106,251 results match your criteria Wilson Disease


Standardized Cost Estimates for Home Visiting: Pilot Study of the Home Visiting Budget Assistance Tool (HV-BAT).

Matern Child Health J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Home Visiting and Early Childhood Systems, HRSA, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD, 20857, USA.

Purpose Using a standardized approach and metrics to estimate home visiting costs across multiple evidence-based models and regions could improve the consistency and accuracy of cost estimates, allow stakeholders to observe trends in cost allocation, analyze how home visiting costs vary, and develop future program budgets. Between October 2015 and December 2018, we developed and pilot-tested the Home Visiting Budget Assistance Tool (HV-BAT) to standardize the collection of home visiting program costs and analyze costs for local implementing agencies (LIAs). Methods We recruited LIAs that implemented at least one of nine evidence-based home visiting models in 15 states implementing the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) Program. Read More

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December 2018

AAV8 Gene Therapy for Crigler-Najjar Syndrome in Macaques Elicited Transgene T Cell Responses That Are Resident to the Liver.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2018 Dec 5;11:191-201. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Gene Therapy Program, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Systemic delivery of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has been evaluated for the treatment of several liver diseases, including homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, and hemophilia. Here, we evaluated this approach for the treatment of Crigler-Najjar syndrome. We administered wild-type rhesus macaques with 1. Read More

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December 2018

Is Use of Bone Cement for Treatment of Second Metatarsal Stress Fractures Safe? A Case Report.

Cureus 2018 Oct 9;10(10):e3436. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Orthopaedics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, USA.

Metatarsal stress fractures are common injuries of the foot and can be a source of chronic pain without appropriate management. Conservative management is first line, but surgery may be indicated in athletes, cases of nonunion, and fractures of the fifth metatarsal. We report a case of a 34-year-old female who presented to clinic for intractable pain of the left foot secondary to a stress fracture of the left second metatarsal, which had been previously treated with injectable acrylic bone cement. Read More

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October 2018

Strengthened scientific support for the Endangerment Finding for atmospheric greenhouse gases.

Science 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964, USA.

We assess scientific evidence that has emerged since the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 2009 Endangerment Finding for six well-mixed greenhouse gases, and find that this new evidence lends increased support to the conclusion that these gases pose a danger to public health and welfare. Read More

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December 2018

Stronger together: midwifery twinning between Tanzania and Canada.

Global Health 2018 12 13;14(1):123. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Fondation Sanofi Espoir, 262, Boulevard Saint Germain, 75007, PARIS, France.

This article describes a twinning relationship between the Canadian Association of Midwives (CAM) and the Tanzania Midwives Association (TAMA). It argues that the twinning relationship strengthened both associations. The article briefly reviews the existing literature on professional associations and association strengthening to demonstrate that professional associations are a vital tool for improving the performance of healthcare workers and increasing their capacity to contribute to national and international policy-making. Read More

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December 2018

Cell-Type-Specific Proteomics: A Neuroscience Perspective.

Proteomes 2018 Dec 9;6(4). Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Yale/NIDA Neuroproteomics Center, 300 George St., New Haven, CT 06511, USA.

Cell-type-specific analysis has become a major focus for many investigators in the field of neuroscience, particularly because of the large number of different cell populations found in brain tissue that play roles in a variety of developmental and behavioral disorders. However, isolation of these specific cell types can be challenging due to their nonuniformity and complex projections to different brain regions. Moreover, many analytical techniques used for protein detection and quantitation remain insensitive to the low amounts of protein extracted from specific cell populations. Read More

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December 2018

"The British Soldier is no Bolshevik": The British Army, Discipline, and the Demobilization Strikes of 1919.

Authors:
William Butler

20 Century Br Hist 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

University of Kent, UK.

This article considers the breakdown in discipline in the British Army which occurred in Britain and on the Western Front during the process of demobilization at the end of the First World War. Many soldiers, retained in the army immediately after the Armistice, went on strike, and some formed elected committees, demanding their swifter return to civilian life. Their perception was that the existing demobilization system was unjust, and men were soon organized by those more politically conscious members of the armed forces who had enlisted for the duration of the war. Read More

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December 2018

Popcorn Capsulorrhaphy in Revision Aesthetic Breast Surgery.

