8,090 results match your criteria West Nile Virus


Application of multiple omics and network projection analyses to drug repositioning for pathogenic mosquito-borne viruses.

Sci Rep 2021 May 12;11(1):10136. Epub 2021 May 12.

Cellular and Molecular Biotechnology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tokyo, 135-0064, Japan.

Pathogenic mosquito-borne viruses are a serious public health issue in tropical and subtropical regions and are increasingly becoming a problem in other climate zones. Drug repositioning is a rapid, pharmaco-economic approach that can be used to identify compounds that target these neglected tropical diseases. We have applied a computational drug repositioning method to five mosquito-borne viral infections: dengue virus (DENV), zika virus (ZIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIV). Read More

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Dengue virus-free defective interfering particles have potent and broad anti-dengue virus activity.

Commun Biol 2021 05 11;4(1):557. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, QLD, Australia.

Dengue virus (DENV) is spread from human to human through the bite of the female Aedes aegypti mosquito and leads to about 100 million clinical infections yearly. Treatment options and vaccine availability for DENV are limited. Defective interfering particles (DIPs) are considered a promising antiviral approach but infectious virus contamination has limited their development. Read More

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Insurance and Epidemics: SARS, West Nile Virus and Nipah Virus.

Authors:
Jan von Overbeck

J Insur Med 2021 Jan;49(1):37-45

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) reminds us that sudden disease emergence is a permanent part of our world-and should be anticipated in our planning. Historically the emergence of new diseases has had little or no impact beyond a small, localized cluster of infections. However, given just the right conditions, a highly virulent pathogen can suddenly spread across time and space with massive consequences, as has occurred on several occasions in human history. Read More

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January 2021

Tetraspanins as Potential Therapeutic Candidates for Targeting Flaviviruses.

Front Immunol 2021 21;12:630571. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, United States.

Tetraspanin family of proteins participates in numerous fundamental signaling pathways involved in viral transmission, virus-specific immunity, and virus-mediated vesicular trafficking. Studies in the identification of novel therapeutic candidates and strategies to target West Nile virus, dengue and Zika viruses are highly warranted due to the failure in development of vaccines. Recent evidences have shown that the widely distributed tetraspanin proteins may provide a platform for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Read More

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Surveillance of West Nile virus in horses in Canada: A retrospective study of cases reported to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency from 2003 to 2019.

Can Vet J 2021 May;62(5):469-476

Animal Health Science Directorate, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 3200 rue Sicotte, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec J2S 2M2 (Levasseur, Paré); Groupe de recherche en épidémiologie des zoonoses et santé publique (GREZOSP) et Département de pathologie et microbiologie vétérinaire, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, 3200 rue Sicotte, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec J2S 2M2, Canada (Levasseur, Arsenault, Paré).

The objectives of the study were to describe the regional and provincial incidence rates and the weekly distribution of 842 reported West Nile virus (WNV) cases in horses in Canada between 2003 and 2019. This study also investigated characteristics of cases reported to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) between 2015 and 2019. The western region (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) had higher incidence rates than the eastern region (Ontario, Quebec, and Atlantic provinces) and overall, Saskatchewan registered the highest incidence. Read More

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West Nile and Usutu viruses co-circulation in central Italy: outcomes of the 2018 integrated surveillance.

Parasit Vectors 2021 May 7;14(1):243. Epub 2021 May 7.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana "M. Aleandri", Via Appia Nuova 1411, 00178, Roma, Italy.

Background: West Nile (WNV) and Usutu (USUV) are emerging vector-borne zoonotic flaviviruses. They are antigenically very similar, sharing the same life cycle with birds as amplification host, Culicidae as vector, and man/horse as dead-end host. They can co-circulate in an overlapping geographic range. Read More

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A 20-year historical review of West Nile virus since its initial emergence in North America: Has West Nile virus become a neglected tropical disease?

