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Effect of sugar metabolite methylglyoxal on equine lamellar explants: An ex vivo model of laminitis.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(7):e0253840. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Turin, Grugliasco (TO), Italy.

Laminitis is one of the most devastating diseases in equine medicine, and although several etiopathogenetic mechanisms have been proposed, few clear answers have been identified to date. Several lines of evidence point towards its underlying pathology as being metabolism-related. In the carbonyl stress pathway, sugars are converted to methylglyoxal (MG)-a highly reactive α-oxoaldehyde, mainly derived during glycolysis in eukaryotic cells from the triose phosphates: D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Read More

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Determination of Pendimethalin Dynamic Residual Distribution in Crucian Carp Tissues and Associated Risk Assessment.

Int J Anal Chem 2021 2;2021:9984230. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Key Laboratory of Control of Quality and Safety for Aquatic Products (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs), Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Beijing 100141, China.

Pendimethalin has been considered a moderately to extremely toxic compound for fish and aquatic organism. This study developed the determination of dynamic residual distribution for pendimethalin in crucian carp tissues (muscle, liver, kidney, gill, and blood) under semistatic exposure system by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method. The pendimethalin residues in various fish tissues increased initially and then decreased, and the residue amount of pendimethalin varied from tissue to tissue of crucian carp. Read More

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A chronic low-dose magnesium L-lactate administration has a beneficial effect on the myocardium and the skeletal muscles.

J Physiol Biochem 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

INRAE, UNH, Unité de Nutrition Humaine, CRNH Auvergne, Université Clermont Auvergne, 28 Place Henri Dunant, 63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether magnesium L-lactate is responsible for having a beneficial effect on the myocardium and the skeletal muscles and how this substrate acts at the molecular level. Twenty seven young male Wistar rats were supplied with a magnesium L-lactate (L) solution, a magnesium chloride (M) solution and/or water (W) as a vehicle for 10 weeks. The treated animals absorbed the L and M solutions as they wished since they also had free access to water. Read More

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Life-Threatening Mediastinal Hematoma Formation After Removal of the Hemodialysis Catheter in a Boxer: A Case Report.

Front Vet Sci 2021 5;8:691472. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Small Animal Clinic, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

A 4-year-old female Boxer was referred for renal replacement therapy 2 days after observed grape ingestion. An 11-French dual-lumen dialysis catheter was placed into the right jugular vein and continuous renal replacement therapy was initiated for 66 h. Afterwards the patient received enoxaparin subcutaneously as a thromboprophylaxis. Read More

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Atractylenolides (I, II, and III): a review of their pharmacology and pharmacokinetics.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, P. R. China.

Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz is a widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine. Atractylenolides (-I, -II, and -III) are a class of lactone compounds derived from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. Research into atractylenolides over the past two decades has shown that atractylenolides have anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet, anti-osteoporosis, and antibacterial activity; protect the nervous system; and regulate blood glucose and lipids. Read More

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CGRP measurements in human plasma - a methodological study.

Cephalalgia 2021 Jul 16:3331024211024161. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Neurology, Headache Outpatient Clinic, Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria.

Background: Calcitonin gene-related peptide plasma levels have frequently been determined as a biomarker for primary headaches. However, published data is often inconsistent resulting from different methods that are not precisely described in most studies.

Methods: We applied a well-proven enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure calcitonin gene-related peptide concentrations in human blood plasma, we modified parameters of plasma preparation and protein purification and used calcitonin gene-related peptide-free plasma for standard solutions, which are described in detail. Read More

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Retinoblastoma cell-derived exosomes promote angiogenesis of human vesicle endothelial cells through microRNA-92a-3p.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jul 13;12(7):695. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, No.7 Jinsui Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou City, China.

Exosomes derived from tumor cells play a key role in tumor development. In the present study, we identified the bioactivity of exosomes released from WERI-Rb1 retinoblastoma cells in tumor angiogenesis, as well as the underlying mechanism, through biochemical methods and animal experiments. Our in vitro data showed that exosomes could be engulfed by human vesicle endothelial cells (HUVECs), significantly promote cell viability and induce an inflammatory response in HUVECs by increasing the expression of a series of related genes, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, VCAM1, and ICAM1. Read More

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WOMAN-PharmacoTXA trial: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial to assess the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intramuscular, intravenous and oral administration of tranexamic acid in women giving birth by caesarean section.