Aesthet Surg J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Private practice in Louisville, KY.

Background: Control of the pocket in revisional breast surgery can be technically challenging and unpredictable. A capsulorrhaphy technique has been utilized in altering capsules in secondary aesthetic breast surgery.

Objectives: The authors sought to determine the effectiveness of popcorn capsulorrhaphy in revisional breast surgery. Read More

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December 2018

Determining landscape-level drivers of variability for over fifty soil chemical elements.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Dec 4;657:279-286. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

College of Agro-grassland Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China; Department of Grassland Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Syntheses of large datasets have allowed increased clarity of distribution patterns and variation in soil major and trace elements. However, the drivers of variation in topsoil elements across biogeographical scales are not well understood. Our aim was to (1) identify how landscape-scale climate, geographical features, and edaphic factors influence soil elements, and (2) determine key environmental thresholds for shifts in soil element concentration. Read More

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December 2018

The strength of alpha and gamma oscillations predicts behavioral switch costs.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska - Omaha, NE, USA; Center for Magnetoencephalography, University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC), Omaha, NE, USA; Department of Neurological Sciences, UNMC, Omaha, NE, USA. Electronic address:

Cognitive flexibility is often examined using task-switch paradigms, whereby individuals either switch between tasks or repeat the same task on successive trials. The behavioral costs of switching in terms of accuracy and reaction time are well-known, but the oscillatory dynamics underlying such costs are poorly understood. Herein, we examined 25 healthy adults who performed a task-switching paradigm during magnetoencephalography (MEG). Read More

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December 2018

Reducing the impact of the impending myopia epidemic in New Zealand.

N Z Med J 2018 Dec 14;131(1487):80-85. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Ophthalmologist, Gisborne; Senior Lecturer, Dept of Ophthalmology, University of Otago.

Myopia is an eye condition that is increasing around the world, reaching epidemic levels in many countries. It is associated with a higher risk of other ocular diseases including myopic maculopathy and retinal detachment. Historically in New Zealand myopia has existed at a low level, however the environmental changes that have increased myopia internationally will affect New Zealanders too. Read More

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December 2018

New Zealand's experience of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic: a systematic review after 100 years.

N Z Med J 2018 Dec 14;131(1487):54-69. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Professor of Public Health, Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington.

Background: The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic has been New Zealand's most severe disaster event (around 9,000 deaths). We aimed to review the literature related to this pandemic in New Zealand and among New Zealanders overseas, to identify any remaining research gaps (given ongoing risks of future influenza pandemics and from new pathogens, eg, synthetic bioweapons).

Methods: Systematic literature searches and comparisons with international findings for this pandemic to facilitate identification of research gaps. Read More

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December 2018

Modelling the number of quitters needed to achieve New Zealand's Smokefree 2025 goal for Māori and non-Māori.

N Z Med J 2018 Dec 14;131(1487):30-37. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington.

Aim: To estimate the numbers of people required to quit smoking in New Zealand to achieve the Smokefree 2025 goal and to compare these with current levels of quitting.

Methods: We used the established BODE3 tobacco forecasting model to project smoking prevalence separately for Māori and non-Māori to 2025 under a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario. We then determined by what factor current annual cessation rates would have to increase to achieve an adult smoking prevalence of under 5% by the year 2025, while annual smoking uptake rates continued to follow BAU patterns. Read More

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December 2018

2018 Clinical Practice Guideline Summary For Practicing Clinicians: Diagnosis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

University of Washington Medical Center, 21617, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States.

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December 2018

Evaluation of a Single Dose of Azithromycin for Trachoma in Low-Prevalence Communities.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec 13:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

a Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Atlanta , GA , USA.

Purpose: Trachoma, caused by repeated ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide and is targeted for elimination as a public health problem. We sought to determine whether a one-time azithromycin mass treatment would reduce trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) levels below the elimination threshold of 5% in communities with disease prevalence between 5 and 9.9%. Read More

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December 2018

Tuning the electrochemiluminescent properties of iridium complexes of N-heterocyclic carbene ligands.

