1,091 results match your criteria Western Equine Encephalitis

Synthesis and biological activity of conformationally restricted indole-based inhibitors of neurotropic alphavirus replication: Generation of a three-dimensional pharmacophore.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Jun 15;46:128171. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Vahlteich Medicinal Chemistry Core, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States; Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States. Electronic address:

We have previously reported the development of indole-based CNS-active antivirals for the treatment of neurotropic alphavirus infection, but further optimization is impeded by a lack of knowledge of the molecular target and binding site. Herein we describe the design, synthesis and evaluation of a series of conformationally restricted analogues with the dual objectives of improving potency/selectivity and identifying the most bioactive conformation. Although this campaign was only modestly successful at improving potency, the sharply defined SAR of the rigid analogs enabled the definition of a three-dimensional pharmacophore, which we believe will be of value in further analog design and virtual screening for alternative antiviral leads. Read More

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Serological evidence of equine infectious anaemia, West Nile fever, surra and equine piroplasmosis in a herd of horses in northern Argentina.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2021 Apr 2;24:100566. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Laboratorio de Diagnóstico, Clinica Equina SRL, Alem 1698 - Capitan Sarmiento, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Northern Argentina hosts equine populations living under preserved natural areas and extensive breeding conditions, with limited access to veterinary care. Horses can be in contact with i) wildlife considered to be a potential reservoir of horse pathogens (e.g. Read More

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The transcriptional landscape of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (TC-83) infection.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 03 31;15(3):e0009306. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America.

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV) is a major biothreat agent that naturally causes outbreaks in humans and horses particularly in tropical areas of the western hemisphere, for which no antiviral therapy is currently available. The host response to VEEV and the cellular factors this alphavirus hijacks to support its effective replication or evade cellular immune responses are largely uncharacterized. We have previously demonstrated tremendous cell-to-cell heterogeneity in viral RNA (vRNA) and cellular transcript levels during flaviviral infection using a novel virus-inclusive single-cell RNA-Seq approach. Read More

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A Tale of 20 Alphaviruses; Inter-species Diversity and Conserved Interactions Between Viral Non-structural Protein 3 and Stress Granule Proteins.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 11;9:625711. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Alphaviruses infect a diverse range of host organisms including mosquitoes, mammals, and birds. The enigmatic alphavirus non-structural protein 3 (nsP3) has an intrinsically disordered, C-terminal hypervariable domain (HVD) that can interact with a variety of host proteins associated with stress granules (SGs). The HVD displays the highest variability across the more than 30 known alphaviruses, yet it also contains several motifs that are conserved amongst different subgroups of alphaviruses. Read More

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February 2021

Beat the heat: Culex quinquefasciatus regulates its body temperature during blood feeding.

J Therm Biol 2021 Feb 6;96:102826. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Biochemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA; The Fralin Life Science Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA; The Global Change Center, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA; Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA. Electronic address:

Mosquitoes are regarded as one of the most dangerous animals on earth. Because they are responsible for the spread of a wide range of both human and animal pathogens, research of the underlying mechanisms of their feeding behavior and physiology is critical. Among disease vector mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus, a known carrier of West Nile virus and Western Equine Encephalitis, remains relatively understudied. Read More

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February 2021

Stabilization of a Broadly Neutralizing Anti-Chikungunya Virus Single Domain Antibody.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 28;8:626028. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Center for BioMolecular Science and Engineering, Washington, DC, United States.

A single domain antibody (clone CC3) previously found to neutralize a vaccine strain of the chikungunya virus (PRNT = 2. 5 ng/mL) was found to be broadly neutralizing. Clone CC3 is not only able to neutralize a wild-type (WT) strain of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), but also neutralizes WT strains of Mayaro virus (MAYV) and Ross River virus (RRV); both arthralgic, Old World alphaviruses. Read More

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January 2021

A Monovalent and Trivalent MVA-Based Vaccine Completely Protects Mice Against Lethal Venezuelan, Western, and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Aerosol Challenge.

Front Immunol 2020 19;11:598847. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Bavarian Nordic GmbH, Martinsried, Germany.