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 May 6;15(5):e0009190. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

After the unexpected arrival of West Nile virus (WNV) in the United States in 1999, the mosquito-borne virus quickly spread throughout North America. Over the past 20 years, WNV has become endemic, with sporadic epizootics. Concerns about the economic impact of infection in horses lead to the licensure of an equine vaccine as early as 2005, but few advances regarding human vaccines or treatments have since been made. Read More

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The Use of Arthropod-Borne Challenge Models in BSL-3Ag and BSL-4 Biocontainment.

ILAR J 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Director of the SUNY Center for Environmental Health and Medicine, and Professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, USA.

The study of many arthropod-borne pathogens requires high biosafety considerations, including the use of specialized facilities and equipment for arthropod containment. Mosquito- and tick-borne viruses such as yellow fever, West Nile, and Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses require facilities that are suitable for housing vertebrates. Multidisciplinary studies that incorporate the vector, vertebrate, and pathogens are essential for a complete understanding of the interactions between these transmission cycle components, especially if they aim to evaluate and model relative susceptibilities of different arthropods and vertebrates to infection and transmission between these. Read More

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Reactive oxygen species as potential antiviral targets.

Rev Med Virol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are by-products of cellular metabolism and can be either beneficial, at low levels, or deleterious, at high levels, to the cell. It is known that several viral infections can increase oxidative stress, which is mainly facilitated by viral-induced imbalances in the antioxidant defence mechanisms of the cell. While the exact role of ROS in certain viral infections (adenovirus and dengue virus) remains unknown, other viruses can use ROS for enhancement of pathogenesis (SARS coronavirus and rabies virus) or replication (rhinovirus, West Nile virus and vesicular stomatitis virus) or both (hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus and influenza virus). Read More

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Using Data Mining and Network Analysis to Infer Arboviral Dynamics: The Case of Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses Reported in Mexico.

Insects 2021 Apr 29;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Centro de Ciencias de la Complejidad, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico.

Given the significant impact of mosquito-borne flaviviruses (MBFVs) on both human and animal health, predicting their dynamics and understanding their transmission cycle is of the utmost importance. Usually, predictions about the distribution of priority pathogens, such as Dengue, Yellow fever, West Nile Virus and St. Louis encephalitis, relate abiotic elements to simple biotic components, such as a single causal agent. Read More

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Co-Circulation of All Four Dengue Viruses and Zika Virus in Guerrero, Mexico, 2019.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA.

A clinical and entomological investigation was performed to identify flavivirus infections in humans and mosquitoes in impoverished areas of Guerrero, a coastal state in southwestern Mexico. A total of 639 patients with acute febrile illness and 830 resting female mosquitoes in low-income communities of Guerrero in 2019 were tested for evidence of flavivirus infection. Sera were collected from all patients and screened at a dilution of 1:20 by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using dengue virus (DENV)2. Read More

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Epidemiology, Ecology and Prevention of Plague in the West Nile Region of Uganda: The Value of Long-Term Field Studies.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

1Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Plague, a fleaborne rodent-associated zoonosis, is a neglected disease with most recent cases reported from east and central Africa and Madagascar. Because of its low incidence and sporadic occurrence, most of our knowledge of plague ecology, prevention, and control derives from investigations conducted in response to human cases. Long-term studies (which are uncommon) are required to generate data to support plague surveillance, prevention, and control recommendations. Read More

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Surveillance for West Nile virus disease - United States, 2009-2018.

Am J Transplant 2021 May;21(5):1959-1974

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Problem/condition: West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the family Flaviviridae and is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the contiguous United States. An estimated 70%-80% of WNV infections are asymptomatic. Symptomatic persons usually develop an acute systemic febrile illness. Read More

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Epidemiology of West Nile Virus Infections in Humans, Italy, 2012-2020: A Summary of Available Evidences.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2021 Apr 24;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Dipartimento P.A.A.P.S.S., Servizio Autorizzazione e Accreditamento, Agenzia di Tutela della Salute (ATS) di Bergamo, Via Galliccioli, 4, I-24121 Bergamo, BG, Italy.