Dalton Trans 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Chemistry and Physics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Victoria, 3086, Australia.

A series of five heteroleptic Ir(iii) complexes of the general form Ir(dfppy)2(C^C) have been prepared (where dfppy represents 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine and C^C represents a bidentate cyclometalated phenyl substituted imidazolylidene ligand). The cyclometalated phenyl ring of the imidazolylidene ligand was either unsubstituted or substituted with electron donating (OMe and Me) or electron withdrawing (Cl and F) groups in the 2 and 4 positions. The synthesised Ir(iii) complexes have been characterised by elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electronic absorption and emission spectroscopy. Read More

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December 2018

An Adjustable Dalteparin Sodium Dose Regimen for the Prevention of Clotting in the Extracorporeal Circuit in Hemodialysis: A Clinical Trial of Safety and Efficacy (the PARROT Study).

Can J Kidney Health Dis 2018 4;5:2054358118809104. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Pfizer Essential Health, Pfizer Canada Inc, Kirkland, QC, Canada.

Background: Dalteparin sodium, a low-molecular-weight heparin, is indicated for prevention of clotting in the extracorporeal circuit during hemodialysis (HD). Product labeling recommends a fixed single-bolus dose of 5000 international units (IU) for HD sessions lasting up to 4 hours, but adjustable dosing may be beneficial in clinical practice.

Objective: The aim of the PARROT study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of an adjustable dose of dalteparin in patients with end-stage renal disease requiring 3 to 4 HD sessions per week. Read More

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November 2018

Chemoenzymatic synthesis of glycopeptides bearing rare N-glycan sequences with or without bisecting GlcNAc.

Chem Sci 2018 Nov 31;9(43):8194-8206. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Chemistry , Michigan State University , 578 South Shaw Lane , East Lansing , MI 48824 , USA . Email: ; Email: ; Email:

N-Linked glycopeptides have highly diverse structures in nature. Herein, we describe the first synthesis of rare multi-antennary N-glycan bearing glycan chains on 6-OH of both α1,6- and α1,3-linked mannose arms. To expedite divergent generation of N-glycan structures, four orthogonal protective groups were installed at the branching points on the core tetrasaccharide, which could be removed individually without affecting one another. Read More

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November 2018

Gold-catalyzed conversion of lignin to low molecular weight aromatics.

Chem Sci 2018 Nov 6;9(42):8127-8133. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Department of Chemistry , University of Kentucky , 505 Rose Street , Lexington , KY 40506 , USA.

A heterogeneous catalyst system, employing Au nanoparticles (NPs) and Li-Al (1 : 2) layered double hydroxide (LDH) as support, showed excellent activity in aerobic oxidation of the benzylic alcohol group in β-O-4 linked lignin model dimers to the corresponding carbonyl products using molecular oxygen under atmospheric pressure. The synergistic effect between Au NPs and the basic Li-Al LDH support induces further reaction of the oxidized model compounds, facilitating facile cleavage of the β-O-4 linkage. Extension to oxidation of γ-valerolactone (GVL) extracted lignin and kraft lignin using Au/Li-Al LDH under similar conditions produced a range of aromatic monomers in high yield. Read More

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November 2018

Assessing the efficiency of changes in land use for mitigating climate change.

Nature 2018 12 12;564(7735):249-253. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement (CIRED), Montpelier, France.

Land-use changes are critical for climate policy because native vegetation and soils store abundant carbon and their losses from agricultural expansion, together with emissions from agricultural production, contribute about 20 to 25 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions. Most climate strategies require maintaining or increasing land-based carbon while meeting food demands, which are expected to grow by more than 50 per cent by 2050. A finite global land area implies that fulfilling these strategies requires increasing global land-use efficiency of both storing carbon and producing food. Read More

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December 2018

Prostatic Urethral Lift (PUL) for obstructive median lobes: 12 month results of the MedLift Study.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Urology of Virginia, PLLC 225 Clearfield Ave, Virginia Beach, VA, 23462, USA.