Venezuelan, eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses (EEV) can cause severe disease of the central nervous system in humans, potentially leading to permanent damage or death. Yet, no licensed vaccine for human use is available to protect against these mosquito-borne pathogens, which can be aerosolized and therefore pose a bioterror threat in addition to the risk of natural outbreaks. Using the mouse aerosol challenge model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of EEV vaccines that are based on the modified vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic (MVA-BN) vaccine platform: three monovalent vaccines expressing the envelope polyproteins E3-E2-6K-E1 of the respective EEV virus, a mixture of these three monovalent EEV vaccines (Triple-Mix) as a first approach to generate a multivalent vaccine, and a true multivalent alphavirus vaccine (MVA-WEV, Trivalent) encoding the polyproteins of all three EEVs in a single non-replicating MVA viral vector. Read More

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January 2021

Arbovirus serosurvey (Orthobunyavirus, Flavivirus, and Alphavirus) in a draft horse population from Santa Fe, Argentina (2013-2016).

Arch Virol 2021 Mar 12;166(3):881-884. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Instituto de Virología "Dr. JM Vanella", Argentina, Enfermera Gordillo S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA, Córdoba, Argentina.

In the present study, we serosurveyed the exposure of 222 draft horses to different arboviruses in the city of Santa Fe, Argentina. Plaque reduction neutralization tests confirmed exposure to Fort Sherman virus (FSV), Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Río Negro virus (RNV). Apparently, Western and Eastern equine encephalitis viruses did not circulate in the population tested. Read More

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Serologic Survey of Mosquito-Borne Viruses in Hunter-Harvested White-Tailed Deer (), New York State.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Dec 21. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Albany School of Public Health, Albany, New York.

Sera from white-tailed deer (WTD, ) hunter-harvested throughout New York State (NYS), 2007-2015, were tested by plaque reduction neutralization for antibodies against nine mosquito-borne viruses from the families Peribunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae. Overall, 76.1% (373/490) of sampled WTD were seropositive against at least one virus, and 38. Read More

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December 2020

First Record of Mosquito-Borne Kyzylagach Virus in Central Europe.

Viruses 2020 12 16;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Institute of Vertebrate Biology, The Czech Academy of Sciences, v.v.i., Květná 8, CZ-60365 Brno, Czech Republic.

RNA of Kyzylagach virus (KYZV), a Sindbis-like mosquito-borne alphavirus from Western equine encephalitis virus complex, was detected in four pools (out of 221 pools examined), encompassing 10,784 female mosquitoes collected at a fishpond in south Moravia, Czech Republic, with a minimum infection rate of 0.04%. This alphavirus was never detected in Central Europe before. Read More

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December 2020

The Western Equine Encephalitis Lyophilized, Inactivated Vaccine: An Update on Safety and Immunogenicity.

Front Immunol 2020 9;11:555464. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Division of Medicine, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD, United States.

Background: Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE) is a naturally acquired infection and potentially devastating bioweapon, with no specific human countermeasures. An experimental inactivated Western Equine Encephalitis Vaccine (WEEV; WEE TSI-GSD 210) has been used under an IND (investigational New Drug) protocol at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) since 1976.

Methods: Over 24 years from 1987 to 2011, 876 subjects received 3 primary vaccine doses under 3 studies with 1,537 booster doses administered (FY87-8, phase 2, laboratory workers, vaccine lots 1-81-1, 1-81-2, and 2-1-91; FY99-12, phase 2 laboratory workers, lot 2-1-91; and FY09-02, phase 1 healthy volunteer, lot 3-1-92). Read More

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Encephalitis with coinfection by Jamestown canyon virus (JCV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV).

IDCases 2020 8;22:e00966. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Medicine, Western Michigan University Homer Stryker MD School of Medicine, Kalamazoo, MI USA.

We present the case of a 59-year-old Midwestern farmer who presented with altered mental status, dysarthria, urinary incontinence, and a right-sided L5 dermatomal rash; he had recently received a course of oral corticosteroids for treatment of radicular low back pain. Lumbar puncture revealed the presence of varicella zoster virus (VZV) and IgM antibodies against a California-group encephalitis virus, later confirmed as Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV). Unfortunately, the patient's health declined despite aggressive treatment, developing progressive subarachnoid hemorrhage. Read More

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October 2020

Clinical features and laboratory diagnosis of emerging arthropod-transmitted viruses: A Report from the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology Clinical Practice Committee.

J Clin Virol 2020 11 30;132:104651. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, United States.

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are an increasing global threat due to their ability to cause human disease and their expanding geographical distribution. They circulate in nature between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts. Infection of susceptible human hosts leads to harmful developmental and neurological manifestations. Read More

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November 2020

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP3 Phosphorylation Can Be Mediated by IKKβ Kinase Activity and Abrogation of Phosphorylation Inhibits Negative-Strand Synthesis.

Viruses 2020 09 13;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 13.

National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110, USA.

