156,256 results match your criteria abnormalities effects


Quantified language connectedness in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Jul 22;304:114130. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Biomedical Sciences of Cells and Systems, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Language abnormalities are a core symptom of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and could serve as a potential diagnostic marker. Natural language processing enables quantification of language connectedness, which may be lower in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Here, we investigated connectedness of spontaneous speech in schizophrenia-spectrum patients and controls and determine its accuracy in classification. Read More

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Melatonin mitigated circadian disruption and cardiovascular toxicity caused by 6-benzylaminopurine exposure in zebrafish.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 28;223:112555. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. Electronic address:

As a highly effective plant hormone, the overuse of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) may pose potential threats to organisms and the environment. Melatonin is widely known for its regulation of sleep rhythm, and it also shows a beneficial effect in a variety of adverse situations. In order to investigate the harm of 6-BA to vertebrates and whether melatonin can reverse the toxicity induced by 6-BA, we analyzed the circadian rhythm and cardiovascular system of zebrafish, and further clarified the role of the thyroid endocrine system. Read More

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Oxidized GAPDH transfers S-glutathionylation to a nuclear protein Sirtuin-1 leading to apoptosis.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Vascular Biology Section, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Aims: S-glutathionylation is a reversible oxidative modification of protein cysteines that plays a critical role in redox signaling. Glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx), a glutathione-specific thioltransferase, removes protein S-glutathionylation. Glrx, though a cytosolic protein, can activate a nuclear protein Sirtuin-1 (SirT1) by removing its S-glutathionylation. Read More

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The Effect of Curcumin in Improving Lipid Profile in Patients with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1291:165-177

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of death worldwide. Lipid abnormalities are one of the major risk factors for CVD. Curcumin is a natural polyphenol with lipid-lowering properties. Read More

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January 2021

Transient alendronate administration to pregnant or lactating mothers prevents bone loss in mice without adverse effects on offspring.

Bone 2021 Jul 28;153:116133. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan; Department of Advanced Therapy for Musculoskeletal Disorders II, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan; Department of Musculoskeletal Reconstruction and Regeneration Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8556, Japan. Electronic address:

Changes in bone metabolism occur in mothers during pregnancy or lactation that may decrease bone mass and result in fragility fractures after partum. However, use of drugs during pregnancy or lactation to counteract these effects is often prohibited or strongly discouraged. Therefore, approaches to protect mothers from fragility fractures have not been established. Read More

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Adult-born proopiomelanocortin neurons derived from Rax-expressing precursors mitigate the metabolic effects of congenital hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin deficiency.

Mol Metab 2021 Jul 27:101312. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Tufts Medical Center, 800 Washington St, Boston, MA, 02111, USA.

Objective: Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus are essential regulators of energy balance. Selective loss of POMC production in these cells results in extreme obesity and metabolic comorbidities. While neurogenesis occurs in the adult hypothalamus, it remains uncertain whether functional POMC neurons emerge during adulthood in physiologically significant numbers. Read More

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FANCD2 limits acetaldehyde-induced genomic instability during DNA replication in esophageal keratinocytes.

Mol Oncol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Individuals with Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare genetic bone marrow failure syndrome, have an increased risk of young-onset head and neck squamous-cell carcinomas (SCCs) and esophageal SCC. The FA DNA repair pathway is activated upon DNA damage induced by acetaldehyde, a chief alcohol metabolite and one of the major carcinogens in humans. However, the molecular basis of acetaldehyde-induced genomic instability in SCCs of the head and neck and of the esophagus in FA remains elusive. Read More

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Systematic review of sirolimus in dermatological conditions.

Australas J Dermatol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Dermatology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Australia.

Sirolimus is a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (mTORI) with anti-proliferative, antiangiogenic and immunosuppressive properties. While approved in Australia as an anti-rejection medication for renal transplant patients, there is mounting evidence regarding the utility of oral and topical sirolimus in treating a plethora of dermatological conditions or conditions with cutaneous manifestations. Our aim was to present an overview of the evidence for current usage and breadth of the application of sirolimus in dermatology. Read More

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Bilateral pleural effusion associated with atezolizumab in a patient with Lynch syndrome-related urothelial carcinoma: a case report.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Jeonbuk National University Hospital-Jeonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Republic of Korea; Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Jeonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute of Jeonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.