Evidence indicating Prostatic Urethral Lift (PUL) delivers significant improvement in symptomatic BPH with low morbidity is based on subjects with lateral lobe (LL) enlargement only. MedLift was an FDA IDE extension of the L.I. Read More

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December 2018

What's in a name? Dr Ian McWhinney Lecture, 2018.

Authors:
C Ruth Wilson

Can Fam Physician 2018 Dec;64(12):886-888

Professor Emerita in the Department of Family Medicine at Queen's University in Kingston, Ont.

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December 2018

Isolation of villous cytotrophoblasts from second trimester human placentas.

Placenta 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Robinson Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005, Australia; Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5000, Australia.

Human placental functional studies are often performed using immortalised trophoblast cells and cell lines established from human choriocarcinomas, which, while practical, may not truly reflect trophoblast function in vivo. Primary trophoblast cultures derived from human placentas following pregnancy termination or delivery are more clinically relevant, but trophoblast isolation protocols are only available for 1st trimester and term placental tissues. Here we report a method for isolation and purification of primary villous cytotrophoblasts from 2nd trimester human placentas, that yields >99% trophoblast purity as shown by immunofluorescence. Read More

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November 2018

What's missing in autism spectrum disorder motor assessments?

J Neurodev Disord 2018 Dec 13;10(1):33. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

UCLA Semel Institute of Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, 760 Westwood Plaza, Room A7-424, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Background: Motor delays and impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are extremely common and often herald the emergence of pervasive atypical development. Clinical accounts of ASD and standardized measures of motor function have identified deficits in multiple motor domains. However, literature describing frequently used standardized motor assessments in children with ASD, their test properties, and their limitations are sparse. Read More

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December 2018

Deep neural networks for A-line-based plaque classification in coronary intravascular optical coherence tomography images.

J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2018 Oct 3;5(4):044504. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, Ohio, United States.

We develop neural-network-based methods for classifying plaque types in clinical intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) images of coronary arteries. A single IVOCT pullback can consist of microscopic-resolution images, creating both a challenge for physician interpretation during an interventional procedure and an opportunity for automated analysis. In the proposed method, we classify each A-line, a datum element that better captures physics and pathophysiology than a voxel, as a fibrous layer followed by calcification (fibrocalcific), a fibrous layer followed by a lipidous deposit (fibrolipidic), or other. Read More

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October 2018

Groundwater Irrigation and Arsenic Speciation in Rice in Cambodia.

J Health Pollut 2018 Sep 10;8(19):180911. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

University of Ottawa, Canada.

Background: Arsenic bioaccumulation in rice is a global concern affecting food security and public health.

Objective: The present study examined arsenic species in rice in Cambodia to characterize health risks with rice consumption and to clarify uncertainties with Codex guidelines.

Methods: The present study collected 61 well water samples, 105 rice samples, 70 soil samples, and conducted interviews with 44 families in Preak Russey near the Bassac River and Kandal Province along the Mekong River in Cambodia. Read More

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September 2018

Effects of Arsenic, Iron and Fertilizers in Soil on Rice in Cambodia.

J Health Pollut 2018 Sep 10;8(19):180910. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

University of Ottawa, Canada.

Background: In parts of Cambodia, irrigation with groundwater results in arsenic accumulation in soils and rice, leading to health concerns associated with rice consumption. A high concentration of iron in groundwater can precipitate arsenic and reduce its bioavailability, however high concentrations of arsenic and iron can also reduce rice production. Furthermore, concerns have been raised about chemical contamination from inorganic fertilizers used to grow rice. Read More

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September 2018

Predictors of Daily Adherence to HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis in Gay/Bisexual Men in the PRELUDE Demonstration Project.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Kirby Institute, Wallace Wurth Building, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.

Adequate adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is critical to prevent HIV infection, but accurately measuring adherence remains challenging. We compared two biological [blood drug concentrations in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)] and two self-reported measures (facilitated recall to clinicians and self-report in online surveys) and identified predictors of daily PrEP adherence among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in their first 12 months on PRELUDE, an open-label, single-arm PrEP demonstration project in New South Wales, Australia. 327 participants were enrolled; 263 GBM attended their 12-month follow-up visit (81% retention). Read More

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December 2018

[Design of points, lines and planes in the reconstruction of occlusion and the risk control in implantation].

