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A Comprehensive Qualitative Review of Studies Evaluating the Impact of Local US Laws Restricting the Sale of Flavored and Menthol Tobacco Products.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Truth Initiative Schroeder Institute, Washington, DC USA.

Objectives: To assess the quality of evidence on the effectiveness of local US laws restricting the sale of flavored tobacco products.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search and qualitative scoping review of English-language papers published through May 2020 that evaluated flavored tobacco sales policies implemented by US jurisdictions during 2010-2019. We constructed a conceptual model for flavored and menthol tobacco sales restriction outcomes, assigned GRADE quality of evidence ratings to policy outcomes evaluated through the included studies, and summarized factors that might explain weak or inconsistent findings. Read More

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September 2021

A Multimodal Hydrogel Soft-Robotic Sensor for Multi-Functional Perception.

Front Robot AI 2021 26;8:692754. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Biomimetic Robotics and Intelligent Systems, Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, China.

Soft robots, with their unique and outstanding capabilities of environmental conformation, natural sealing against elements, as well as being insensitive to magnetic/electrical effects, are ideal candidates for extreme environment applications. However, sensing for soft robots in such harsh conditions would still be challenging, especially under large temperature change and complex, large deformations. Existing soft sensing approaches using liquid-metal medium compromise between large deformation and environmental robustness, limiting their real-world applicability. Read More

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Putative Immunological Functions of Inducible Skin-Associated Lymphoid Tissue in the Context of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:733484. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Dermatology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Acquired immunity is orchestrated in various lymphoid organs, including bone marrow, thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes in humans. However, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is evolutionally known to be emerged in the oldest vertebrates as an immunological tissue for acquired immunity, much earlier than the advent of lymph nodes which appeared in endotherms. Furthermore, the lymphocytes which developed in MALT are known to circulate within the limited anatomical areas. Read More

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Age-Related Olfactory Decline Is Associated With Levels of Exercise and Non-exercise Physical Activities.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 26;13:695115. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Section of Physiology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

: This cross-sectional study evaluates the impact of active or non-active lifestyle in terms of physical, cognitive and social activity on the olfactory function in Elderly Subjects (ES) and aims at looking for a correlation between the time devoted to life activities and the score obtained during the olfactory tests by each individual. : One hundred and twenty-two elderly volunteers were recruited in Sardinia (Italy) and divided into active ES ( = 60; 17 men, 43 women; age 67.8 ± 1. Read More

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Long-acting antiretrovirals: a new era for the management and prevention of HIV infection.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Service and Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

The long-acting antiretroviral cabotegravir and rilpivirine combination has just received FDA, EMA and Health Canada approval. This novel drug delivery approach is about to revolutionize the therapy of people living with HIV, decreasing the 365 daily pill burden to only six intramuscular injections per year. In addition, islatravir, a first-in-class nucleoside reverse transcriptase translocation inhibitor, is intended to be formulated as an implant with a dosing interval of 1 year or more. Read More

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September 2021

Information Retrieval Using Machine Learning for Biomarker Curation in the Exposome-Explorer.

Front Res Metr Anal 2021 19;6:689264. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

LASIGE, Departamento de Informática, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.

In 2016, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, part of the World Health Organization, released the Exposome-Explorer, the first database dedicated to biomarkers of exposure for environmental risk factors for diseases. The database contents resulted from a manual literature search that yielded over 8,500 citations, but only a small fraction of these publications were used in the final database. Manually curating a database is time-consuming and requires domain expertise to gather relevant data scattered throughout millions of articles. Read More

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Preclinical Testing of Living Tissue-Engineered Heart Valves for Pediatric Patients, Challenges and Opportunities.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 19;8:707892. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, United States.

Pediatric patients with cardiac congenital diseases require heart valve implants that can grow with their natural somatic increase in size. Current artificial valves perform poorly in children and cannot grow; thus, living-tissue-engineered valves capable of sustaining matrix homeostasis could overcome the current drawbacks of artificial prostheses and minimize the need for repeat surgeries. To prepare living-tissue-engineered valves, we produced completely acellular ovine pulmonary valves by perfusion. Read More

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Inter-observer concordance in normal and pathological findings of the hip joint in plain radiographs.

Acta Biomed 2021 Sep 2;92(4):e2021219. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Insubria, Varese.

Background And Aim: The purpose of the study was to compare the data obtained by two independent observers and statistically analyze the results using Cohen's K to highlight the concordance or discordance in the diagnosis of normality, pathology and, in particular, the type of femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) on plain films.

Methods: the study was conducted retrospectively. The only inclusion criterium was the minimum age of 20 years. Read More

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September 2021

[The use of vascularized scrotal and penile flaps in reconstructive surgery of the urogenital region].