Lynch syndrome (LS) is an inherited syndrome associated with an increased risk of cancer caused by abnormalities in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been reported to lead to a good response in cancers accompanied by LS. However, ICI therapy can cause immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Read More

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Long-term outcome of early steroid withdrawal in pediatric renal transplantation.

Pediatr Transplant 2021 Jul 29:e14096. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Hospital Clinico Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Steroid use in renal transplant is related to multiple adverse effects. Long-term effects of early withdrawal steroids in pediatric renal transplant were assessed.

Methods: Renal transplant children with low immunological risk treated on basiliximab, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate with steroid withdrawal or steroid control were evaluated between 2003 and 2019. Read More

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Exploring new treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome: Review of a novel antidiabetic agent SGLT2 inhibitor.

World J Diabetes 2021 Jul;12(7):932-938

School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age associated with long-term metabolic and cardiovascular consequences. A plethora of symptoms and their severity differentiate on an individual level, giving the syndrome numerous phenotypes. Due to menstrual cycle abnormalities, women suffer from irregular menstrual bleeding, difficulty in conception, and infertility. Read More

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Immune-Related Meningoencephalitis following Nivolumab in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Case Rep Oncol 2021 May-Aug;14(2):1051-1058. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Norton Cancer Institute, Norton Healthcare, Louisville, Kentucky, USA.

While immunotherapy with nivolumab is promising for patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), overactivation of the immune system can lead to serious side effects. Immune-related meningoencephalitis without a viral or microbial etiology is a rare complication that may occur in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors (CPI). Herein, we report a 66-year-old man who underwent a partial nephrectomy which revealed a papillary RCC with clear cell component. Read More

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Combined treatment with C16 peptide and angiopoietin-1 confers neuroprotection and reduces inflammation in 3-nitropropionic acid-induced dystonia mice.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jul 29;13(undefined). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology and Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Dystonia is a disorder associated with abnormalities in many brain regions including the basal ganglia and cerebellum. The toxin 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) can induce neuropathologies in the mice striatum and nigra substance, including excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and extensive neuronal atrophy, characterized by progressive motor dysfunction, dystonia, and memory loss, mimicking those observed in humans. We established a mouse model of dystonia by administering 3-NP. Read More

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The Neurological Manifestations of Phelan-McDermid Syndrome.

Authors:
Yitzchak Frank

Pediatr Neurol 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Pediatric Neurologist, Seaver Autism Center for Research & Treatment, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is a genetic disorder, caused by haploinsufficiency of the SHANK3 gene on chromosome 22q13.3. PMS is characterized by neurobehavioral symptoms and signs including intellectual disability, speech and language impairment, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), hypotonia, and other motor abnormalities. Read More

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Contamination and Toxicity of Surface Waters Along Rural and Urban Regions of Capibaribe River in Tropical Northeastern Brazil.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Laboratório de Ecotoxicologia Aquática, Centro de Biociências, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, 50670-920, Brazil.

The Capibaribe River provides water to a population of 1.7 million people in the Brazilian Northeast, while receiving agricultural runoff, industrial and domestic effluents along its 280 km. The present study aimed to evaluate the ecotoxicity of surface waters along 10 sites in rural and urban areas using zebrafish Danio rerio early-life stages and relate it to water quality indices and chemical abiotic variables. Read More

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An investigation into the biological effects of indirect potable reuse water using zebrafish embryos.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 24;789:147981. Epub 2021 May 24.

Brunel University London, Institute for Environment Health and Societies, UB8 3PH, UK. Electronic address:

Advanced treatment technologies are being assessed as a proactive measure to assist with the transformation of treated wastewater into a source of water for potable water production. We investigated the biological effects along an advanced water treatment pilot plant, using zebrafish embryos throughout early development. The study compared phenotypic observations with global transcriptome responses, enabling us to keep an open mind about the chemicals that might influence the biological activity. Read More

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Filaggrin-gene mutation has minimal effect on the disease severity in the lesions of atopic dermatitis.

