1,107 results match your criteria Western Equine Encephalitis

Safety and immunogenicity of a trivalent virus-like particle vaccine against western, eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses: a phase 1, open-label, dose-escalation, randomised clinical trial.

Lancet Infect Dis 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Western (WEEV), eastern (EEEV), and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses are mosquito-borne pathogens classified as potential biological warfare agents for which there are currently no approved human vaccines or therapies. We aimed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational trivalent virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine, western, eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (WEVEE) VLP, composed of WEEV, EEEV, and VEEV VLPs.

Methods: The WEVEE VLP vaccine was evaluated in a phase 1, randomised, open-label, dose-escalation trial at the Hope Clinic of the Emory Vaccine Center at Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Read More

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Evaluating sampling strategies for enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vectors in Florida and Panama.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 04 13;16(4):e0010329. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

University of Florida IFAS, Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Vero Beach, Florida, United States of America.

Determining effective sampling methods for mosquitoes are among the first objectives in elucidating transmission cycles of vector-borne zoonotic disease, as the effectiveness of sampling methods can differ based on species, location, and physiological state. The Spissipes section of the subgenus Melanoconion of Culex represents an understudied group of mosquitoes which transmit Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV) in the Western Hemisphere. The objective of this study was to determine effective collection methods that target both blood-engorged and non-engorged females of the Spissipes section of Culex subgenus Melanoconion to test the hypothesis that favorable trapping methods differ between species and by physiological status within a species. Read More

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West Nile and Usutu virus seroprevalence in Hungary: A nationwide serosurvey among blood donors in 2019.

PLoS One 2022 8;17(4):e0266840. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Confirmatory Laboratory, Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service, Budapest, Hungary.

In Hungary, West Nile virus (WNV) has been responsible for 459 laboratory confirmed human cases between 2004 and 2019, while the first human Usutu virus (USUV) infection was confirmed only in 2018. A comprehensive serosurvey was conducted among blood donors to assess the WNV and USUV seroprevalence in 2019, one year after the largest European WNV epidemic. Altogether, 3005 plasma samples were collected and screened for WNV and USUV specific Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Read More

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Equids' Core Vaccines Guidelines in North America: Considerations and Prospective.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Mar 4;10(3). Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 334, Basseterre, Saint Kitts and Nevis.

Vaccination against infectious diseases is a cornerstone of veterinary medicine in the prevention of disease transmission, illness severity, and often death in animals. In North American equine medicine, equine vaccines protecting against tetanus, rabies, Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis, and West Nile are core vaccines as these have been classified as having a heightened risk of mortality, infectiousness, and endemic status. Some guidelines differ from the label of vaccines, to improve the protection of patients or to decrease the unnecessary administration to reduce potential side effects. Read More

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Identification of salivary gland escape barriers to western equine encephalitis virus in the natural vector, Culex tarsalis.

PLoS One 2022 17;17(3):e0262967. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

Herein we describe a previously uninvestigated salivary gland escape barrier (SEB) in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes infected with two different strains of Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV). The WEEV strains were originally isolated either from mosquitoes (IMP181) or a human patient (McMillan). Both IMP181 and McMillan viruses were fully able to infect the salivary glands of Culex tarsalis after intrathoracic injection as determined by expression of mCherry fluorescent protein. Read More

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Inactivation of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Genome Using Two Methods.

Viruses 2022 01 28;14(2). Epub 2022 Jan 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an Alphavirus in the Togaviridae family of positive-strand RNA viruses. The viral genome of positive-strand RNA viruses is infectious, as it produces infectious virus upon introduction into a cell. VEEV is a select agent and samples containing viral RNA are subject to additional regulations due to their infectious nature. Read More

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January 2022

Cross-Strain Neutralizing and Protective Monoclonal Antibodies against EEEV or WEEV.

Viruses 2021 11 5;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Defence Research and Development Canada, Suffield Research Centre, Medicine Hat, AB T1A 8K6, Canada.