Authors:
J Chen

Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2018 Dec;53(12):805-809

Department of Dental Implantology, Affiliated Stomatological Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350002, China.

Occlusion reconstruction involves various factors, such as joints, muscles, teeth and mental states. The relationship between implantation complications and occlusion, especially in the method of reducing the risk of implantation during occlusal reconstruction, is more and more emphasized by clinicians. This article mainly summarized the essentials of occlusal factors, such as mandibular position, cusp inclination and occlusal contacts, Spee's curve, Wilson curve and occlusal plane, in clinical treatment from the perspective of static geometry, dynamic functional movement in points, lines and planes, in order to accomplish precise occlusion reconstruction to achieve a stable and functional occlusion reconstruction, i. Read More

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December 2018

KLF4, A Gene Regulating Prostate Stem Cell Homeostasis, Is a Barrier to Malignant Progression and Predictor of Good Prognosis in Prostate Cancer.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3006-3020.e7

Department of Cell Biology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; Department of Urology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address:

There is a considerable need to identify those individuals with prostate cancer who have indolent disease. We propose that genes that control adult stem cell homeostasis in organs with slow turnover, such as the prostate, control cancer fate. One such gene, KLF4, overexpressed in murine prostate stem cells, regulates their homeostasis, blocks malignant transformation, and controls the self-renewal of tumor-initiating cells. Read More

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December 2018

Another Weapon in the Battle Against Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis?

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

University of Washington, Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Critical Care, Seattle, Washington, United States.

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December 2018

Physiotherapy practice patterns in gait rehabilitation for adults with acquired brain injury.

Brain Inj 2018 Dec 12:1-16. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

a Department of Physical Therapy , University of Toronto , Toronto , Canada.

Objective: Gait dysfunction is common following acquired brain injury (ABI). Clinical practice guidelines can improve patient outcomes; however, information regarding ABI-specific management of gait dysfunction is limited. This study aimed to describe practice patterns of Canadian physiotherapists regarding gait rehabilitation in adults post-ABI. Read More

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December 2018

The Impact of Photorefractive Keratectomy and Mitomycin C on Corneal Nerves and Their Regeneration.

J Refract Surg 2018 Dec;34(12):790-798

Purpose: To determine how photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and mitomycin C (MMC) affect corneal nerves and their regeneration over time after surgery.

Methods: Twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits had corneal epithelial scraping with (n = 3) and without (n = 3) MMC 0.02% or -9. Read More

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December 2018

An Efficient Method to Generate Monoclonal Antibodies from Human B Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1904:109-145

Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, The Knapp Center for Lupus and Immunology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

In the age of personalized medicine, an efficient method to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is essential for biomedical and immunotherapeutic research. Numerous aspects of basic B-cell biology can be studied at the monoclonal level, including B-cell development, antibody responses to infection or vaccination, and autoimmune responses. Single-cell B-cell receptor cloning allows for the rapid generation of antigen-specific mAbs in a matter of several weeks. Read More

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January 2019

Comparison of body weight estimation equations for camels (Camelus dromedarius).

Trop Anim Health Prod 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Animal Production and Biotechnology, Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, PO Box 6202, Rabat-Instituts, 10101, Rabat, Morocco.

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of six different equations for weight estimation of camels using body measurements as chest girth, height at withers, and hump girth in order to identify the most reliable equation for use in the field. The prediction equations that were compared were those of Boué Revue d'Élevage et de Médecine vétérinaire des Pays tropicaux 3 (1), 13-16, 1949; Graber Revue d'Élevage et de Médecine vétérinaire des Pays tropicaux, 19, 527-543, 1966; Wilson Tropical Animal Health and Production, 10, 19-25, 1978; Field Proceedings of the Khartoum workshop on camels V1, 209-230, 1979; Bucci et al. Indian Veterinary Journal, 61, 26-30, 1984; and Yagil A Handbook for Camel Breeding, 1994 noticed as BW1, BW2, BW3, BW4, BW5, and BW6, respectively. Read More

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December 2018

Exposure to cuticular bacteria can alter host behavior in a funnel-weaving spider.