In Italy, human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection have been recorded since 2008, and seasonal outbreaks have occurred almost annually. In this study, we summarize available evidences on the epidemiology of WNV and West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans reported between 2012 and 2020. In total, 1145 WNV infection cases were diagnosed; of them 487 (42. Read More

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Genetic Characterization of a Neurovirulent West Nile Virus Variant Associated with a Fatal Great Grey Owl Infection.

Viruses 2021 04 17;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice, Komenského 73, 04181 Košice, Slovakia.

This study reports on a fatal case of a captive great grey owl infected with the West Nile virus (WNV) in the zoological garden Košice, eastern Slovakia (Central Europe). The tissue samples of the dead owl were used for virus isolation and genetic characterization. The novel isolate is genetically closer to Hungarian, Greek, and Bulgarian strains from the central/southern European clade of lineage 2 than to the strains previously isolated in Slovakia. Read More

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Screening of Mosquitoes for West Nile Virus and Usutu Virus in Croatia, 2015-2020.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2021 Apr 2;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Virology, Croatian Institute of Public Health, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

In the period from 2015 to 2020, an entomological survey for the presence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) in mosquitoes was performed in northwestern Croatia. A total of 20,363 mosquitoes were sampled in the City of Zagreb and Međimurje county, grouped in 899 pools and tested by real-time RT-PCR for WNV and USUV RNA. All pools were negative for WNV while one pool each from 2016 (), 2017 ( complex), 2018 ( complex), and 2019 ( complex), respectively, was positive for USUV. Read More

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A Sentinel Serological Study in Selected Zoo Animals to Assess Early Detection of West Nile and Usutu Virus Circulation in Slovenia.

Viruses 2021 04 6;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloška 4, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Monitoring infectious diseases is a crucial part of preventive veterinary medicine in zoological collections. This zoo environment contains a great variety of animal species that are in contact with wildlife species as a potential source of infectious diseases. Wild birds may be a source of West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu (USUV) virus, which are both emerging pathogens of rising concern. Read More

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Development of a highly specific serodiagnostic ELISA for West Nile virus infection using subviral particles.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 28;11(1):9213. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Laboratory of Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, N18, W9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-0818, Japan.

West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex group, causes lethal encephalitis in humans and horses. Because serodiagnosis of WNV and JEV is hampered by cross-reactivity, the development of a simple, secure, and WNV-specific serodiagnostic system is required. The coexpression of prM protein and E protein leads to the secretion of subviral particles (SPs). Read More

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Serological evidence of West Nile viral infection in archived swine serum samples from Peninsular Malaysia.

J Vet Sci 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

West Nile virus (WNV), a neurotropic arbovirus, has been detected in mosquitos, birds, wildlife, horses, and humans in Malaysia, but limited information is available on WNV infection in Malaysian pigs. We tested 80 archived swine serum samples for the presence of WNV antibody and West Nile (WN) viral RNA using ID Screen West Nile Competition Multi-species enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and WNV-specific primers in reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays, respectively. A WNV seroprevalence of 62. Read More

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Culex/ mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) recorded along the Nile River in central and northern Sudan, with a key for the identification of all species of the genus known to occur in the country.

Zootaxa 2021 Apr 20;4963(3):zootaxa.4963.3.1. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Vector Genetics and Control Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan..

Despite the importance of Culex species as major vectors of Rift Valley fever virus, West Nile virus and the microfilariae that cause lymphatic filariasis, information on these mosquitoes in Sudan is limited to works published 65 years ago in the former Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, where some species were only recorded from areas of the territory now known as South Sudan. In this paper, we provide updated information on Culex mosquitoes collected indoors during surveillance studies conducted along the Nile River in central and northern areas of Sudan between 2012 and 2019. Of 3,411 female mosquitoes collected in Khartoum and northern states along the river, 2,560 (75%) were specimens of Culex belonging to 12 species: Cx. Read More

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West Nile virus and blood transfusion safety: A European perspective.