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), a mosquito transmitted alphavirus of the family, can cause a highly inflammatory and encephalitic disease upon infection. Although a category B select agent, no FDA-approved vaccines or therapeutics against VEEV currently exist. We previously demonstrated NF-κB activation and macromolecular reorganization of the IKK complex upon VEEV infection in vitro, with IKKβ inhibition reducing viral replication. Read More

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September 2020

Transmission of West Nile and five other temperate mosquito-borne viruses peaks at temperatures between 23°C and 26°C.

Elife 2020 09 15;9. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, United States.

The temperature-dependence of many important mosquito-borne diseases has never been quantified. These relationships are critical for understanding current distributions and predicting future shifts from climate change. We used trait-based models to characterize temperature-dependent transmission of 10 vector-pathogen pairs of mosquitoes (, , , and others) and viruses (West Nile, Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis, St. Read More

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September 2020

Comparative pathology study of Venezuelan, eastern, and western equine encephalitis viruses in non-human primates.

Antiviral Res 2020 10 2;182:104875. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

University of South Alabama, Mobile, 36688, AL, USA.

Venezuelan, eastern, and western equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV, EEEV, and WEEV) are mosquito-borne viruses in the Americas that cause central nervous system (CNS) disease in humans and equids. In this study, we directly characterized the pathogenesis of VEEV, EEEV, and WEEV in cynomolgus macaques following subcutaneous exposure because this route more closely mimics natural infection via mosquito transmission or by an accidental needle stick. Our results highlight how EEEV is significantly more pathogenic compared to VEEV similarly to what is observed in humans. Read More

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October 2020

Immunopathogenesis of alphaviruses.

Adv Virus Res 2020 8;107:315-382. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States. Electronic address:

Alphaviruses, members of the enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA Togaviridae family, represent a reemerging public health threat as mosquito vectors expand into new geographic territories. The Old World alphaviruses, which include chikungunya virus, Ross River virus, and Sindbis virus, tend to cause a clinical syndrome characterized by fever, rash, and arthritis, whereas the New World alphaviruses, which consist of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, and western equine encephalitis virus, induce encephalomyelitis. Following recovery from the acute phase of infection, many patients are left with debilitating persistent joint and neurological complications that can last for years. Read More

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Impact of alphavirus 3'UTR plasticity on mosquito transmission.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2021 Mar 11;111:148-155. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas, Universidad Nacional de San Martín-CONICET, Argentina. Electronic address:

Alphaviruses such as chikungunya and western equine encephalitis viruses are important human pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes that have recently caused large epidemic and epizootic outbreaks. The epidemic potential of alphaviruses is often related to enhanced mosquito transmission. Tissue barriers and antiviral responses impose bottlenecks to viral populations in mosquitoes. Read More

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Serosurvey of Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses in Wild Boars (), Hunting Dogs, and Hunters of Brazil.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2020 11 9;20(11):868-871. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Paraná State, Curitiba, Brazil.

A total of 102 free-range wild boars, 170 hunting dogs, and 49 hunters from 3 Brazilian regions were sampled and tested for antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), western equine encephalitis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Three of the 102 (2.9%) wild boars were positive for antibodies against EEEV by microplate serum neutralization test. Read More

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November 2020

Vaccine Advances against Venezuelan, Eastern, and Western Equine Encephalitis Viruses.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jun 3;8(2). Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Theoretical Biology and Biophysics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 505, USA.

Vaccinations are a crucial intervention in combating infectious diseases. The three neurotropic Alphaviruses, Eastern (EEEV), Venezuelan (VEEV), and Western (WEEV) equine encephalitis viruses, are pathogens of interest for animal health, public health, and biological defense. In both equines and humans, these viruses can cause febrile illness that may progress to encephalitis. Read More

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Geometric morphometrics for the differentiation of females of the Pipiens Assemblage in Argentina.

J Vector Ecol 2020 06;45(1):150-154

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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How virus size and attachment parameters affect the temperature sensitivity of virus binding to host cells: Predictions of a thermodynamic model for arboviruses and HIV.

Paul Gale

Microb Risk Anal 2020 Aug 12;15:100104. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Independent Scientist, 15 Weare Close, Portland, Dorset, DT5 1JP, United Kingdom.

