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Optimal Noninvasive Medicare Access Promotion: Patients with COPD Technical Expert Panel Report from the American College of Chest Physicians, the American Association for Respiratory Care, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, and the American Thoracic Society.

Chest 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

National Jewish Health, Denver, CO.

This document summarizes the work of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Technical Expert Panel working group. For patients with COPD, the most pressing current coverage barriers identified were onerous diagnostic requirements focused on oxygenation (rather than ventilation), and difficulty obtaining bilevel devices with backup rate capabilities. Because of these difficulties, many patients with COPD were instead sometimes prescribed home mechanical ventilators. Read More

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"Bucket brigade" using lysine residues in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of SARS-CoV-2.

Biophys J 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8787, Japan; Exploratory Research Center on Life and Living Systems (ExCELLS), National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8787, Japan; Department of Structural Molecular Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Okazaki, Aichi 444-8787, Japan. Electronic address:

The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a promising drug target for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) because it plays the most important role in the replication of the RNA genome. Nucleotide analogs such as remdesivir and favipiravir are thought to interfere with the RNA replication by RdRp. More specifically, they are expected to compete with nucleoside triphosphates, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Read More

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Can Alloplastic Total Temporomandibular Joint Reconstruction be Used in the Growing Patient? A Preliminary Report.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Reichmann Professor and Chair, Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, The University of Oklahoma.

Introduction: Although primarily reserved for adult patients, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) total joint reconstructive (TJR) surgery is rarely used in the pediatric population due to its many challenges; it is only performed after all other non-invasive or invasive procedures have been exhausted. Although autogenous grafting has been discussed in the literature, there is very little regarding synthetic or alloplastic materials. In this study, we performed alloplastic TMJ reconstruction on 5 patients with severe ankylosis due to various craniofacial deformities and prior traumatic injuries. Read More

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Dual pH-Responsive Macrophage-Targeted Isoniazid Glycoparticles for Intracellular Tuberculosis Therapy.

Biomacromolecules 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill, Coventry CV4 7AL, U.K.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a global epidemic that kills over a million people every year, particularly in low-resource communities. , the most common bacterium that causes TB, is difficult to treat, particularly in its latent phase, in part due to its ability to survive and replicate within the host macrophage. New therapeutic approaches resulting in better tolerated and shorter antibiotic courses that target intracellular bacteria are critical to effective treatment. Read More

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Selective Electrosynthetic Hydrocarboxylation of α,β-Unsaturated Esters with Carbon Dioxide.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Loughborough University, Dept. of Chemistry, Ashby road, le11 3tu, Leicestershire, UNITED KINGDOM.

The carboxylation of low value commodity chemicals to provide higher value carboxylic acids is of significant interest. Recently alternative routes to the traditional hydroformylation processes that used potentially toxic carbon monoxide and a transition metal catalyst have appeared. A significant challenge has been the selectivity observed for olefin carboxylation. Read More

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Turning the Light on Phenols: New Opportunities in Organic Synthesis.

Chemistry 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Università di Trieste, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Piazzale Europa 1, 34127, Trieste, ITALY.

Phenols ( I ) are extremely relevant chemical functionalities in natural, synthetic and industrial chemistry. Their corresponding electron-rich anions, namely phenolates ( I ), are characterized by interesting physicochemical properties that can be drastically altered upon light excitation. Specifically, phenolates ( I ) become strong reducing agents in the excited state and are able to generate reactive radicals from suitable precursors via single-electron transfer processes. Read More

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Mitigating unintended consequences of co-design in health care.

Health Expect 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Centre for Health Systems and Safety Research, Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Co-design and associated terms are increasingly being used to facilitate values-based approaches to health-care improvement. It is messy and complex, involving diverse actors.

Methods: We explore the notion that initiatives have outcomes other than initially planned is neither new nor novel but is overlooked when thinking about co-design. Read More

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Poor Recovery of Activities-of-Daily-Living Function Is Associated with Higher Rates of Postsurgical Hospitalization after Total Joint Arthroplasty.

Phys Ther 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Physical Therapy Program, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO.

