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Risk factors for developmental defects of enamel in children from southeastern Brazil.

Community Dent Health 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Clinic and Surgery, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Alfenas, Brazil.

Introduction: Developmental Defects of Enamel (DDEs) comprise qualitative and/or quantitative changes to the enamel during amelogenesis. The aetiology of DDE remains inconclusive.

Aim: To determine the association of pre, peri, and postnatal factors with the presence of DDE. Read More

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A conceptual framework for treating jaw deformities in patients with abnormal condyles: preservation versus replacement of the glenoid fossa-disc-condyle-ramus.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

This article outlines a conceptual approach to the reconstruction of jaw deformities associated with abnormalities in the mandibular condyle. The authors describe a hierarchy of reconstruction, emphasizing use of the least invasive and progressing to the most complex and invasive techniques, depending on the nature and severity of the underlying deformity, prior operations, patient age, and stage of growth. Consider joint preservation orthognathic surgical correction, followed by biological techniques for replacement of the condyle, and avoid replacing a functional temporomandibular joint based only on radiographic remodeling and concerns about potential future flare-ups of disease based on anecdotal data. Read More

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Trans-ovo permethrin exposure affects growth, brain morphology and cardiac development in quail.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Biological Sciences and Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA.

Permethrin is a commonly used, highly effective pesticide in poultry agriculture, and has recently been trialed in conservation efforts to protect Galápagos finch hatchlings from an invasive ectoparasite. Although permethrin is considered safe for adults, pesticides can have health consequences when animals are exposed during early life stages. The few studies that have examined permethrin's effects in embryonic chicks and rats have shown hydrocephaly, anencephaly, reduced cellular energy conversion, and disruption of developing heart muscle. Read More

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Mild metatropic dysplasia: emphasis on the magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage thickening.

BJR Case Rep 2021 Apr 4;7(2):20200155. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Radiology, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan.

Metatropic dysplasia (MD) is a rare skeletal disorder characterized by short stature due to epiphyseal cartilage and growth plate abnormalities. The severity of MD varies from mild to lethal. This disorder is caused by mutations in the ) that encodes calcium-permeable, nonselective cation channels. Read More

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[A case of gastric hamartomatous inverted polyp (GHIP), preoperatively diagnosed based on EUS findings].

Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi 2021 ;118(4):327-339

Department of Gastroenterology, Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University.

We report the case of a patient with a gastric hamartomatous inverted polyp (GHIP) and discuss the relevant literature. A 65-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of a slow-growing pedunculated polyp measuring 30mm in diameter, present in the greater curvature of the fundic region of the stomach. It was covered with normal gastric mucosa, and the top was reddish. Read More

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Arterial aneurysm and dissection with systemic vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors: A review of cases reported to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System and published in the literature.

Vasc Med 2021 Apr 12:1358863X211006470. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Pharmacovigilance, Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved multiple systemic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors since 2004 to treat various malignancies. Inhibition of the VEGF signaling pathway can result in impairment of vascular wall integrity through medial degeneration and endothelial dysfunction, potentially resulting in arterial (including aortic) aneurysm/dissection. We performed a postmarketing review to evaluate arterial aneurysm/dissection as a potential safety risk for patients with cancer treated with VEGF inhibitors. Read More

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Exercise and Urtica dioica extract ameliorate hippocampal insulin signaling, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and cognitive function in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 8;139:111577. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Anatomical Sciences Department, School of Medicine, Lorestan University Medical of Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is related to cognitive impairments and molecular abnormalities of the hippocampus. A growing body of evidence suggests that Urtica dioica (Ud) and exercise training (ET) have potential therapeutic effects on diabetes and its related complications. Therefore, we hypothesized that the combined effect of exercise training (ET) and Ud might play an important role in insulin signaling pathway, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and cognitive impairment in diabetic rats. Read More

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The influence of maternal body mass index on interobserver variability of fetal ultrasound biometry and amniotic fluid assessment in late pregnancy.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Maternal Fetal Medicine, USA.