The three encephalitic alphaviruses, namely, the Venezuelan, eastern, and western equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV, EEEV, and WEEV), are classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as biothreat agents. Currently, no licensed medical countermeasures (MCMs) against these viruses are available for humans. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are fast-acting and highly effective MCMs for use in both pre- and post-exposure settings against biothreat agents. Read More

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November 2021

Linking COVID-19 and Parkinson's disease: Targeting the role of Vitamin-D.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Oct 19;583:14-21. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

COVID-19 pandemic has a major effect on world health, particularly on individuals suffering from severe diseases or old aged persons. Various case studies revealed that COVID-19 might increase the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Coxsackievirus, dengue virus Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis C virus, Japanese encephalitis, Western equine encephalomyelitis virus, West Nile virus, and human immunodeficiency virus have all been linked to the development of transient or permanent parkinsonism, owing to the induction of neuroinflammation/hypoxic brain injury with structural/functional damage within the basal ganglia. Read More

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October 2021

External quality assessment of molecular testing of 9 viral encephalitis-related viruses in China.

Virus Res 2021 12 13;306:198598. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

National Center for Clinical Laboratories, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing Hospital/National Center of Gerontology, P. R. China; Graduate School of Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China; Beijing Engineering Research Center of Laboratory Medicine, Beijing Hospital, Beijing, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Background: Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Hendra virus (HeV), Nipah virus (NiV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile virus (WNV), Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) have been detected in travelers returning to China and potentially pose a serious threat to public health. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) plays an important role in the detection of these viruses. Although these viruses are not mainly prevalent in China, occasionally imported cases have been reported with the increase in population mobility and entry-exit activities. Read More

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December 2021

Exposing cryptic epitopes on the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus E1 glycoprotein prior to treatment with alphavirus cross-reactive monoclonal antibody allows blockage of replication early in infection.

Virology 2022 01 28;565:13-21. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Center for Vector-borne Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) can cause fatal encephalitis in humans and equids. Some MAbs to the E1 glycoprotein are known to be cross-reactive, weakly neutralizing in vitro but can protect from disease in animal models. We investigated the mechanism of neutralization of VEEV infection by the broadly cross-reactive E1-specific MAb 1A4B-6. Read More

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January 2022

Astrocyte inflammatory signaling mediates α-synuclein aggregation and dopaminergic neuronal loss following viral encephalitis.

Exp Neurol 2021 12 26;346:113845. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, United States of America. Electronic address:

Viral infection of the central nervous system (CNS) can cause lasting neurological decline in surviving patients and can present with symptoms resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). The mechanisms underlying postencephalitic parkinsonism remain unclear but are thought to involve increased innate inflammatory signaling in glial cells, resulting in persistent neuroinflammation. We therefore studied the role of glial cells in regulating neuropathology in postencephalitic parkinsonism by studying the involvement of astrocytes in loss of dopaminergic neurons and aggregation of α-synuclein protein following infection with western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV). Read More

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December 2021

Pan-protective anti-alphavirus human antibodies target a conserved E1 protein epitope.

Cell 2021 08;184(17):4414-4429.e19

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA; Andrew M. and Jane M. Bursky Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Alphaviruses are emerging, mosquito-transmitted pathogens that cause musculoskeletal and neurological disease in humans. Although neutralizing antibodies that inhibit individual alphaviruses have been described, broadly reactive antibodies that protect against both arthritogenic and encephalitic alphaviruses have not been reported. Here, we identify DC2. Read More

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Prevalence of arbovirus antibodies in young healthy adult population in Brazil.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Aug 14;14(1):403. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Instituto Leônidas e Maria Deane (ILMD), Fiocruz Amazônia, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

Background: The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases are a cause for worldwide concern. The introduction of Zika and Chikungunya diseases in the Americas has exposed unforeseen medical and logistical challenges for public health systems. Moreover, the lack of preventive measures and vaccination against known and emerging mosquito-transmitted pathogens, and the occurrence of unanticipated clinical complications, has had an enormous social and economic impact on the affected populations. Read More

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Seroprevalence of arboviruses in Ecuador: Implications for improved surveillance.