Objective: Medicare beneficiaries are increasingly using home health as the first postacute care setting after hospital discharge following total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Yet, prior research has shown that changes in payment models for TJA may negatively influence functional outcomes for Medicare beneficiaries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of poor functional outcomes during a home health episode of care on hospitalization risk for older recipients of TJA. Read More

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Insights into the Mini-BESTest Scoring System: Comparison of 6 Different Structural Models.

Phys Ther 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.

Objective: The Mini-BESTest is a balance scale common to clinical practice, but different scoring has been proposed, that is, total score and/or subsections. This study aimed to investigate Mini-BESTest validity by comparing 6 structural models and to establish the best model for discriminating fallers from nonfallers, ie, those who did or did not report at least two falls in the six months before evaluation.

Methods: In this cross-sectional validation study, data from 709 individuals with idiopathic Parkinson disease (Hoehn and Yahr stages 1-3) were analyzed. Read More

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Examining the effects of time of day and sleep on generalization.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(8):e0255423. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Extracting shared structure across our experiences allows us to generalize our knowledge to novel contexts. How do different brain states influence this ability to generalize? Using a novel category learning paradigm, we assess the effect of both sleep and time of day on generalization that depends on the flexible integration of recent information. Counter to our expectations, we found no evidence that this form of generalization is better after a night of sleep relative to a day awake. Read More

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Hippo signaling effectors YAP and TAZ induce Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) lytic reactivation through TEADs in epithelial cells.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Aug 2;17(8):e1009783. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Oncology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin- Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) human herpesvirus is associated with B-cell and epithelial-cell malignancies, and both the latent and lytic forms of viral infection contribute to the development of EBV-associated tumors. Here we show that the Hippo signaling effectors, YAP and TAZ, promote lytic EBV reactivation in epithelial cells. The transcriptional co-activators YAP/TAZ (which are inhibited by Hippo signaling) interact with DNA-binding proteins, particularly TEADs, to induce transcription. Read More

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Modelling the ability of mass drug administration to interrupt soil-transmitted helminth transmission: Community-based deworming in Kenya as a case study.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Aug 2;15(8):e0009625. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, St. Mary's Campus, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

The World Health Organization has recommended the application of mass drug administration (MDA) in treating high prevalence neglected tropical diseases such as soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and trachoma. MDA-which is safe, effective and inexpensive-has been widely applied to eliminate or interrupt the transmission of STHs in particular and has been offered to people in endemic regions without requiring individual diagnosis. We propose two mathematical models to investigate the impact of MDA on the mean number of worms in both treated and untreated human subpopulations. Read More

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Constant curvature modeling of abstract shape representation.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(8):e0254719. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Psychology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

How abstract shape is perceived and represented poses crucial unsolved problems in human perception and cognition. Recent findings suggest that the visual system may encode contours as sets of connected constant curvature segments. Here we describe a model for how the visual system might recode a set of boundary points into a constant curvature representation. Read More

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Standardization and Evaluation of an Anti-ZIKV IgM ELISA Assay for the Serological Diagnosis of Zika Virus Infection.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS), Bangkok, Thailand.

Here, we describe the development of the in-house anti-Zika virus (ZIKV) IgM antibody capture ELISA (in-house ZIKV IgM ELISA) for the detection and diagnosis of acute ZIKV infections. We compared the in-house ZIKV IgM ELISA assay performance against two commercial kits, Euroimmun ZIKV IgM and InBios 2.0 ZIKV IgM ELISA. Read More

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HCE: Hierarchical Context Embedding for Region-based Object Detection.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 Aug 2;PP. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

State-of-the-art two-stage object detectors apply a classifier to a sparse set of object proposals, relying on region-wise features extracted by RoIPool or RoIAlign as inputs. The region-wise features, in spite of aligning well with the proposal locations, may still lack the crucial context information which is necessary for filtering out noisy background detections, as well as recognizing objects possessing no distinctive appearances. To address this issue, we present a simple but effective Hierarchical Context Embedding (HCE) framework, which can be applied as a plug-and-play component, to facilitate the classification ability of a series of region-based detectors by mining contextual cues. Read More

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The hypermucoviscosity of hypervirulent confers the ability to evade neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis.

