9,129 results match your criteria absence epilepsy

Sensitivity of Uni- vs Bilateral Spike-Wave Discharges to Ethosuximide and Carbamazepine in the Fluid Percussion Injury Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Neurophysiol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, United Statesgrid.266190.a.

Unilateral-onset spike-wave discharges (SWDs) following fluid percussion injury (FPI) in rats have been used for nearly two decades as a model for complex partial seizures in human post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). This study determined if SWDs with a unilateral versus bilateral cortical onset differed. In this experiment, 2-month old rats received severe FPI (3 atm) or sham surgery, and were instrumented for chronic video-electrocorticography (ECoG) recording (up to 9 months). Read More

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The Gut-Brain-Microbiome Axis and Its Link to Autism: Emerging Insights and the Potential of Zebrafish Models.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 15;9:662916. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, United States.

Research involving autism spectrum disorder (ASD) most frequently focuses on its key diagnostic criteria: restricted interests and repetitive behaviors, altered sensory perception, and communication impairments. These core criteria, however, are often accompanied by numerous comorbidities, many of which result in severe negative impacts on quality of life, including seizures, epilepsy, sleep disturbance, hypotonia, and GI distress. While ASD is a clinically heterogeneous disorder, gastrointestinal (GI) distress is among the most prevalent co-occurring symptom complex, manifesting in upward of 70% of all individuals with ASD. Read More

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Foreign Body Reaction to Implanted Biomaterials and Its Impact in Nerve Neuroprosthetics.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 15;9:622524. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

The implantation of any foreign material into the body leads to the development of an inflammatory and fibrotic process-the foreign body reaction (FBR). Upon implantation into a tissue, cells of the immune system become attracted to the foreign material and attempt to degrade it. If this degradation fails, fibroblasts envelop the material and form a physical barrier to isolate it from the rest of the body. Read More

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Case Report and Review of the Literature: A New and a Recurrent Variant in the Gene Are Associated With Isolated Lethal Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, Hyperlactatemia, and Pulmonary Hypertension in Early Infancy.

Front Pediatr 2021 16;9:660076. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Medical Genetics, Kepler University Hospital Med Campus IV, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria.

Mitochondriopathies represent a wide spectrum of miscellaneous disorders with multisystem involvement, which are caused by various genetic changes. The establishment of the diagnosis of mitochondriopathy is often challenging. Recently, several mutations of the gene encoding the mitochondrial valyl-tRNA synthetase were associated with early onset encephalomyopathies or encephalocardiomyopathies with major clinical features such as hypotonia, developmental delay, brain MRI changes, epilepsy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and plasma lactate elevation. Read More

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Xp11.2 Duplication in Females: Unique Features of a Rare Copy Number Variation.

Front Genet 2021 14;12:635458. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Medical Genetics, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.

Among the diseases with X-linked inheritance and intellectual disability, duplication of the Xp11.23p11.22 region is indeed a rare phenomenon, with less than 90 cases known in the literature. Read More

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Social Cognition in Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Epilepsy.

Front Neurol 2021 14;12:658823. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy.

The purpose of our study was to perform a comparative analysis of social cognition in children and adolescents with epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), specific learning disorder (SLD) and in typical development (TD) controls. The secondary aim was to relate social cognition to some clinical and demographic characteristics. Our work is a transversal observational study. Read More

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CSF and Serum Biomarkers of Cerebral Damage in Autoimmune Epilepsy.

Front Neurol 2021 16;12:647428. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Epileptology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Our goal was to investigate whether biomarkers of cerebral damage are found in autoimmune-mediated epilepsy (AIE) and whether these can differentiate AIE from other seizure disorders. We retrospectively searched our cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) database for patients with definite AIE, hippocampal sclerosis due to other causes (HS), genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), and psychogenic, non-epileptic seizures (PNES). We measured serum and CSF tau, neurofilament 1 (NFL), glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), and ubiquitin-carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 with a single-molecule array. Read More

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Agitation and Dementia: Prevention and Treatment Strategies in Acute and Chronic Conditions.

Front Neurol 2021 16;12:644317. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

Agitation is a behavioral syndrome characterized by increased, often undirected, motor activity, restlessness, aggressiveness, and emotional distress. According to several observations, agitation prevalence ranges from 30 to 50% in Alzheimer's disease, 30% in dementia with Lewy bodies, 40% in frontotemporal dementia, and 40% in vascular dementia (VaD). With an overall prevalence of about 30%, agitation is the third most common neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in dementia, after apathy and depression, and it is even more frequent (80%) in residents of nursing homes. Read More

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Gender and Socioeconomic Disparities in Global Burden of Epilepsy: An Analysis of Time Trends From 1990 to 2017.