Urologiia 2021 Sep(4):114-120

Moscow Research and Education Center of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

The aim of the work is to present a modern view on the clinical application of urogenital flaps, such as autologous scrotal flap and foreskin. This plastic material has such characteristics as acceptable extensibility, good blood supply, accessibility and the absence of significant defects in the donor area. The use of urogenital flaps is an actual and promising direction in reconstructive urology. Read More

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September 2021

DAnIEL: A User-Friendly Web Server for Fungal ITS Amplicon Sequencing Data.

Front Microbiol 2021 17;12:720513. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Jena, Germany.

Trillions of microbes representing all kingdoms of life are resident in, and on, humans holding essential roles for the host development and physiology. The last decade over a dozen online tools and servers, accessible public domain, have been developed for the analysis of bacterial sequences; however, the analysis of fungi is still in its infancy. Here, we present a web server dedicated to the comprehensive analysis of the human mycobiome for (i) translating raw sequencing reads to data tables and high-standard figures, (ii) integrating statistical analysis and machine learning with a manually curated relational database and (iii) comparing the user's uploaded datasets with publicly available from the Sequence Read Archive. Read More

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Factors associated with delayed revascularization in patients with ischemic stroke: a prospective study in one French region.

Eur J Emerg Med 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Public Health and Epidemiology Unit (EpiDcliC), Teaching hospital of Tours Research Team « Education, Ethics and Health » (EA 7505), University of Tours Stroke unit, Teaching hospital of Tours, Tours University of Tours Emergency Department and SAMU 37 (Emergency Medical Services), Teaching hospital of Tours, Chambray-les-Tours Emergency Department, Hospital of Chinon, Saint-Benoît-la-Forêt Inserm 930 Department, Teaching hospital of Tours Neuroradiology Unit, Teaching hospital of Tours, Tours, France.

Background And Importance: Optimizing the care pathway of stroke is crucial for the revascularization of ischemic stroke.

Objectives: to identify factors associated with (1) a time interval over 4 h between the symptom onset and cerebral imaging in suspected stroke patients and (2) the absence of revascularization in patients with ischemic stroke.

Design, Settings And Participants: Patients over 18 years old with a suspected stroke admitted in 22 emergency rooms or stroke units in one French region between 1 March 2019 and 30 April 2019 were prospectively included by filling a dedicated form. Read More

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September 2021

Perirhinal and postrhinal damage have different consequences on attention as assessed in the five-choice serial reaction time task.

eNeuro 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Brown University Departments of Psychology and Neuroscience

The perirhinal (PER) and postrhinal (POR) cortices, structures in the medial temporal lobe, are implicated in learning and memory. The PER is understood to process object information and the POR to process spatial or contextual information. Whether the medial temporal lobe is dedicated to memory, however, is under debate. Read More

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September 2021

Characterization of the spontaneous degenerative mitral valve disease in FVB mice.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(9):e0257022. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Laboratoire de Pharmacologie et Toxicologie NeuroCardiovasculaire UR7296, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire et Université de Strasbourg, Centre de Recherche en Biomédecine de Strasbourg (CRBS), Strasbourg, France.

Background: The development of new non-surgical treatments dedicated to mitral valve degeneration is limited by the absence of relevant spontaneous and rapidly progressing animal experimental models.

Animals: We characterized the spontaneous mitral valve degeneration in two inbred FVB mouse strains compared to C57BL/6J and investigated a contribution of the serotonergic system.

Methods: Males and females FVB/NJ and FVB/NRj were compared to the putative C57BL/6J control at 12, 16, 20 and 24 weeks of age. Read More

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September 2021

Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics, potential for CYP3A inhibition, and food effect in patients with cancer and healthy subjects receiving ipatasertib.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Clinical Pharmacology, Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose: To examine the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics (PK), CYP3A inhibition potential of ipatasertib, and effect of food on PK of ipatasertib in patients with refractory solid tumors and a dedicated food effect assessment in healthy subjects.

Methods: The Phase I dose-escalation study enrolled patients with solid tumors in a standard 3 + 3 design with a 1 week washout after the first dose, followed by once-daily dosing on a 3-week-on/1-week-off schedule. In the expansion cohort, the effect of ipatasertib on CYP3A substrate (midazolam) was assessed by examining the change in midazolam exposure when dosed in the absence and presence of steady-state ipatasertib at 600 mg. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of Variable Composite Attachment Shapes in Controlling Upper Molar Distalization with Aligners: A Nonlinear Finite Element Study.

J Healthc Eng 2021 20;2021:5557483. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Near East University, Near East Boulevard, Nicosia-Northern Cyprus, Mersin 10, Turkey.