Curr Zool 2018 Dec 16;64(6):721-726. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Contact with environmental microbes are arguably the most common species interaction in which any animal participates. Studies have noted diverse relationships between hosts and resident microbes, which can have strong consequences for host development, physiology, and behavior. Many of these studies focus specifically on pathogens or beneficial microbes, while the benign microbes, of which the majority of bacteria could be described, are often ignored. Read More

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December 2018

Social status alters chromatin accessibility and the gene regulatory response to glucocorticoid stimulation in rhesus macaques.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708;

Low social status is an important predictor of disease susceptibility and mortality risk in humans and other social mammals. These effects are thought to stem in part from dysregulation of the glucocorticoid (GC)-mediated stress response. However, the molecular mechanisms that connect low social status and GC dysregulation to downstream health outcomes remain elusive. Read More

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December 2018

Apurinic endonuclease-1 preserves neural genome integrity to maintain homeostasis and thermoregulation and prevent brain tumors.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Genetics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105;

Frequent oxidative modification of the neural genome is a by-product of the high oxygen consumption of the nervous system. Rapid correction of oxidative DNA lesions is essential, as genome stability is a paramount determinant of neural homeostasis. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1; also known as "APEX1" or "REF1") is a key enzyme for the repair of oxidative DNA damage, although the specific role(s) for this enzyme in the development and maintenance of the nervous system is largely unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Prostate Cancer Risk-Associated Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Affects Prostate-Specific Antigen Glycosylation and Its Function.

Clin Chem 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre-Queensland and Cancer Program, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation and School of Biomedical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Background: Genetic association studies have reported single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at chromosome 19q13.3 to be associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Recently, the rs61752561 SNP (Asp84Asn substitution) in exon 3 of the kallikrein-related peptidase 3 () gene encoding prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was reported to be strongly associated with PCa risk ( = 2. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of General Anesthesia on 2 Urinary Biomarkers of Kidney Injury-Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1 and Lipocalin 2-in Male C57BL/6J Mice.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Urinary biomarkers are used increasingly for sensitive prediction of kidney injury in preclinical and clinical studies. Giventhe frequent requirement of anesthesia in various animal models of disease, it is important to define the effects of anesthesiaon kidney injury biomarkers to guide the appropriate selection of anesthetic agents and to avoid potential confounders in the interpretation of data. Therefore, we performed a prospective study using male C57BL/6J mice (n = 45) exposed to a singleanesthetic episode to determine the effects several common anesthesia regimens on the urinary excretion of 2 commonlyused kidney injury biomarkers: hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1, also known as KIM1) and lipocalin 2 (LCN2,also known as NGAL). Read More

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December 2018

Linear mixed models for association analysis of quantitative traits with next-generation sequencing data.

Genet Epidemiol 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Computational and Statistical Genomics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland.

We develop linear mixed models (LMMs) and functional linear mixed models (FLMMs) for gene-based tests of association between a quantitative trait and genetic variants on pedigrees. The effects of a major gene are modeled as a fixed effect, the contributions of polygenes are modeled as a random effect, and the correlations of pedigree members are modeled via inbreeding/kinship coefficients. -statistics and χ likelihood ratio test (LRT) statistics based on the LMMs and FLMMs are constructed to test for association. Read More

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December 2018

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Home Transitions Multidisciplinary Care Coordination Reduces Readmissions for Older Adults.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Community Provider Services, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Objectives: To compare rates of 30- and 90-day hospital readmissions and observation or emergency department (ED) returns of older adults using the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Health Plan Home Transitions (HT) with those of Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) controls without HT.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Analysis of home health and hospital records from 8 UPMC hospitals in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, from July 1, 2015, to April 30, 2017. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Prescribing trends and revisit rates following a pharmacist-driven protocol change for community-acquired pneumonia in an emergency department.