Front Neurol 2021 16;12:643450. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

The objective of the study is to investigate the gender and socioeconomic disparities in the global burden of epilepsy by prevalence and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). The global, regional, and national gender-specific prevalence and DALYs caused by epilepsy by year and age were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2017. The Gini coefficient and concentration index (CI) were calculated to demonstrate the trends in between-country inequality in the epilepsy burden from 1990 to 2017. Read More

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Spatial-Temporal Functional Mapping Combined With Cortico-Cortical Evoked Potentials in Predicting Cortical Stimulation Results.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 14;15:661976. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Functional human brain mapping is commonly performed during invasive monitoring with intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) electrodes prior to resective surgery for drug- resistant epilepsy. The current gold standard, electrocortical stimulation mapping (ESM), is time -consuming, sometimes elicits pain, and often induces after discharges or seizures. Moreover, there is a risk of overestimating eloquent areas due to propagation of the effects of stimulation to a broader network of language cortex. Read More

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Anticonvulsive profile of two GABA receptor antagonists on acute seizure mice models.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Apr 20;174:106644. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Inserm, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, HMNO, CBP, CHRU Lille & EA 7364 - RADEME, North France University Lille, 2, Bld Prof Jules Leclercq, 59037, Lille, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: DL-3-hydroxy-3-phenylpentanamide (HEPP) and DL-3-hydroxy-3-(4'chlorophenyl)-pentanamide (Cl-HEPP) are phenyl-alcohol-amides that are metabotropic GABAB receptor (MGBR) antagonists and protective against absence seizures. This study aims to further characterize the anticonvulsant profile of these drugs.

Methods: HEPP and Cl-HEPP were evaluated in various standardized acute seizure and toxic tests in female Swiss-OF1 mice. Read More

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Astroglial Glutamine Synthetase and the Pathogenesis of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

Front Neurol 2021 13;12:665334. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States.

The enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS), also referred to as glutamate ammonia ligase, is abundant in astrocytes and catalyzes the conversion of ammonia and glutamate to glutamine. Deficiency or dysfunction of astrocytic GS in discrete brain regions have been associated with several types of epilepsy, including medically-intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), neocortical epilepsies, and glioblastoma-associated epilepsy. Moreover, experimental inhibition or deletion of GS in the entorhinal-hippocampal territory of laboratory animals causes an MTLE-like syndrome characterized by spontaneous, recurrent hippocampal-onset seizures, loss of hippocampal neurons, and in some cases comorbid depressive-like features. Read More

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Optimized Parameters for Transducing the Locus Coeruleus Using Canine Adenovirus Type 2 (CAV2) Vector in Rats for Chemogenetic Modulation Research.

Front Neurosci 2021 13;15:663337. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

4BRAIN, Institute for Neuroscience, Department Head and Skin, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Introduction: The locus coeruleus noradrenergic (LC-NA) system is studied for its role in various neurological and psychiatric disorders such as epilepsy and Major Depression Dissorder. Chemogenetics is a powerful technique for specific manipulation of the LC to investigate its functioning. Local injection of AAV2/7 viral vectors has limitations with regards to efficiency and specificity of the transduction, potentially due to low tropism of AAV2/7 for LC neurons. Read More

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How Does the Cause of Infantile Hemiparesis Influence Other Conditioning Factors? A Preliminary Study in a Spanish Population.

Children (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;8(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Nursery, Physiotherapy and Podiatry, University of Seville, 41009 Seville, Spain.

Infantile hemiparesis may be associated with significant morbidity and may have a profound impact on a child's physical and social development. Infantile hemiparesis is associated with motor dysfunction as well as additional neurologic impairments, including sensory loss, mental retardation, epilepsy, and vision, hearing, or speech impairments. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between the cause of infantile hemiparesis and birth (gestational age), age of diagnosis, and associated disorders present in children with infantile hemiparesis aged 0 to 3 years. Read More

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Age-related morphological differences in the spike-and-wave complexes of absence epilepsy.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Apr 22;174:106647. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.

Objective: Absence epilepsy shows age-related clinical features, as is observed in childhood and juvenile absence epilepsy. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is characterized by bursts of 3 Hz spike-and-wave complex (SWC). We noticed a morphological variation of the slow-wave component of SWCs between patients. Read More

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Phenotypic Spectrum of Seizure Disorders in MBD5-Associated Neurodevelopmental Disorder.