J Dermatol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Dermatology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Japan.

Loss-of-function mutations of filaggrin (FLG) gene (FLG) are the strongest known genetic risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD). It is still debatable how FLG gene mutations and the resulting abnormal amount of FLG protein contribute to skin barrier function and symptoms of AD. In this study, we examined the effects of loss-of-function mutations of FLG gene on the severity of skin lesions and skin barrier function in 55 patients with AD by evaluating eight patients with AD with FLG gene mutations and 47 patients with AD without mutations. Read More

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Safety and efficacy of azathioprine in immune thrombocytopenia.

Am J Blood Res 2021 15;11(3):217-226. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Clinical Hematology and Stem Cell Transplant, Army Hospital (Research & Referral) Delhi, India.

Background: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a benign hematological disorder characterized by low platelet counts in peripheral blood and spectrum of various bleeding manifestations. Azathioprine is one of the effective, readily available, and affordable immunosupressants available for ITP management in developing countries. We aimed to study the efficacy and long-term safety profile of our patients with ITP who were treated with azathioprine. Read More

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Magnetic resonance neurography findings in three critically ill COVID-19 patients with new onset of extremity peripheral neuropathy.

Pol J Radiol 2021 28;86:e394-e400. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Radiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, United States.

Purpose: Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) is most commonly associated with respiratory syndromes, although patients are presenting more frequently with neurological symptoms. When they occur, neurological conditions most commonly involve the central nervous system, and peripheral nervous system effects, particularly in the extremities, have been less commonly described. The mechanisms of peripheral neuropathy in critically ill patients with COVID-19 are likely to be multifactorial, and extremity peripheral nerve imaging in these cases has not been well described. Read More

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Genotoxic effects of urban pollution in the Iguaçu River on two fish populations.

J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2021 Jul 28:1-8. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Colegiado de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual do Paraná, Centro, PR, Brazil.

Environmental impacts on water resources and discharges of pollutants are some of the main problems of aquatic ecosystems. Currently, the Iguaçu River is considered the second most polluted river in Brazil, therefore, given the importance of understanding the effects of water pollution on living organisms, this study aimed to analyze the possible genotoxic effects in (Characiformes; Characidae) and (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in response to the water quality of the Iguaçu River. Four sampling points were determined on the Iguaçu River, with different levels of environmental impact. Read More

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Abnormalities of smooth pursuit in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review.

Authors:
Karen Frei

Clin Park Relat Disord 2021 17;4:100085. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, United States.

Smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM) abnormalities are commonly seen in Parkinson's disease (PD). Both reduced speed and saccades seen during SPEM, also known as saccadic pursuit (SP), have been studied in PD. A comprehensive literature review analyzed 26 studies of SPEM and PD. Read More

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December 2020

Sepsis: Evidence-based pathogenesis and treatment.

Authors:
Jay Pravda

World J Crit Care Med 2021 Jul 9;10(4):66-80. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Inflammatory Disease Research Centre, Therashock LLC, Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33410, United States.

Sepsis can develop during the body's response to a critical illness leading to multiple organ failure, irreversible shock, and death. Sepsis has been vexing health care providers for centuries due to its insidious onset, generalized metabolic dysfunction, and lack of specific therapy. A common factor underlying sepsis is the characteristic hypermetabolic response as the body ramps up every physiological system in its fight against the underlying critical illness. Read More

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TNPO2 variants associate with human developmental delays, neurologic deficits, and dysmorphic features and alter TNPO2 activity in Drosophila.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, AZ 85016, USA; Department of Child Health, University of Arizona College of Medicine Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA.