Wellcome Open Res 2021 16;6:157. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Clinical Trials Unit, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.

Intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) within 3 hours of birth significantly reduces death due to bleeding in women with postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Most PPH deaths occur in the first hours after giving birth and treatment delay decreases survival.  One barrier to rapid TXA treatment is the need for intravenous injection. Read More

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Lung-deposited dose of particulate matter from residential exposure to smoke from wood burning.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, 73100, Chania, Greece.

Residential settings are of utmost importance for human exposure, as it is where people spend most of their time. Residential wood combustion is a widespread practice known as a source of indoor particulate matter (PM). Nevertheless, research on the risks of exposure associated with this source is scarce, and a better understanding of respiratory deposition of smoke particles is needed. Read More

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KERMA-AREA PRODUCT, ENTRANCE SURFACE DOSE AND EFFECTIVE DOSE IN ABDOMINAL ENDOVASCULAR ANEURYSM REPAIR.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2021 Jul;194(2-3):121-134

Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras, Greece.

This study aims to evaluate patient radiation dose during fluoroscopically guided endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) procedures. Fluoroscopy time (FT) and kerma-area product (KAP) were recorded from 87 patients that underwent EVAR procedures with a mobile C-arm fluoroscopy system. Effective dose (ED) and organs' doses were calculated utilising appropriate conversion coefficients based on the recorded KAP values. Read More

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[Effect of iron deficiency level on oral iron absorption].

Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 May;42(5):402-406

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Blood Diseases, Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300020, China.

To study the effect of iron deficiency level for oral iron absorption in iron deficient patients. 37 non-pregnant female patients who were diagnosed with iron deficiency and 13 healthy females who completed their physical examination at the outpatient department of the Anemia Center of the Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital from July 2018 to June 2020 were included. Hepcidin and C2-C0 of oral iron absorption test were analyzed in different iron deficiency and serum ferritin level. Read More

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Tissue distribution and sublethal effects of imidacloprid in the South American grayish baywing (Agelaioides badius).

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 28;284:131327. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Instituto de Recursos Biológicos, Centro de Investigaciones de Recursos Naturales (CIRN), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Hurlingham, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina.

The neonicotinoids are globally used insecticides, which have been shown to cause negative impacts on birds. The current study aimed to evaluate the distribution of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (IMI) in the tissues of a songbird and identify related physiological effects. Adults of the grayish baywing (Agelaioides baduis) were administered with a single dose of 35 mg IMI/kg, and the IMI concentration was evaluated in liver, kidney and plasma at 4, 12, 24, and 48 h after dosing. Read More

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Antihypertensive activity of orally consumed ACE-I inhibitory peptides.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 2:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Nitte University Center for Science Education and Research (NUCSER), Mangaluru, Karnataka, India.

Food proteins are sources for ACE-I inhibitory peptides that can be extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis exhibiting anti-hypertensive activity. However, these peptides are prone to further degradation by gastrointestinal enzymes during oral consumption. Bio-activity of these peptides is dependent on the resultant peptide post gastrointestinal digestion. Read More

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UV Light-Generated Superhydrophilicity of a Titanium Surface Enhances the Transfer, Diffusion and Adsorption of Osteogenic Factors from a Collagen Sponge.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 24;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1668, USA.

It is a significant challenge for a titanium implant, which is a bio-inert material, to recruit osteogenic factors, such as osteoblasts, proteins and blood effectively when these are contained in a biomaterial. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of ultraviolet (UV)-treatment of titanium on surface wettability and the recruitment of osteogenic factors when they are contained in an atelocollagen sponge. UV treatment of a dental implant made of commercially pure titanium was performed with UV-light for 12 min immediately prior to the experiments. Read More

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Morphological characterization using scanning electron microscopy of fly artifacts deposited by Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on household materials.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Unit of Legal Medicine, University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 49, 40126, Bologna, Italy.