Neurol Genet 2021 Apr 18;7(2):e579. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (K.M.), Montreal, PQ; Division of Child Neurology (K.M.), Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, PQ; Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery (K.M.), Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, PQ; Child Neurology and Psychiatry (C.M.), Salesi Pediatric Hospital, United Hospitals of Ancona, Ancona, Italy; Division of Genetic Medicine (G.L.C., J.N., H.C.M.), Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Department of Neurology (A.M.), Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK; Developmental Neurosciences Programme (A.M.), UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, UK; Neurology Network Melbourne (J.P.), Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Murdoch Children's Research Institute (C.S., I.E.S.), Parkville, Victoria, Australia; Department of Paediatrics and Child Health (T.S.), School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand; Division of Neurology (S.M.), Department of Pediatrics, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; Neurology Unit and Neurogenetic Laboratories (C.B., A.R., R.G.), Meyer Children's Hospital, Florence, Italy; Department of Clinical Genetics (R.H.S.), Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK; Epilepsy Research Centre (I.E.S.), Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia; Department of Paediatrics (I.E.S.), Royal Children's Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; and The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health (I.E.S.), Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: To describe the phenotypic spectrum in patients with MBD5-associated neurodevelopmental disorder (MAND) and seizures; features of MAND include intellectual disability, epilepsy, psychiatric features of aggression and hyperactivity, and dysmorphic features including short stature and microcephaly, sleep disturbance, and ataxia.

Methods: We performed phenotyping on patients with deletions, duplications, or point mutations and a history of seizures.

Results: Twenty-three patients with MAND and seizures were included. Read More

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Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α7 Subunit Is an Essential Regulator of Seizure Susceptibility.

Front Neurol 2021 12;12:656752. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Rehabilitation & Sports Medicine Research Institute of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, China.

A large body of data has confirmed that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a pivotal role in cognition, memory, and other neuropsychiatric diseases, but their effect on seizure susceptibility in C57BL/6 wild-type mice is not fully understood. Here, we showed that decreased activity of α7 nAChRs could increase the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons and shorten the onset time of epilepsy in pilocarpine-induced mouse models. However, compared with the control group, there was no apparent effect of increasing the activity of α7 nAChRs. Read More

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Case Report: Autoimmune Encephalitis Associated With Anti-glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Antibodies: A Pediatric Case Series.

Front Neurol 2021 12;12:641024. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Neurology, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are associated with various neurologic conditions described in patients, including stiff person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia, refractory epilepsy, and limbic and extralimbic encephalitis. There have been some case reports and investigations regarding anti-GAD65 antibody-associated encephalitis in adult populations, but pediatric cases are rare. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of three anti-GAD65 antibody-positive patients to explore the diversity and clinical features of anti-GAD65 antibody-associated pediatric autoimmune encephalitis. Read More

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Cognitive and Emotional Mapping With SEEG.

Front Neurol 2021 12;12:627981. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Mapping of cortical functions is critical for the best clinical care of patients undergoing epilepsy and tumor surgery, but also to better understand human brain function and connectivity. The purpose of this review is to explore existing and potential means of mapping higher cortical functions, including stimulation mapping, passive mapping, and connectivity analyses. We examine the history of mapping, differences between subdural and stereoelectroencephalographic approaches, and some risks and safety aspects, before examining different types of functional mapping. Read More

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Removal of Electrocardiogram Artifacts From Local Field Potentials Recorded by Sensing-Enabled Neurostimulator.

Front Neurosci 2021 12;15:637274. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

National Engineering Laboratory for Neuromodulation, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Sensing-enabled neurostimulators are an advanced technology for chronic observation of brain activities, and show great potential for closed-loop neuromodulation and as implantable brain-computer interfaces. However, local field potentials (LFPs) recorded by sensing-enabled neurostimulators can be contaminated by electrocardiogram (ECG) signals due to complex recording conditions and limited common-mode-rejection-ratio (CMRR). In this study, we propose a solution for removing such ECG artifacts from local field potentials (LFPs) recorded by a sensing-enabled neurostimulator. Read More

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Specific vagus nerve stimulation parameters alter serum cytokine levels in the absence of inflammation.

Bioelectron Med 2020 Apr 10;6(1). Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Laboratory of Biomedical Science, Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research, Northwell Health, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY, 11030, USA.

Background: Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves is a widely used technique to treat a variety of conditions including chronic pain, motor impairment, headaches, and epilepsy. Nerve stimulation to achieve efficacious symptomatic relief depends on the proper selection of electrical stimulation parameters to recruit the appropriate fibers within a nerve. Recently, electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve has shown promise for controlling inflammation and clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Read More

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Mitochondrial complex I abnormalities is associated with tau and clinical symptoms in mild Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Neurodegener 2021 Apr 26;16(1):28. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Translational Neuroimaging Laboratory, McGill University Research Centre for Studies in Aging, Douglas Research Institute, Le Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux (CIUSSS) de l'Ouest-de-l'Île-de-Montréal; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Psychiatry and Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, 6875 Boulevard LaSalle, Montreal, H4H 1R3, Canada.