Transportin-2 (TNPO2) mediates multiple pathways including non-classical nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of >60 cargoes, such as developmental and neuronal proteins. We identified 15 individuals carrying de novo coding variants in TNPO2 who presented with global developmental delay (GDD), dysmorphic features, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and neurological features. To assess the nature of these variants, functional studies were performed in Drosophila. Read More

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Ovulation suppression protects against chromosomal abnormalities in mouse eggs at advanced maternal age.

Curr Biol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna BioCenter, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 3, 1030 Vienna, Austria; Department of Totipotency, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

The frequency of egg aneuploidy and trisomic pregnancies increases with maternal age. To what extent individual approaches can delay the "maternal age effect" is unclear because multiple causes contribute to chromosomal abnormalities in mammalian eggs. We propose that ovulation frequency determines the physiological aging of oocytes, a key aspect of which is the ability to accurately segregate chromosomes and produce euploid eggs. Read More

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Antipsychotics Effects on Network-Level Reconfiguration of Cortical Morphometry in First-Episode Schizophrenia.

Schizophr Bull 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Lab for Neuroinformation, Center for Information in Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, PR China.

Cortical thickness reductions are evident in schizophrenia (SZ). Associations between antipsychotic medications (APMs) and cortical morphometry have been explored in SZ patients. This raises the question of whether the reconfiguration of morphological architecture by APM plays potential compensatory roles for abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. Read More

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Torsin and NEP1R1-CTDNEP1 phosphatase affect interphase nuclear pore complex insertion by lipid-dependent and lipid-independent mechanisms.

EMBO J 2021 Jul 27:e106914. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

VIB-KU Leuven Center for Brain and Disease Research, Leuven, Belgium.

The interphase nuclear envelope (NE) is extensively remodeled during nuclear pore complex (NPC) insertion. How this remodeling occurs and why it requires Torsin ATPases, which also regulate lipid metabolism, remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Drosophila Torsin (dTorsin) affects lipid metabolism via the NEP1R1-CTDNEP1 phosphatase and the Lipin phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphatase. Read More

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"Plasma Membrane Calcium ATPase downregulation in dopaminergic neurons alters cellular physiology and motor behavior in Drosophila melanogaster".

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de Buenos Aires (IIBBA)-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), CABA, Argentina.

The accumulation of Ca and its subsequent increase in oxidative stress is proposed to be involved in selective dysfunctionality of dopaminergic neurons, the main cell type affected in Parkinson's disease. To test the in vivo impact of Ca increment in dopaminergic neurons physiology, we downregulated the Plasma Membrane Ca ATPase (PMCA), a pump that extrudes cytosolic Ca , by expressing PMCA in Drosophila melanogaster dopaminergic neurons. In these animals, we observed major locomotor alterations paralleled to higher cytosolic Ca and increased levels of oxidative stress in mitochondria. Read More

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Resveratrol and Markers of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Systematic Review of Animal and Clinical Studies.

Reprod Sci 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Nutrition Research Center, Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Science, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder affecting childbearing-age women, and is associated with reproductive and metabolic disturbances. The present study aimed to systematically review current animal studies and randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials (RCT) regarding the effects of resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, on PCOS features. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar were comprehensively searched until December 2020. Read More

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Effects of Wearing Facemasks During Brisk Walks: A COVID-19 Dilemma.

J Am Board Fam Med 2021 Jul-Aug;34(4):798-801

From the Pulmonary Institute, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Israel (OB-O, YG, PS, HL, GS, ES, DP, MM-Z); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel (PS, HL, DP, MM-Z); The Department of Nursing, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel (YG).

Background: During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, wearing facemasks became obligatory worldwide.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of facemasks on gas exchange.

Methods: Healthy adults were assessed at rest and during slow and brisk 5-minute walks, with and without masks. Read More

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October 2020

Long covid-mechanisms, risk factors, and management.

BMJ 2021 07 26;374:n1648. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK

Since its emergence in Wuhan, China, covid-19 has spread and had a profound effect on the lives and health of people around the globe. As of 4 July 2021, more than 183 million confirmed cases of covid-19 had been recorded worldwide, and 3.97 million deaths. Read More

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