Insects found at a crime scene can produce traces referred to as fly artifacts (FA) due to their movement over the corpse and the manner in which they feed upon it. These can be detrimental for carrying out criminal investigations. Confusing a FA with a genuine bloodspot can lead to misinterpretations, also taking into consideration that FA may contain a human DNA profile. Read More

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Phase I clinical trial to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of capsule formulation of the standardized extract of .

J Tradit Complement Med 2021 Jul 4;11(4):343-355. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Center of Excellence in Pharmacology and Molecular Biology of Malaria and Cholangiocarcinoma, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand.

Background And Aim: (AL) has been demonstrated in a series of studies to be a potential candidate for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of the capsule formulation of the standardized AL extract in healthy Thai participants.

Experimental Procedure: Forty-eight healthy Thai participants who fulfilled the inclusion and had none of the exclusion criteria were allocated to two study groups. Read More

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A Whole-Body Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Alpha Particle Emitting Bismuth in Rats.

Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

α particle emitting bismuth (Bi) as decay product of Pb-labeled pharmaceuticals has been effective in targeted α particle therapy (TAT). Estimating the contribution of Bi released from its chelator to the absorbed doses in nontarget tissues is challenging in TAT. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can help overcome this limitation. Read More

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Dietary vitamin E reaches the mitochondria in the flight muscle of zebra finches but only if they exercise.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(6):e0253264. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Natural Resources Science, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, United States of America.

Whether dietary antioxidants are effective for alleviating oxidative costs associated with energy-demanding life events first requires they are successfully absorbed in the digestive tract and transported to sites associated with reactive species production (e.g. the mitochondria). Read More

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Lead uptake into calcified and keratinized compartments of horns from a convenience sample of lead-dosed goats.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2021 Sep 25;84(18):729-742. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

New York State Department of Health, Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, Albany, NY USA.

Hair and/or nail analyses are sometimes used in biomonitoring studies due to the convenience of sample collection, storage, and transport, as well as the potential to assess past exposures to toxic metals, such as lead (Pb). However, the validity of Pb measurements in these keratinized matrices as biomarkers of absorbed dose remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the uptake of Pb into horns harvested from 11 goats that received a cumulative oral dose of up to 151 g Pb acetate over a period of 1-11 years as part of a long-term blood Pb proficiency testing program. Read More

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September 2021

A phase 1, randomized study to evaluate safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of GDC-3280, a potential novel anti-fibrotic small molecule, in healthy subjects.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jun 21;69:102051. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive lung disease. Although anti-fibrotic treatments, such as pirfenidone, are available that reduce the rate of disease progression, these medications have limitations in tolerability, and IPF patients still have poor prognoses. GDC-3280, an orally available small molecule that was designed to improve upon pirfenidone's activity, has anti-fibrotic activity in animal models. Read More

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Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of oral baicalein tablets in healthy Chinese subjects: A single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multiple-ascending-dose study.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Baicalein is a biologically important flavonoid in extracted from the Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, which can effectively inhibit the influenza virus. This study aimed to analyze the safety and pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics of baicalein tablets in healthy Chinese subjects and provide more information for phase II clinical trials. In this multiple-ascending-dose placebo-controlled trial, 36 healthy subjects were randomized to receive 200, 400, and 600 mg of baicalein tablet or placebo once daily on day 1 and day 10, 3 times daily on days 4-9. Read More

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A case of gadobenate dimeglumine-induced anaphylactic shock: a case report.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Jun 15;10(6):7126-7131. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pharmacy, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

A 70-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to "liver cirrhosis; grade 3 hypertension; pulmonary infection". On May 27, 2019, during upper abdomen plain and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), the patient experienced anaphylactic shock, manifested as sudden unconsciousness and lack of response, after intravenous administration of gadobenate dimeglumine (Multihance®). Gadobenate dimeglumine is a paramagnetic contrast used during diagnostic MRI. Read More

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Discovery of quality markers in Rubus Chingii Hu using UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Sep 10;203:114200. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650201, China; Laboratory of Metabolomics and Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-related Molecular Network, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610000, China. Electronic address:

Raspberry, the fruit of Rubus Chingii Hu, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to nourish kidney and strengthen Yang-qi. In order to determine the quality of raspberry, the quality markers (Q-markers) of raspberry that can improve renal function were investigated using UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS in this study. The results of serum pharmacochemistry indicated that six components rutin, ellagic acid, kaempferol-3-rutinoside, astragalin, tiliroside, and goshonoside F5 in raspberry were absorbed into rat blood. Read More

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September 2021

Improvements in Glycemic Control Achieved by Altering the t Setting in the iLet Bionic Pancreas When Using Fast-Acting Insulin Aspart: A Randomized Trial.