Background: Mitochondrial electron transport chain abnormalities have been reported in postmortem pathological specimens of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear how amyloid and tau are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo. The purpose of this study is to assess the local relationships between mitochondrial dysfunction and AD pathophysiology in mild AD using the novel mitochondrial complex I PET imaging agent [F]BCPP-EF. Read More

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Kv1.1 subunits localize to cardiorespiratory brain networks in mice where their absence induces astrogliosis and microgliosis.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2021 Apr 24;113:103615. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Cellular Biology & Anatomy, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Cardiorespiratory collapse following a seizure is a suspected cause of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), the leading cause of epilepsy-related mortality. In the commonly used Kcna1 gene knockout (Kcna1) mouse model of SUDEP, cardiorespiratory profiling reveals an array of aberrant breathing patterns that could contribute to risk of seizure-related mortality. However, the brain structures mediating these respiratory abnormalities remain unknown. Read More

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Cognitive complaints in brain tumor patients and their relatives' perspectives.

Neurooncol Pract 2021 Apr 21;8(2):160-170. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Center of Excellence for Rehabilitation Medicine Utrecht, UMC Utrecht Brain Center, University Medical Center Utrecht and De Hoogstraat Rehabilitation, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Cognitive deficits have been frequently assessed in brain tumor patients. However, self-reported cognitive complaints have received little attention so far. Cognitive complaints are important as they often interfere with participation in society. Read More

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Genetic Etiologies in Developmental and/or Epileptic Encephalopathy With Electrical Status Epilepticus During Sleep: Cohort Study.

Front Genet 2021 8;12:607965. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Recently, the electroencephalogram pattern of electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) had been reported in some genetic disorders, and most of them were noted with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) or epileptic encephalopathy (EE). This study aimed to determine the genetic etiologies and clinical characteristics of ESES in DEE/EE.

Methods: We performed a cohort study in cases of DEE or EE with ESES. Read More

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Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood: Genotype-Phenotype Correlations in a Cohort of 39 Italian Patients.

Front Neurol 2021 8;12:658451. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a rare neurological disease characterized by paroxysmal movement disorders and chronic neurological disturbances, with onset before 18 months of age. Mutations in the gene have been identified in up to 80% of patients. Thirty-nine patients [20 females, 19 males, mean age 25. Read More

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The Correlation of ELP4-PAX6 With Rolandic Spike Sources in Idiopathic Rolandic Epilepsy Syndromes.

Front Neurol 2021 9;12:643964. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

To study the single nucleotide polymorphism rs662702 of ELP4-PAX6 in patients with idiopathic rolandic epilepsy syndromes (IRES) in China and explore the relationship between the distribution of rolandic spike sources and the single nucleotide polymorphism rs662702 in ELP4-PAX6. First, clinical information was obtained from patients diagnosed with IRES. Next, the single nucleotide polymorphism rs662702 of ELP4 was analyzed by using the Sanger method. Read More

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Autoimmune Encephalitis in Late-Onset Seizures: When to Suspect and How to Treat.

Front Neurol 2021 7;12:633999. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Center, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

This study was conducted to elucidate prevalence, clinical features, outcomes, and best treatment in patients with late-onset seizures due to autoimmune encephalitis (AE). This is a single-institution prospective cohort study (2012-2019) conducted at the Epilepsy Center at the University of Greifswald, Germany. A total of 225 patients aged ≥50 years with epileptic seizures were enrolled and underwent an MRI/CT scan, profiling of neural antibodies (AB) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and neuropsychological testing. Read More

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Premature Mortality, Risk Factors, and Causes of Death Following Childhood-Onset Neurological Impairments: A Systematic Review.

Front Neurol 2021 9;12:627824. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme), Clinical Research (Neurosciences), Kilifi, Kenya.

Neurological impairment (NI) and disability are associated with reduced life expectancy, but the risk and magnitude of premature mortality in children vary considerably across study settings. We conducted a systematic review to estimate the magnitude of premature mortality following childhood-onset NI worldwide and to summarize known risk factors and causes of death. We searched various databases for published studies from their inception up to 31st October 2020. Read More

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Dichotomic Hippocampal Transcriptome After Glutamatergic vs. GABAergic Deletion of the Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor.

Front Synaptic Neurosci 2021 8;13:660718. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.

Brain homeostasis is the dynamic equilibrium whereby physiological parameters are kept actively within a specific range. The homeostatic range is not fixed and may change throughout the individual's lifespan, or may be transiently modified in the presence of severe perturbations. The endocannabinoid system has emerged as a safeguard of homeostasis, e. Read More

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