Virus binding to host cells involves specific interactions between viral (glyco)proteins (GP) and host cell surface receptors (Cr) (protein or sialic acid (SA)). The magnitude of the enthalpy of association changes with temperature according to the change in heat capacity (ΔC) on GP/Cr binding, being little affected for avian influenza virus (AIV) haemagglutinin (HA) binding to SA (ΔC = 0 kJ/mol/K) but greatly affected for HIV gp120 binding to CD4 receptor (ΔC = -5.0 kJ/mol/K). Read More

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Towards a thermodynamic mechanistic model for the effect of temperature on arthropod vector competence for transmission of arboviruses.

Paul Gale

Microb Risk Anal 2019 Aug 5;12:27-43. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

15 Weare Close, Portland, Dorset DT5 1JP, United Kingdom.

Arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV), bluetongue virus (BTV), dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infect their arthropod vectors over a range of average temperatures depending on the ambient temperature. How the transmission efficiency of an arbovirus (i.e. Read More

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Borna disease outbreak with high mortality in an alpaca herd in a previously unreported endemic area in Germany.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Mar 29. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1) is the causative agent of Borna disease, an often fatal neurologic condition of domestic mammals, including New World camelids, in endemic areas in Central Europe. Recently, BoDV-1 gained further attention by the confirmation of fatal zoonotic infections in humans. Although Borna disease and BoDV-1 have been described already over the past decades, comprehensive reports of Borna disease outbreaks in domestic animals employing state-of-the-art diagnostic methods are missing. Read More

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Antibodies for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Protect Embryoid Bodies from Chikungunya Virus.

Viruses 2020 02 27;12(3). Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, 76798 TX, USA.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus that causes febrile illness punctuated by severe polyarthralgia. After the emergence of CHIKV in the Western Hemisphere, multiple reports of congenital infections were published that documented neurological complications, cardiac defects, respiratory distress, and miscarriage. The Western Hemisphere is endemic to several alphaviruses, and whether antigenic cross-reactivity can impact the course of infection has not been explored. Read More

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February 2020

Encephalitic Alphaviruses Exploit Caveola-Mediated Transcytosis at the Blood-Brain Barrier for Central Nervous System Entry.

mBio 2020 02 11;11(1). Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA

Venezuelan and western equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV and WEEV, respectively) invade the central nervous system (CNS) early during infection, via neuronal and hematogenous routes. While viral replication mediates host shutoff, including expression of type I interferons (IFN), few studies have addressed how alphaviruses gain access to the CNS during established infection or the mechanisms of viral crossing at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we show that hematogenous dissemination of VEEV and WEEV into the CNS occurs via caveolin-1 (Cav-1)-mediated transcytosis (Cav-MT) across an intact BBB, which is impeded by IFN and inhibitors of RhoA GTPase. Read More

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February 2020

"Submergence" of Western equine encephalitis virus: Evidence of positive selection argues against genetic drift and fitness reductions.

PLoS Pathog 2020 02 6;16(2):e1008102. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America.

Understanding the circumstances under which arboviruses emerge is critical for the development of targeted control and prevention strategies. This is highlighted by the emergence of chikungunya and Zika viruses in the New World. However, to comprehensively understand the ways in which viruses emerge and persist, factors influencing reductions in virus activity must also be understood. Read More

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February 2020

Mosquito Iridescent Virus: New Records from Nature and Infections Using Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Mermithidae) as a Vector Under Laboratory Conditions.

Neotrop Entomol 2020 Apr 6;49(2):268-274. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y Vectores (CEPAVE CONICETCCT-La Plata-UNLP), La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Iridoviridae is a DNA virus family that affects both vertebrates and invertebrates. Immature aquatic stages of many dipteran species infected with iridovirus have been found in different places worldwide. The most represented genera of the Culicidae family are Aedes and Psorophora. Read More

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Complete Coding Sequence of Western Equine Encephalitis Virus Strain Fleming, Isolated from a Human Case.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2020 Jan 2;9(1). Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, USA

We sequenced the complete coding genome of the western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) strain Fleming. This strain was originally isolated in 1938 from a human WEEV case. Read More

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January 2020

Serologic cross-reactivity between Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis falcatula-like in experimentally infected Mongolian gerbils.

Vet Parasitol 2019 Dec 19;276:108962. Epub 2019 Oct 19.

Departamento de Anatomia, Patologia e Clínicas, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Escola de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Avenida Adhemar de Barros, 500, Ondina, Salvador 40170-110, Bahia, Brazil. Electronic address:

Sarcocystis neurona is the major cause of the equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in the Americas and has opossums of the genus Didelphis as definitive hosts. Most isolates of Sarcocystis sp. shed by opossums in Brazil differ genetically from the known species of Sarcocystis. Read More

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December 2019