Biomedica 2021 06 29;41(2):247-259. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Departamento de Virología, Instituto Nacional de Investigación en Salud Pública "Dr. Leopoldo Izquieta Pérez", Guayaquil, Ecuador; Centro de Referencia Nacional de Virus Exantemáticos, Gastroentéricos y Transmitidos por vectores, Instituto Nacional de Investigación en Salud Pública "Dr. Leopoldo Izquieta Pérez", Guayaquil, Ecuador.

Introduction: Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) cause morbidity and mortality in humans and domestic animals worldwide. The percentage of population immunity or susceptibility to these viruses in Ecuador is unknown.

Objectives: To investigate the proportion of Ecuadorian populations with IgG antibodies (Abs) (past exposure/immunity) and IgM Abs (current exposure) against flaviviruses and alphaviruses and to study the activity of these viruses in Ecuador. Read More

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Western equine encephalitis virus virus-like particles from an insect cell-baculovirus system elicit the strong immune responses in mice.

Biotechnol J 2021 Aug 9;16(8):e2100008. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Changchun Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun, Jilin, China.

Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) causes lethal encephalitis in humans and equines, and it poses a serious public health threat in many countries. Therefore, the development of an efficient vaccine remains an important challenge for the prevention of WEEV infection. This study presents the first description of WEEV virus-like particles (VLPs) generated from insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses. Read More

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Synthesis and biological activity of conformationally restricted indole-based inhibitors of neurotropic alphavirus replication: Generation of a three-dimensional pharmacophore.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 08 15;46:128171. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Vahlteich Medicinal Chemistry Core, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States; Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States. Electronic address:

We have previously reported the development of indole-based CNS-active antivirals for the treatment of neurotropic alphavirus infection, but further optimization is impeded by a lack of knowledge of the molecular target and binding site. Herein we describe the design, synthesis and evaluation of a series of conformationally restricted analogues with the dual objectives of improving potency/selectivity and identifying the most bioactive conformation. Although this campaign was only modestly successful at improving potency, the sharply defined SAR of the rigid analogs enabled the definition of a three-dimensional pharmacophore, which we believe will be of value in further analog design and virtual screening for alternative antiviral leads. Read More

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Serological evidence of equine infectious anaemia, West Nile fever, surra and equine piroplasmosis in a herd of horses in northern Argentina.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2021 04 2;24:100566. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Laboratorio de Diagnóstico, Clinica Equina SRL, Alem 1698 - Capitan Sarmiento, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Northern Argentina hosts equine populations living under preserved natural areas and extensive breeding conditions, with limited access to veterinary care. Horses can be in contact with i) wildlife considered to be a potential reservoir of horse pathogens (e.g. Read More

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The transcriptional landscape of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (TC-83) infection.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 03 31;15(3):e0009306. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America.

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV) is a major biothreat agent that naturally causes outbreaks in humans and horses particularly in tropical areas of the western hemisphere, for which no antiviral therapy is currently available. The host response to VEEV and the cellular factors this alphavirus hijacks to support its effective replication or evade cellular immune responses are largely uncharacterized. We have previously demonstrated tremendous cell-to-cell heterogeneity in viral RNA (vRNA) and cellular transcript levels during flaviviral infection using a novel virus-inclusive single-cell RNA-Seq approach. Read More

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Serological evidence of Eastern equine encephalitis circulation in equids in Pará state, Brazil.

Rev Bras Med Vet 2021 31;43:e001720. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Biomedical Scientist, DSc, Seção de Arbovirologia e Febres Hemorrágicas, IEC, Ananindeua, PA, Brazil.

