Tana Sub-Basin, irrigation development practice is increasing. However, this development ignored the fisheries; no, enough information about its effects. The sub-basin is rich in fisheries, including the 17 species (the only remaining cyprinid species in the world). Read More

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Legal document similarity: a multi-criteria decision-making perspective.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2020 23;6:e262. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Department of Information Science and Engineering, CMR Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

The vast volume of documents available in legal databases demands effective information retrieval approaches which take into consideration the intricacies of the legal domain. Relevant document retrieval is the backbone of the legal domain. The concept of relevance in the legal domain is very complex and multi-faceted. Read More

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The Origin of Niches and Species in the Bacterial World.

Front Microbiol 2021 17;12:657986. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

National Center for Biotechnology (CNB-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

Niches are spaces for the biological units of selection, from cells to complex communities. In a broad sense, "species" are biological units of individuation. Niches do not exist without individual organisms, and every organism has a niche. Read More

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