The objective of the present study is to describe the stress and displacement patterns created by clear aligners and composite attachments bonded with the acid-etch technique on the labial surface of the maxillary first upper molar during its distalization. Maxillary molar distalization is a clinical orthodontics procedure used to move the first maxillary molar distally. The procedure is useful in patients with some Class II malocclusion allowing the first molar to move into a Class I relationship and the correction of associated malocclusion features. Read More

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Evidence for an A-Modal Number Sense: Numerosity Adaptation Generalizes Across Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Stimuli.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 11;15:713565. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Pharmacology and Child Health, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Humans and other species share a perceptual mechanism dedicated to the representation of approximate quantities that allows to rapidly and reliably estimate the numerosity of a set of objects: an Approximate Number System (ANS). Numerosity perception shows a characteristic shared by all primary visual features: it is susceptible to adaptation. As a consequence of prolonged exposure to a large/small quantity ("adaptor"), the apparent numerosity of a subsequent ("test") stimulus is distorted yielding a robust under- or over-estimation, respectively. Read More

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Serotonergic Modulation of Nigrostriatal and Mesolimbic Dopamine and Motor/Exploratory Behaviors in the Rat.

Front Neurosci 2021 12;15:682398. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

The 5-HT receptor (R) is known to modulate dopamine (DA) release in the mammalian brain. Altanserin (ALT) and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) act as 5-HTR antagonist and agonist, respectively. In the present study, we assessed the effects of ALT and DOI on motor and exploratory behaviors and on DR binding in the rat brain with imaging methods. Read More

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The « race » correction in estimating glomerular filtration rate: an European point of view.

Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Nephrology-Dialysis-Transplantation, University of Liège (ULiege), CHU Sart Tilman, Liège, Belgium Department of Nephrology-Dialysis-Apheresis, Hôpital Universitaire Carémeau, Nîmes, France Service de Néphrologie, Dialyse et Transplantation Rénale, Hôpital Nord, CHU de Saint-Etienne, France Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Liège (ULiege), CHU Sart Tilman, Liège, Belgium Department of Medicine, Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA The Hugo Observatory, University of Liège (ULiege), Liège, Belgium Sciences Po, Paris, France Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven Campus Kulak Kortrijk, Kortrijk, Belgium.

Purpose Of Review: There is currently a heated debate ongoing whether or not to use the race coefficient for black people in the Modification of Diet in Renal Diseases and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology-equation. The use of the race coefficient is thought by several American authors as a source of discrimination.

Recent Findings: It has recently been shown that the race coefficient is inaccurate in European and African black people. Read More

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Anticoagulants for stroke prevention in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 , Hannover, Germany.

Impaired left-ventricular ejection-fraction (LV-EF) is a known risk factor for ischemic stroke and systemic embolism in patients with heart failure (HF) even in the absence of atrial fibrillation. While stroke risk is inversely correlated with LV-EF in HF patients with sinus rhythm, strategies using anticoagulation with Vitamin-K antagonists (VKA) were futile as the increase in major bleedings outweighed the potential benefit in stroke reduction. Non-Vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) proved to be an effective and in general safer approach for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation and may also have a favourable risk-benefit profile in HF patients. Read More

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Insight Into the Molecular Mechanism of Podophyllotoxin Derivatives as Anticancer Drugs.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 10;9:709075. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology (Sichuan University), Chengdu, China.

Podophyllotoxin (PTOX) is a biologically active compound derived from the podophyllum plant, and both it and its derivatives possess excellent antitumor activity. The PTOX derivatives etoposide (VP-16) and teniposide (VM-26) have been approved by the U.S. Read More

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Diversity and Versatility in Small RNA-Mediated Regulation in Bacterial Pathogens.

Front Microbiol 2021 10;12:719977. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Inserm, Bacterial Regulatory RNAs and Medicine (BRM) - UMR_S 1230, Rennes, France.

Bacterial gene expression is under the control of a large set of molecules acting at multiple levels. In addition to the transcription factors (TFs) already known to be involved in global regulation of gene expression, small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are emerging as major players in gene regulatory networks, where they allow environmental adaptation and fitness. Developments in high-throughput screening have enabled their detection in the entire bacterial kingdom. Read More

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Sclerosing Extramedullary Hematopoietic Tumor (SEHT) Mimicking a Malignant Bile Duct Tumor-Case Report and Literature Review.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Aug 16;57(8). Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Anapatmol Research Center, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babes, 300041 Timisoara, Romania.

: Sclerosing Extramedullary Hematopoietic Tumor (SEHT) is a very rare lesion associated with chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPD). SEHT can mimic morphologically, both macroscopically and microscopically, a wide variety of tumors/lesions. : We present the case of a female patient diagnosed with gallstones for which surgery was decided. Read More

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A Subtle Profile With a Significant Impact: Language and Communication Difficulties for Autistic Females Without Intellectual Disability.