Serum samples from 89 equids were analyzed (75 horses, 9 donkeys, and 5 mules) from the municipality of Viseu, Pará state, Brazil. Samples were collected in November 2014 and August 2015. The antibody prevalence against the following alphaviruses was estimated: Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Mucambo virus, and Mayaro virus. Read More

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A Tale of 20 Alphaviruses; Inter-species Diversity and Conserved Interactions Between Viral Non-structural Protein 3 and Stress Granule Proteins.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 11;9:625711. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Alphaviruses infect a diverse range of host organisms including mosquitoes, mammals, and birds. The enigmatic alphavirus non-structural protein 3 (nsP3) has an intrinsically disordered, C-terminal hypervariable domain (HVD) that can interact with a variety of host proteins associated with stress granules (SGs). The HVD displays the highest variability across the more than 30 known alphaviruses, yet it also contains several motifs that are conserved amongst different subgroups of alphaviruses. Read More

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February 2021

Beat the heat: Culex quinquefasciatus regulates its body temperature during blood feeding.

J Therm Biol 2021 Feb 6;96:102826. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Biochemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA; The Fralin Life Science Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA; The Global Change Center, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA; Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA. Electronic address:

Mosquitoes are regarded as one of the most dangerous animals on earth. Because they are responsible for the spread of a wide range of both human and animal pathogens, research of the underlying mechanisms of their feeding behavior and physiology is critical. Among disease vector mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus, a known carrier of West Nile virus and Western Equine Encephalitis, remains relatively understudied. Read More

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February 2021

Stabilization of a Broadly Neutralizing Anti-Chikungunya Virus Single Domain Antibody.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 28;8:626028. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Center for BioMolecular Science and Engineering, Washington, DC, United States.

A single domain antibody (clone CC3) previously found to neutralize a vaccine strain of the chikungunya virus (PRNT = 2. 5 ng/mL) was found to be broadly neutralizing. Clone CC3 is not only able to neutralize a wild-type (WT) strain of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), but also neutralizes WT strains of Mayaro virus (MAYV) and Ross River virus (RRV); both arthralgic, Old World alphaviruses. Read More

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January 2021

A Monovalent and Trivalent MVA-Based Vaccine Completely Protects Mice Against Lethal Venezuelan, Western, and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Aerosol Challenge.

Front Immunol 2020 19;11:598847. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Bavarian Nordic GmbH, Martinsried, Germany.

Venezuelan, eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses (EEV) can cause severe disease of the central nervous system in humans, potentially leading to permanent damage or death. Yet, no licensed vaccine for human use is available to protect against these mosquito-borne pathogens, which can be aerosolized and therefore pose a bioterror threat in addition to the risk of natural outbreaks. Using the mouse aerosol challenge model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of EEV vaccines that are based on the modified vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic (MVA-BN) vaccine platform: three monovalent vaccines expressing the envelope polyproteins E3-E2-6K-E1 of the respective EEV virus, a mixture of these three monovalent EEV vaccines (Triple-Mix) as a first approach to generate a multivalent vaccine, and a true multivalent alphavirus vaccine (MVA-WEV, Trivalent) encoding the polyproteins of all three EEVs in a single non-replicating MVA viral vector. Read More

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Arbovirus serosurvey (Orthobunyavirus, Flavivirus, and Alphavirus) in a draft horse population from Santa Fe, Argentina (2013-2016).

Arch Virol 2021 Mar 12;166(3):881-884. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Instituto de Virología "Dr. JM Vanella", Argentina, Enfermera Gordillo S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA, Córdoba, Argentina.

In the present study, we serosurveyed the exposure of 222 draft horses to different arboviruses in the city of Santa Fe, Argentina. Plaque reduction neutralization tests confirmed exposure to Fort Sherman virus (FSV), Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Río Negro virus (RNV). Apparently, Western and Eastern equine encephalitis viruses did not circulate in the population tested. Read More

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Serologic Survey of Mosquito-Borne Viruses in Hunter-Harvested White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus), New York State.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 12 21;104(2):593-603. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

1New York State Department of Health, The Arbovirus Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, Slingerlands, New York.