Vox Sang 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Transfusion Technology Assessment Group, Donor Medicine Research Department, Sanquin Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background And Objectives: There is a growing concern for the transmission of arboviral infections by blood transfusion in Europe. However, no assessment of the risk of transmission through all European blood supplies has been reported. Risk regulations at a European level should take differences in local transmission risk and the risk of transmission by travelling donors into consideration. Read More

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Neurotropic Viruses, Astrocytes, and COVID-19.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 9;15:662578. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

At the end of 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was discovered in China, causing a new coronavirus disease, termed COVID-19 by the WHO on February 11, 2020. At the time of this paper (January 31, 2021), more than 100 million cases have been recorded, which have claimed over 2 million lives worldwide. The most important clinical presentation of COVID-19 is severe pneumonia; however, many patients present various neurological symptoms, ranging from loss of olfaction, nausea, dizziness, and headache to encephalopathy and stroke, with a high prevalence of inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) syndromes. Read More

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Correlation of Regulatory T Cell Numbers with Disease Tolerance upon Virus Infection.

Immunohorizons 2021 Apr 23;5(4):157-169. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA;

The goal of a successful immune response is to clear the pathogen while sparing host tissues from damage associated with pathogen replication and active immunity. Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been implicated in maintaining this balance as they contribute both to the organization of immune responses as well as restriction of inflammation and immune activation to limit immunopathology. To determine if Treg abundance prior to pathogen encounter can be used to predict the success of an antiviral immune response, we used genetically diverse mice from the collaborative cross infected with West Nile virus (WNV). Read More

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Targeting a Potential G-Quadruplex Forming Sequence Found in the West Nile Virus Genome by Complementary Gamma-Peptide Nucleic Acid Oligomers.

ACS Infect Dis 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Chemistry and Center for Nucleic Acids Science and Technology, Carnegie Mellon University, 4400 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213-3890, United States.

In the United States, West Nile virus (WNV) infects approximately 2500 people per year, of which 100-200 cases are fatal. No antiviral drug or vaccine is currently available for WNV. In this study, we designed gamma-modified peptide nucleic acid (γPNA) oligomers to target a newly identified guanine-rich gene sequence in the WNV genome. Read More

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Establishment of in Belgium and a Glance into the Virome of Belgian Mosquito Species.

mSphere 2021 Apr 21;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

KU Leuven Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Leuven, Belgium

mosquitoes are considered potential transmission vectors of West Nile virus and Usutu virus. Their presence has been reported across several European countries, including one larva detected in Belgium in 2018. In this study, mosquitoes were collected in the city of Leuven and surrounding areas in the summers of 2019 and 2020. Read More

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Rift Valley Fever and West Nile virus vectors in Morocco: Current situation and future anticipated scenarios.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Laboratoire de Lutte contre les Maladies Infectieuses, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco.

Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and West Nile virus (WNV) are two important emerging Arboviruses transmitted by Aedes and Culex mosquitoes, typically Ae. caspius, Ae. detritus and Cx. Read More

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Clinical course of choroidal neovascular membrane in West Nile virus chorioretinitis: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Apr 19;15(1):206. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ocular Immunovirology Service, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: This report describes the clinical course of choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) in West Nile virus-associated chorioretinitis.

Case Presentation: A 28-year-old Italian woman was referred to our institution because of reduced visual acuity in the left eye dating back 4 months. A diagnosis of retinal vasculitis in the right eye and chorioretinitis with CNV in the left eye was made. Read More

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Targeting the NS2B-NS3 protease of tick-borne encephalitis virus with pan-flaviviral protease inhibitors.

Antiviral Res 2021 Apr 16;190:105074. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe neurological disorder caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of the Flavivirus genus. Currently, two vaccines are available in Europe against TBEV. However, TBE cases have been rising in Sweden for the past twenty years, and thousands of cases are reported in Europe, emphasizing the need for antiviral treatments against this virus. Read More

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West Nile Virus infection: Before involving occupational physicians in active surveillance, make sure they are more aware.

Infect Dis Now 2021 Jan 9. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

ASL di Foggia, Occupational Health and Safety Service of Local Health Unit of Foggia, Piazza Pavoncelli 11, I-41121 Foggia (FG), Italy.

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January 2021