Objectives: Determine interobserver reproducibility of fetal ultrasound biometry and amniotic fluid assessment in the third trimester according to BMI categories.

Methods: Prospective cohort of women with singleton gestations beyond 34 weeks, recruited into 4 groups according to BMI categories: normal, overweight, obese and morbid obese. Multiple pregnancies, diabetes, growth and fetal abnormalities were excluded. Read More

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In-frame deletion in canine PITRM1 is associated with a severe early-onset epilepsy, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration.

Hum Genet 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

We investigated the clinical, genetic, and pathological characteristics of a previously unknown severe juvenile brain disorder in several litters of Parson Russel Terriers. The disease started with epileptic seizures at 6-12 weeks of age and progressed rapidly to status epilepticus and death or euthanasia. Histopathological changes at autopsy were restricted to the brain. Read More

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Born in the Purple: An Exceptional Case of Cutis Marmorata Telangiectatica Congenita.

Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2020 Dec;28(4):247-248

Department of Dermatology, University General Hospital of Patras, Rion, Greece, Greece;

A full-term, 2-day-old female neonate with a congenital non-tender reticular patch that did not disappear with local warming was referred to our department for consultation. The family history as well as the antenatal course and delivery were unremarkable. On examination, we evidenced a fixed, marbled, bluish to deep purple lesion with a fishnet appearance extending over the right side of her body, face, and scalp. Read More

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December 2020

[Impact of confined placental mosaicism on non-invasive prenatal testing and pregnancy outcomes].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;38(4):335-338

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Prenatal Diagnosis and Birth Defect, Fujian Provincial Maternity and Child Health Cave Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350001, China.

Objective: To assess the impact of confined placental mosaicism (CPM) on non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and pregnancy outcomes.

Methods: Copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) and single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array) were carried out on placental specimen sampled from eight pregnancies with confirmed false-positive NIPT results. The impact of CPM on NIPT and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed based on the laboratory tests and clinical characteristics. Read More

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Neurophysiologic Profiling of At-Risk Low and Very Low Birth-Weight Infants Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Authors:
Ying Qi Jingni He

Front Physiol 2021 23;12:638868. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Low birth-weight (LBW) and very low birth-weight (VLBW) newborns have increased risks of brain injuries, growth failure, motor difficulties, developmental coordination disorders or delay, and adult-onset vascular diseases. However, relatively little is known of the neurobiologic underpinnings. To clarify the pathophysiologic vulnerabilities of such neonates, we applied several advanced techniques for assessing brain physiology, namely T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging (TRUST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and phase-contrast (PC) MRI. Read More

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Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis as a Primary Intervention in Infants With Pierre Robin Sequence.

Ann Plast Surg 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

From the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL Division of Plastic Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX Department of Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine Divisions of Pediatric Hospital Medicine Pediatric Pulmonary & Sleep Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL Division of Plastic Surgery, New York University, New York, NY Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Background: Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is a triad of congenital facial abnormalities that can present as a syndrome (syndromic PRS [sPRS]) or an isolated entity (isolated PRS [iPRS]). Patients with PRS can develop airway and feeding problems that may result in failure to thrive. Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) is a method for improving the functional issues associated with breathing and feeding. Read More

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[Evaluation of the effects auricular reconstruction with Medpor combined with hearing rehabilitation].

Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;56(4):333-339

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China.

To investigate the clinical effects of single-stage auricular reconstruction and hearing rehabilitation in children with microtia and external auditory canal atresia. Sixty eight cases of microtia with external auditory canal atresia (53 males and 15 females, age from 7 to 12 years, with a median age of 8.8 years), who received operations in Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from July 2017 to December 2019 were collected. Read More

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Discovery of 4,6-disubstituted Pyrimidine Derivatives as Novel Dual VEGFR2/FGFR1 Inhibitors.

Chem Biodivers 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, 24 Tongjiaxiang, 210009, Nanjing, CHINA.