Front Psychol 2021 9;12:621742. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Human Communication Hearing and Development, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

The presentation of autism in females is poorly understood, which is thought to contribute to missed or later- age diagnosis, especially for those without intellectual disability. Dedicated research into social and behavioral differences has indicated a specific female phenotype of autism. However, less has been done to explore language and communication profiles, despite known sex/gender differences in typically developing populations. Read More

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Intracranial Aneurysms in Patients with Marfan Syndrome: A Multicenter Propensity-Matched Analysis.

World Neurosurg 2021 Aug 21. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: We sought to identify risk factors for intracranial aneurysms (IAs) in Marfan syndrome (MFS) patients and to describe their characteristics.

Methods: Patients with confirmed MFS and vessel-dedicated brain imaging from January 1, 1980-December 1, 2020 were categorized according to the presence (IA) or absence (NIA) of IAs. Unmatched logistic regression analysis and propensity score matching were used for comparison. Read More

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The Future of Exercise-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation for Patients With Heart Failure.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 4;8:709898. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri Spa SB, Division of Cardiac Rehabilitation, Montescano, Italy.

Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a comprehensive program that includes exercise training, titration of medical therapy, lifestyle modification, educational support, and psychosocial assessment. All these components are safe and beneficial resulting in significant improvements in quality of life, functional capacity, mortality, and hospital readmission. Current guidelines support its use in a broad spectrum of cardiac disease. Read More

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Anterior Hox Genes and the Process of Cephalization.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 5;9:718175. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Centro Andaluz de Biología del Desarrollo (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas/Junta de Andalucía/Universidad Pablo de Olavide), Seville, Spain.

During evolution, bilateral animals have experienced a progressive process of cephalization with the anterior concentration of nervous tissue, sensory organs and the appearance of dedicated feeding structures surrounding the mouth. Cephalization has been achieved by the specialization of the unsegmented anterior end of the body (the acron) and the sequential recruitment to the head of adjacent anterior segments. Here we review the key developmental contribution of Hox1-5 genes to the formation of cephalic structures in vertebrates and arthropods and discuss how this evolved. Read More

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Quantification of Cervical Cord Cross-Sectional Area: Which Acquisition, Vertebra Level, and Analysis Software? A Multicenter Repeatability Study on a Traveling Healthy Volunteer.

Front Neurol 2021 4;12:693333. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Multiple Sclerosis Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience Amsterdam University Medical Centers (UMC), Vrije Universiteit Medical Center (VUmc), Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Considerable spinal cord (SC) atrophy occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS). While MRI-based techniques for SC cross-sectional area (CSA) quantification have improved over time, there is no common agreement on whether to measure at single vertebral levels or across larger regions and whether upper SC CSA can be reliably measured from brain images. To compare in a multicenter setting three CSA measurement methods in terms of repeatability at different anatomical levels. Read More

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A Case for the Non-Neurologist Telestroke Provider.

Front Neurol 2021 6;12:651519. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Neurology, West Virginia University Hospitals, Morgantown, WV, United States.

Telestroke networks have effectively increased the number of ischemic stroke patients who have access to acute stroke therapy. However, the availability of a dedicated group of stroke subspecialists is not always feasible. We hypothesize that rates of tPA recommendation, sensitivity of final diagnosis, and post-tPA hemorrhagic complications do not differ significantly between neurologists and an emergency-medicine physician during telestroke consultations. Read More

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Musicians as "Makers in Society": A Conceptual Foundation for Contemporary Professional Higher Music Education.

Front Psychol 2021 3;12:713648. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Rhythmic Music Conservatory, Copenhagen, Denmark.

This paper considers the purpose, values and principles underpinning higher music education (HME) as one of the performing arts in a context of turbulent global change. Recognising complex challenges and opportunities in this field, HME is addressed from dual perspectives: educating the next generations of professional musicians, and higher music institutions' (HMEIs) engagement in society. The paper has a particular focus on the sector within HME that is dedicated to intensive practical craft training for performers, composers, programmers, producers, managers, and teachers. Read More

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DiTing: A Pipeline to Infer and Compare Biogeochemical Pathways From Metagenomic and Metatranscriptomic Data.

Front Microbiol 2021 2;12:698286. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

College of Marine Life Sciences, and Frontiers Science Center for Deep Ocean Multispheres and Earth System, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics are powerful methods to uncover key micro-organisms and processes driving biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems. Databases dedicated to depicting biogeochemical pathways (for example, metabolism of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), which is an abundant organosulfur compound) from metagenomic/metatranscriptomic data are rarely seen. Additionally, a recognized normalization model to estimate the relative abundance and environmental importance of pathways from metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data has not been organized to date. Read More

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