Virulence 2021 Dec;12(1):2050-2059

Department of Infectious Diseases and Public Health, Jockey Club College of Veterinary Medicine and Life Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Hypervirulent (HvKP), which causes highly fatal infections, is a new threat to human health. In an attempt to investigate the underlying mechanisms of resistance to neutrophil-mediated killing and hence expression of high-level virulence by HvKP, we tested the binding affinity of HvKP strains to various types of human cells. Our data showed that HvKP exhibited weaker binding to both lung epithelial cells, intestinal Caco-2 cells and macrophages when compared to the classic, non-hypervirulent strains (cKP). Read More

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December 2021

Correlation between visibility and traffic safety visual distance in foggy areas during the daytime.

Traffic Inj Prev 2021 Aug 2:1-5. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, China.

Objective: Traffic safety is closely related to the driver's ability to obtain visual information. Low visibility would result in traffic accidents. This study aimed to explore the difference between meteorological visibility and traffic safety visual distance in foggy areas in the daytime, and analyze the difference between dynamic visual ability and static visual ability, so as to calculate the maximum acceptable speed limit that meets the driver's safety visual distance requirement. Read More

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First insights into a pyruvate sensing and uptake system in and its importance for virulence.

J Bacteriol 2021 Aug 2:JB0029621. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Microbiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany.

Pyruvate is a key metabolite in living cells and has been shown to play a crucial role in the virulence of several bacterial pathogens. The bioluminescent , a severe infectious burden for marine aquaculture, excretes extraordinarily large amounts of pyruvate during growth and rapidly retrieves it by an as-yet unknown mechanism. We have now identified the responsible pyruvate transporter, here named BtsU, and our results show that it is the only pyruvate transporter in . Read More

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Complexes of Metal Halides with Unreduced -(Imino)quinones.

Inorg Chem 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 49 Tropinina str., 603137 Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.

A series of complexes of metal halides with unreduced quinone-type ligands have been synthesized and characterized in detail. The 3,6-di--butyl--benzoquinone () and 4,6-di--butyl--aryl-substituted -iminobenzoquinones (-) (aryl is 2,6-dimethylphenyl in , 2-methyl-6-ethylphenyl in , 2,6-diethylphenyl in , and 2,6-diisopropylphenyl in ) were used to obtain the molecular complexes with metal 12 group halides as well as with indium(III) iodide. The molecular structures of five complexes, bearing an unreduced form of redox-active ligand, have been established by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Read More

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Nanotechnology for Boosting Cancer Immunotherapy and Remodeling Tumor Microenvironment: The Horizons in Cancer Treatment.

ACS Nano 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, 44 WenhuaXilu, Jinan 250012, China.

Immunotherapy that harnesses the human immune system to fight cancer has received widespread attention and become a mainstream strategy for cancer treatment. Cancer immunotherapy not only eliminates primary tumors but also treats metastasis and recurrence, representing a major advantage over traditional cancer treatments. Recently with the development of nanotechnology, there exists much work applying nanomaterials to cancer immunotherapy on the basis of their excellent physiochemical properties, such as efficient tissue-specific delivery function, huge specific surface area, and controllable surface chemistry. Read More

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The Autotransporter Adhesin Ata Recognizes Host Glycans as High-Affinity Receptors.

ACS Infect Dis 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland 4215, Australia.

is a significant opportunistic pathogen responsible for infections of the lung, blood, skin, urinary tract, and soft tissues, with some strains exhibiting almost complete resistance to commonly used antibiotics. This multidrug resistance, together with a dearth of new antibiotic development, mean novel methods of treatment and prevention are urgently needed. Although many factors required to colonize the host have been identified, little is known about the specific host molecules recognized by these factors. Read More

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Development of a Coccidiosis Disease Challenge Model Using a Commercially Available Live Oocyst Vaccine.

Avian Dis 2021 Mar;65(1):149-158

Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5A8.

With growing cross-disciplinary collaboration among researchers, it is increasingly important to record detailed methodology to prevent the repetition of preliminary experiments. The purpose of this paper is to explain the development of a coccidiosis challenge model for the investigation of dietary interventions to coccidiosis in broiler chickens. The objectives are to select a dose of mixed species coccidial vaccine and evaluate the suitability (ability to produce a consistent, marked change) of selected response variables important to nutritional studies at different times postinfection (PI). Read More

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Genetic Characterization and Pathogenicity Analysis of Recently Isolated Fowl Adenovirus 8b in Korea.