Abnormalities in the FGFRs signaling pathway and VEGFR2 amplification often occur in a variety of tumors, and they synergistically promote tumor angiogenesis. Studies have shown that the up-regulation of FGF-2 is closely related to the resistance of VEGFR2 inhibitors. Activation of the FGFRs signal is a signal of compensatory angiogenesis after VEGFR2 resistance. Read More

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Antithrombotic Management of Elderly Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Apr;14(7):723-738

Division of Cardiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida, USA. Electronic address:

Antithrombotic therapy represents the mainstay of treatment in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), including elderly patients who are at increased risk for ischemic recurrences. However, the elderly population is also more vulnerable to bleeding complications. Numerous mechanisms, including abnormalities in the vasculature, thrombogenicity, comorbidities, and altered drug response, contribute to both increased thrombotic and bleeding risk. Read More

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Haploinsufficiency of PRR12 causes a spectrum of neurodevelopmental, eye, and multisystem abnormalities.

Genet Med 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Paediatrics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Purpose: Proline Rich 12 (PRR12) is a gene of unknown function with suspected DNA-binding activity, expressed in developing mice and human brains. Predicted loss-of-function variants in this gene are extremely rare, indicating high intolerance of haploinsufficiency.

Methods: Three individuals with intellectual disability and iris anomalies and truncating de novo PRR12 variants were described previously. Read More

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A Single Food Milk Elimination Diet is Effective for Treatment of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA; Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Diseases Program, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; John H Stroger Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Cow's milk protein (CMP) is the most common trigger of inflammation in children and adults with Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE). We sought to assess the clinical, endoscopic, and histological efficacy of dietary elimination of all CM protein-containing foods in EoE.

Methods: We performed a prospective observational study in children with EoE treated with One Food Elimination Diet (1FED) excluding all CMP. Read More

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Pituitary hypoplasia is the best MRI predictor of the severity and type of growth hormone deficiency in children with congenital growth hormone deficiency.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Endocrinology, S.M.S. Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India.

Objectives: Congenital idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is associated with various MRI abnormalities, including sellar and extrasellar abnormalities. However, it remains contentious whether MRI brain findings could provide an additional avenue for precisely predicting the differentiation of GHD based on severity and type {isolated GHD or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD)}. This study aimed to ascertain the abnormality that is the best predictor of severity and type of GHD amongst the different MRI findings. Read More

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Placental features of fetal vascular malperfusion and infant neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of age in severe fetal growth restriction.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IRCCS Foundation Policlinico San Matteo and University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Placental pathological lesions suggesting maternal (MVM) or fetal (FVM) vascular malperfusion are common among pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR). Data on the relationship between pathological placental lesions and subsequent infant neurodevelopmental outcomes are limited.

Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between placental pathological lesions and infant neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of age in a cohort of pregnancies complicated by FGR. Read More

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Safety evaluation of a novel topical combination of esafoxolaner, eprinomectin and praziquantel, in reproducing female cats.

Parasite 2021 2;28:20. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health, 3239 Satellite Blvd, Duluth, 30096 GA, USA.

NexGard Combo, a novel topical endectoparasiticide product for cats, is a combination of esafoxolaner, eprinomectin and praziquantel. The safety of this novel combination administered to females during reproduction and lactation was evaluated per analysis of breeding parameters and adverse reactions observed on females and offspring. Females with successful breeding history were randomized to three groups, a placebo group and groups treated with the novel formulation at 1× or 3× multiples of the maximum exposure dose. Read More

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Non-Coding RNAs in Hereditary Kidney Disorders.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 16;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Single-gene defects have been revealed to be the etiologies of many kidney diseases with the recent advances in molecular genetics. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), as one of the most common inherited kidney diseases, is caused by mutations of PKD1 or PKD2 gene. Due to the complexity of pathophysiology of cyst formation and progression, limited therapeutic options are available. Read More

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Breast Cancer and the Other Non-Coding RNAs.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 23;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Biomedical Center Martin, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, 036 01 Martin, Slovakia.

Breast cancer is very heterogenous and the most common gynaecological cancer, with various factors affecting its development. While its impact on human lives and national health budgets is still rising in almost all global areas, many molecular mechanisms affecting its onset and development remain unclear. Conventional treatments still prove inadequate in some aspects, and appropriate molecular therapeutic targets are required for improved outcomes. Read More

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An Antifungal Chitosanase from SH21.