Int J Pharm Pract 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center - Mercy Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Objective: To compare pharmacist-led prescribing changes and associated 30-day revisit rates across different regimens for patients discharged from an emergency department (ED) with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

Methods: An observational, retrospective cohort analysis was conducted of patients who were discharged from an ED over a 4-year period with a diagnosis of CAP. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, antibiotic selection and comorbidity and condition severity scores were collected for two cohorts: 2012-13 (before protocol change) and 2014-15 (post-protocol change). Read More

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December 2018

Preoperative brain MRI for clinical stage IA lung cancer: is routine scanning rational?

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 270 Dong-An Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Purpose: Early detection and control of lung cancer brain metastases (BMs) are important. However, several guideline recommendations are inconsistent with regard to routine preoperative brain MRI, especially in patients with clinical stage IA lung cancer. Our study evaluated the value of preoperative brain MRI in patients with clinical stage IA lung cancer. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Enhancing Base Excision Repair of Mitochondrial DNA to Reduce Ischemic Injury Following Reperfusion.

Transl Stroke Res 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Exscien Corp, Mobile, AL, 36688, USA.

We hypothesize that enhancing mitochondrial base excision repair (BER) capability in brain will reduce reperfusion-associated ischemic brain injury. Post-stroke reperfusion was modeled in mice via transient filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (60 min) (transient MCAO). Administration of a TAT-modified form of a DNA glycosylase (EndoIII) following reperfusion of the brain reduced resultant brain infarct volume. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Generalized concentration addition model predicts glucocorticoid activity bioassay responses to environmentally-detected receptor ligand mixtures.

Toxicol Sci 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Toxicity Assessment Division, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States.

Many glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists have been detected in waste and surface waters domestically and around the world, but the way a mixture of these environmental compounds may elicit a total glucocorticoid activity response in water samples remains unknown. Therefore, we characterized 19 GR ligands using a CV1 cell line transcriptional activation assay applicable to water quality monitoring. Cells were treated with individual GR ligands, a fixed ratio mixture of full or partial agonists, or a non-equipotent mixture with full and partial agonists. Read More

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December 2018

Immunodominance and antigenic variation of influenza virus hemagglutinin: implications for design of universal vaccine immunogens.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA.

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December 2018

Digital Microscopy, Image Analysis, and Virtual Slide Repository.

ILAR J 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Famke Aeffner, DVM PhD DACVP, is a principal pathologist in the Comparative Biology and Safety Sciences Department at Amgen Inc. in South San Francisco, California. Hibret Adissu, DVM PhD DVSc DACVP, is an investigative pathologist in the Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Center for Cancer Research, at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland. Michael C. Boyle, DVM PhD DACVP DABT, is a principal pathologist in the Comparative Biology and Safety Sciences at Amgen Inc. in Thousand Oaks, California. Robert D. Cardiff, MD PhD, is a distinguished professor of pathology (emeritus) at the Center for Comparative Medicine at the University of California in Davis, California. Erik Hagendorn is a senior scientist of informatics at AbbVie Bioresearch in Worcester, Massachusetts. Mark J. Hoenerhoff, DVM PhD DACVP, is an associate professor and veterinary pathologist at the In Vivo Animal Core, Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Robert Klopfleisch, DVM PhD DACVP, is an associate professor at the Institute of Veterinary Pathology of the Freie Universitaet Berlin, in Berlin, Germany. Susan Newbigging, BSc MSc DVM DVSc, is a pathologist and Director of The Pathology Core at the Toronto Center of Phenogenomics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Dirk Schaudien, DVM PhD DACVP, is a veterinary pathologist at the Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, in Hannover, Germany. Oliver Turner, BSC(Hons), BVSc MRCVS PhD DACVP DABT, is a senior pathologist in the Preclinical Safety department of Novartis Pharmaceuticals in East Hanover, New Jersey. Kristin Wilson, DVM PhD DACVP, is a pathologist at Flagship Biosciences Inc. in Westminster, Colorado.

Advancements in technology and digitization have ushered in novel ways of enhancing tissue-based research via digital microscopy and image analysis. Whole slide imaging scanners enable digitization of histology slides to be stored in virtual slide repositories and to be viewed via computers instead of microscopes. Easier and faster sharing of histologic images for teaching and consultation, improved storage and preservation of quality of stained slides, and annotation of features of interest in the digital slides are just a few of the advantages of this technology. Read More

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December 2018
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