Avian Dis 2021 Mar;65(1):122-131

Avian Disease Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea,

A Korean field strain of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) 8b was isolated from chickens showing high mortality. Isolated FAdV-8b strains with the hexon and fiber genes were genetically analyzed. The Korean FAdV-8b (K194/19) strain isolated in 2019 showed higher sequence identity with the FAdV-8b strain isolated in China but lower sequence identity with the Korean FAdV-8b (K187/08) strain isolated in 2008. Read More

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Identification of Efficacious Vaccines Against Contemporary North American H7 Avian Influenza Viruses.

Avian Dis 2021 Mar;65(1):113-121

Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Unit, US National Poultry Research Center, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA 30605.

Five vaccines, including four inactivated, whole-virus water-in-oil adjuvanted vaccines and a commercial nonreplicating alphavirus-vectored RNA particle (RP) vaccine were evaluated in chickens for their ability to provide protection against challenge with a recent H7 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV) from the United States (A/turkey/IN/1403-1/2016 H7N8). One of the inactivated vaccines and the RP vaccine were prepared with A/turkey/IN/16-01571-6/2016 H7N8 low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV; TK/IN/16), which is identical to the challenge virus, except for the proteolytic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin protein. The remaining three inactivated vaccines were prepared with other North American H7 LPAIVs. Read More

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Individual health behaviours to combat the COVID-19 pandemic: lessons from HIV socio-behavioural science.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Aug;24(8):e25771

Departments of Psychology and Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Introduction: COVID-19 parallels HIV in many ways. Socio-behavioural science has been critical in elucidating the context and factors surrounding individual levels of engagement with known effective prevention and treatment tools for HIV, thus offering important lessons for ongoing efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.

Discussion: Non-adherence to effective disease mitigation strategies (e. Read More

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Polydatin gold nanoparticles potentiate antitumor effect of doxorubicin in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 Aug 2:e22869. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

Breast cancer is a leading cause of death. Anticancer treatment such as gold nanoparticles (AuNP) seems highly promising in this regard. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the beneficial effect of doxorubicin (Dox) and polydatin (PD) AuNP in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and the ability of PD-AuNP to protect the heart from Dox's deteriorating effects. Read More

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Importance of addressing malnutrition in cancer and implementation of a quality improvement project in a gastrointestinal cancer clinic.

Nutr Clin Pract 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Malnutrition is exceedingly common in cancer patients, with some of the highest rates seen in gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. Malnutrition and cachexia in cancer patients is associated with worse quality of life, poor treatment tolerance, and increased morbidity and mortality. The importance of early recognition of malnutrition in cancer patients is key, and numerous screening tools have been validated to aid practitioners in this diagnosis. Read More

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Self-Propelling Hybrid Gels Incorporating an Active Self-Assembled Low-Molecular-Weight Gelator.

Chemistry 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

University of York, Department of Chemistry, Heslington, YO10 5DD, York, UNITED KINGDOM.

Hybrid gel beads based on combining a low-molecular-weight gelator (LMWG) with a polymer gelator (PG) demonstrate enhanced ability to self-propel in water, with the LMWG playing an active role. Hybrid gel beads were loaded with ethanol and shown to move in water via 'Marangoni effect' surface tension changes caused by the expulsion of ethanol - smaller beads move further and faster than larger beads. Flat shapes of the hybrid gel were cut using a 'stamp' - circles moved the furthest while stars showed more rotational movement on their own axis. Read More

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Health-Related Criterion-Referenced Cut-Points for Musculoskeletal Fitness Among Youth: A Systematic Review.

Sports Med 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Education, Health and Behavior Studies, University of North Dakota, 2751 2nd Avenue North, Stop 8235, Grand Forks, ND, 58202, USA.

Background: Musculoskeletal fitness is an excellent functional measure that is significantly related to health among youth.

Objective: Our objective was to identify health-related criterion-referenced cut-points for musculoskeletal fitness (MSF) among youth.

Methods: A systematic search of two electronic databases (MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus) was conducted in September 2020. Read More

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