Molecules 2021 Mar 25;26(7). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Product Detection and Control of Spoilage Organisms and Pesticides, Beijing Laboratory for Food Quality and Safety, Beijing Engineering Laboratory of Probiotics Key Technology Development, Beijing Engineering Technology Research Center of Food Safety Immune Rapid Detection, Food Science and Engineering College, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing 102206, China.

SH21 was observed to produce an antifungal protein that inhibited the growth of . To purify this protein, ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography, and ion-exchange chromatography were used. The purity of the purified product was 91. Read More

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Prognostic and Clinicopathological Significance of /Cyclin D1 Upregulation in Melanomas: A Systematic Review and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 15;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

School of Dentistry, University of Granada, 18010 Granada, Spain.

Our objective was to evaluate the prognostic and clinicopathological significance of cyclin D1 (CD1) overexpression/CCND1 amplification in melanomas. We searched studies published before September 2019 (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus). We evaluated the quality of the studies included (QUIPS tool). Read More

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Antimicrobial Effect of Zn Ions Governs the Microbial Quality of Donor Human Milk.

Foods 2021 Mar 17;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Food Sciences, Institute for Postharvest Technology and Food Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion 7528809, Israel.

Donor human milk (HM) obtained at HM banks is exceptionally crucial for the feeding and treatment of preterm infants. Bacterial contaminations of HM in various stages of its handling are very common and can lead to disqualification of donations or severe infections in worse cases. Hence, HM donations are subject to strict bacteriological evaluations pre- and post-pasteurization. Read More

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Regulation of Endothelium-Reticulum-Stress-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death by a Polymethoxylated Flavone, Nobiletin, Through the Inhibition of Nuclear Translocation of Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Retinal Müller Cells.

Cells 2021 Mar 17;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Faculty of Pharma-Sciences, Teikyo University, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605, Japan.

In the early stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR), subtle biochemical and functional alterations occur in Müller cells, which are one of the components of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Müller cells are the principal glia of the retina and have shown a strong involvement in the maintenance of homeostasis and the development of retinal tissue. Their functional abnormalities and eventual loss have been correlated with a decrease in the tight junctions between endothelial cells and a consequent breakdown of the BRB, leading to the development of DR. Read More

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Fenofibrate Protects against Retinal Dysfunction in a Murine Model of Common Carotid Artery Occlusion-Induced Ocular Ischemia.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Mar 7;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Laboratory of Photobiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

Ocular ischemia is a common cause of blindness and plays a detrimental role in various diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, occlusion of central retinal arteries, and ocular ischemic syndrome. Abnormalities of neuronal activities in the eye occur under ocular ischemic conditions. Therefore, protecting their activities may prevent vision loss. Read More

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Prenatal 3D-ultrasound diagnosis of isolated intrahepatic portal-systemic shunt with intact ductus venosus: A case report and literature review.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 May 16;16(5):1173-1178. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Development and Regeneration, Cluster Woman and Child, Group Biomedical Sciences, KU Leuven University of Leuven, Belgium.

We present a case of isolated intrahepatic portosystemic shunts with an aorto- hepatic-umbilical connection; prenatally diagnosed with 3D Doppler flow in a 27-year-old patient at 27 weeks of gestation. Fetal karyotyping was normal, detailed evaluation of the venous and cardiovascular system showed a patent ductus venosus and no other abnormalities. These fetuses with isolated intrahepatic shunts are at risk for intra-uterine growth restriction (27%), all cases had a good prognosis with live births. Read More

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Ear Abnormalities.

Pediatr Rev 2021 Apr;42(4):180-188

Division of Plastic Surgery, Nicklaus Children's Hospital, Miami, FL.

Congenital ear abnormalities present an aesthetic and psychosocial concern for pediatric patients and their parents. Diagnosis of external ear deformities is based on clinical examination and is facilitated by an understanding of normal ear anatomy. Ear anomalies can be categorized as malformations or deformations. Read More

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