Diabetes Ther 2021 Jul 19;12(7):2019-2033. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.

Introduction: We investigated the safety of, and glucose control by, the insulin-only configuration of the iLet bionic pancreas delivering fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart), using the same insulin-dosing algorithm but different time to maximal serum drug concentration (t) settings, in adults with type 1 diabetes.

Methods: We performed a single-center, single-blinded, crossover (two 7-day treatment periods) escalation trial over three sequential cohorts. Participants from each cohort were randomized to a default t setting (t [t = 65 min]) followed by a non-default t setting (t [t = 50 min; cohort 1], t [t = 40 min; cohort 2], t [t = 30 min; cohort 3]), or vice versa, all with faster aspart. Read More

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Systematic Investigation for the mechanisms and the substance basis of Yang-Xin-Ding-Ji Gapsule based on the metabolite profile and network pharmacology.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 Jun 19:e5202. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Science, Beijing, P. R. China.

Since Traditional Chinese Medicine is a complex mixture of multiple components, the application of methodologies for evaluating single-components Western medicine in TCM studies may have certain limitations. Appropriate strategies that recognize the integrality of TCM and connect to TCM theories remain to be developed. Yang-Xin-Ding-Ji Capsule is originally from a classical traditional Chinese medicine formula used for the treatment of arrhythmia. Read More

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Pharmacokinetics of gallic acid and protocatechuic acid in humans after dosing with Relinqing (RLQ) and the potential for RLQ-perpetrated drug-drug interactions on organic anion transporter (OAT) 1/3.

Pharm Biol 2021 Dec;59(1):757-768

Second Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, PR China.

Context: Relinqing granules (RLQ) are being used alone or in combination with antibacterial drugs to treat urological disorders.

Objective: This study investigates the pharmacokinetics of RLQ in humans and the potential for RLQ-perpetrated interactions on transporters.

Materials And Methods: Twelve healthy subjects (six women and six men) participated to compare single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of RLQ. Read More

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December 2021

Fucose as a Cleavage Product of 2'Fucosyllactose Does Not Cross the Blood-Brain Barrier in Mice.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Jun 17:e2100045. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, 35392, Germany.

Scope: To further examine the role of the human milk oligosaccharide 2'fucosyllactose (2´FL) and fucose (Fuc) in cognition. Using C-labeled 2'FL,thestudy previously showed in mice that C-enrichment of the brain is not caused by C -2´FL itself, but rather by microbial metabolites. Here, the study applies C -Fuc in the same mouse model to investigate its uptake into the brain. Read More

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Optimisation of the Conversion and Extraction of Arctigenin From Into Arctiin Using Fungi.

Front Microbiol 2021 31;12:663116. Epub 2021 May 31.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

is commonly used in Chinese medicine, and arctiin and arctigenin are its main active ingredients. Arctiin has low bioavailability in the human body and needs to be converted into arctigenin by intestinal microbes before it can be absorbed into the blood. Arctigenin has antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumour effects and its development has important value. Read More

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PHARMACOKINETICS OF A SINGLE ORAL DOSE OF PONAZURIL IN THE INDIAN PEAFOWL ().

J Zoo Wildl Med 2021 Jun;52(2):548-554

Wildlife Conservation Society, Zoological Health Program, Bronx Zoo, Bronx, NY 10460, USA.

Ponazuril, a novel coccidiocidal triazinetrione, has shown promise in addressing apicomplexan diseases in mammals and birds. This study describes the pharmacokinetics of ponazuril in healthy adult Indian peafowl () following a single oral dose administered at two different dosages. Peafowl (four males and four females) were administered compounded ponazuril at 20 or 40 mg/kg orally in a double crossover design, with a 2-wk washout period. Read More

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