Sera from white-tailed deer (WTD, Odocoileus virginianus) hunter-harvested throughout New York State (NYS), 2007-2015, were tested by plaque reduction neutralization for antibodies against nine mosquito-borne viruses from the families Peribunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae. Overall, 76.1% (373/490) of sampled WTD were seropositive against at least one virus, and 38. Read More

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December 2020

First Record of Mosquito-Borne Kyzylagach Virus in Central Europe.

Viruses 2020 12 16;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Institute of Vertebrate Biology, The Czech Academy of Sciences, v.v.i., Květná 8, CZ-60365 Brno, Czech Republic.

RNA of Kyzylagach virus (KYZV), a Sindbis-like mosquito-borne alphavirus from Western equine encephalitis virus complex, was detected in four pools (out of 221 pools examined), encompassing 10,784 female mosquitoes collected at a fishpond in south Moravia, Czech Republic, with a minimum infection rate of 0.04%. This alphavirus was never detected in Central Europe before. Read More

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December 2020

The Western Equine Encephalitis Lyophilized, Inactivated Vaccine: An Update on Safety and Immunogenicity.

Front Immunol 2020 9;11:555464. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Division of Medicine, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD, United States.

Background: Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE) is a naturally acquired infection and potentially devastating bioweapon, with no specific human countermeasures. An experimental inactivated Western Equine Encephalitis Vaccine (WEEV; WEE TSI-GSD 210) has been used under an IND (investigational New Drug) protocol at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) since 1976.

Methods: Over 24 years from 1987 to 2011, 876 subjects received 3 primary vaccine doses under 3 studies with 1,537 booster doses administered (FY87-8, phase 2, laboratory workers, vaccine lots 1-81-1, 1-81-2, and 2-1-91; FY99-12, phase 2 laboratory workers, lot 2-1-91; and FY09-02, phase 1 healthy volunteer, lot 3-1-92). Read More

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Encephalitis with coinfection by Jamestown canyon virus (JCV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV).

IDCases 2020 8;22:e00966. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Medicine, Western Michigan University Homer Stryker MD School of Medicine, Kalamazoo, MI USA.

We present the case of a 59-year-old Midwestern farmer who presented with altered mental status, dysarthria, urinary incontinence, and a right-sided L5 dermatomal rash; he had recently received a course of oral corticosteroids for treatment of radicular low back pain. Lumbar puncture revealed the presence of varicella zoster virus (VZV) and IgM antibodies against a California-group encephalitis virus, later confirmed as Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV). Unfortunately, the patient's health declined despite aggressive treatment, developing progressive subarachnoid hemorrhage. Read More

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October 2020

Clinical features and laboratory diagnosis of emerging arthropod-transmitted viruses: A Report from the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology Clinical Practice Committee.

J Clin Virol 2020 11 30;132:104651. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, United States.

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are an increasing global threat due to their ability to cause human disease and their expanding geographical distribution. They circulate in nature between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts. Infection of susceptible human hosts leads to harmful developmental and neurological manifestations. Read More

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November 2020

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP3 Phosphorylation Can Be Mediated by IKKβ Kinase Activity and Abrogation of Phosphorylation Inhibits Negative-Strand Synthesis.

Viruses 2020 09 13;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 13.

National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110, USA.

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), a mosquito transmitted alphavirus of the family, can cause a highly inflammatory and encephalitic disease upon infection. Although a category B select agent, no FDA-approved vaccines or therapeutics against VEEV currently exist. We previously demonstrated NF-κB activation and macromolecular reorganization of the IKK complex upon VEEV infection in vitro, with IKKβ inhibition reducing viral replication. Read More

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September 2020