7,222 results match your criteria West Nile Virus


Specific detection and differentiation of tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile virus induced IgG antibodies in humans and horses.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology, Department of Immunology, Perlickstrasse 1, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are important arthropod-borne zoonotic flaviviruses. Due to the emergence of WNV in TBEV-endemic regions co-circulation of both viruses is increasing. Flaviviruses are structurally highly similar, which leads to cross-reacting antibodies upon infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13205DOI Listing

Evidence of West Nile virus circulation among humans in central northern Algeria.

New Microbes New Infect 2019 May 8;29:100512. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Laboratoire des Arbovirus et Virus de Fièvres Hémorragiques, Institut Pasteur de Dakar, Senegal.

West Nile Virus (WNV) is the most widely distributed flavivirus worldwide. It is a mosquito-borne virus, and birds constitute its natural reservoir. Humans and equines are considered accidental hosts. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S20522975193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmni.2019.01.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444287PMC
May 2019
1 Read

Pathways Exploited by Flaviviruses to Counteract the Blood-Brain Barrier and Invade the Central Nervous System.

Front Microbiol 2019 28;10:525. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Departamento de Virologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Human infection by different flaviviruses may cause severe neurologic syndromes, through pathogenic mechanisms that are still largely unknown. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue virus (DENV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) are believed to reach the central nervous system by a hematogenous route, upon crossing the blood-brain barrier. Although the disruption of BBB during flavivirus infection has been largely evidenced in experimental models, the relevance of BBB breakdown for virus entering the brain was not completely elucidated. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00525
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447710PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Arboviral diseases and malaria in Australia, 2014–15: Annual report of the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2019 Apr 15;43. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Royal Darwin Hospital Northern Territory; Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory

This report describes the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases of public health importance in Australia during the 2014–15 season (1 July 2014 to 30 June 2015) and includes data from human notifications, sentinel chicken, vector and virus surveillance programs. The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received notifications for 12,849 cases of disease transmitted by mosquitoes during the 2014–15 season. The Australasian alphaviruses Barmah Forest virus and Ross River virus accounted for 83% (n=10,723) of notifications. Read More

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April 2019
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The rash with maculopapules and fever in adults.

Clin Dermatol 2019 Mar - Apr;37(2):109-118. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Dermatology Department, University of CT Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, USA. Electronic address:

There is a broad differential diagnosis for the presentation of fever and maculopapular rash in an adult. Although some causative conditions are benign, others are medical emergencies that require prompt diagnosis. We describe various conditions that result in a fever and maculopapular rash in adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2018.12.004DOI Listing
December 2018

Mosquito antiviral defense mechanisms: a delicate balance between innate immunity and persistent viral infection.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Apr 11;12(1):165. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Southport, QLD, 4215, Australia.

Mosquito-borne diseases are associated with major global health burdens. Aedes spp. and Culex spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3433-8DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Trends in insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens pallens over 20 years in Shandong, China.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Apr 11;12(1):167. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Medical Entomology, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Shandong Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Jining, 272033, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Background: Culex pipiens pallens is the most abundant Culex mosquito species in northern China and is an important vector of bancroftian filariasis and, potentially, West Nile virus. Insecticides, particularly pyrethroids, are widely used for adult mosquito control. Insecticide resistance has become common in several mosquito species, and vector control is the main method currently available to prevent disease transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3416-9DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Infections and pathology of free-roaming backyard chickens on St. Kitts, West Indies.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2019 Apr 11:1040638719843638. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Departments of Biomedical Sciences (Bolfa, Callanan, Ketzis, Marchi, Cheng, Huynh, Lavinder, Boey).

Free-roaming chickens on Caribbean islands are important sentinels for local avian diseases and those introduced by birds migrating through the Americas. We studied 81 apparently healthy unvaccinated free-roaming chickens from 9 parishes on St. Kitts, an eastern Caribbean island. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1040638719843638
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638719843638DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Editorial: Host-Pathogen Interactions During Arboviral Infections.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 26;9:77. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Center for Infection and Immunity, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, United States.

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00077
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443840PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

The Unfolded Protein Response: A Key Player in Zika Virus-Associated Congenital Microcephaly.

Front Cell Neurosci 2019 26;13:94. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

GIGA-Stem Cells, Interdisciplinary Cluster for Applied Genoproteomics (GIGA-R), University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that belongs to the family, together with dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile viruses. In the wake of its emergence in the French Polynesia and in the Americas, ZIKV has been shown to cause congenital microcephaly. It is the first arbovirus which has been proven to be teratogenic and sexually transmissible. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2019.00094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445045PMC
March 2019
1 Read

West Nile virus infection in Europe: need for an integration of occupational health practice and public health activities. Commentary.

Ann Ist Super Sanita 2019 Jan-Mar;55(1):3-5

Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute della Donna, del Bambino e di Sanità Pubblica, Fondazione Gemelli IRCCS Roma, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

In these days, the West Nile virus (WNV), which is the most widespread arthropod-borne virus infection in the world, is an emerging issue in Europe, wherein 2018, partial figures (until 25 October) showed a number of WNV infection cases more than doupled in comparison with previous five years. This mosquito-transmitted disease is surely a challenge for policymakers, but it is an occupational hazard for outdoor workers, as well. Occupational medicine is a public health discipline based on the principles of epidemiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4415/ANN_19_01_02DOI Listing
April 2019
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Dengue and Zika Virus 5' Untranslated Regions Harbor Internal Ribosomal Entry Site Functions.

MBio 2019 Apr 9;10(2). Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA

The genus of the family encompasses numerous enveloped plus-strand RNA viruses. Dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus, is the leading cause of serious arthropod-borne disease globally. The genomes of DENV, like the genomes of yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile fever virus (WNV), or Zika virus (ZIKV), control their translation by a 5'-terminal capping group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00459-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456755PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Feeding Success and Host Selection by Culex quinquefasciatus Say Mosquitoes in Experimental Trials.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

1 Program in Population Biology, Ecology and Evolution, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Arthropod vector feeding preferences are defined as an overutilization of a particular host species given its abundance in relationship to other species in the community. Numerous methods exist to quantify vector feeding preferences; however, controlled host choice experiments are generally an underutilized approach. In this report, we present results from controlled vector host choice experiments using Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes and wild avian hosts identified as important contributors to West Nile virus (WNv) transmission in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2381DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Macroecology of birds potentially susceptible to West Nile virus.

Proc Biol Sci 2018 Dec;285(1893):20182178

2 Departamento de Etología, Fauna Silvestre y Animales de Laboratorio, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; Av. Ciudad Universitaria 3000 , CP 04510 Coyoacán, Distrito Federal , México.

Zoonotic diseases transmitted by wildlife affect biological conservation, public and animal health, and the economy. Current research efforts are aimed at finding wildlife pathogens at a given location. However, a meta-analytical approach may reveal emerging macroecological patterns in the host-pathogen relationship at different temporal and spatial scales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.2178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304048PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Insecticide resistance genes affect Culex quinquefasciatus vector competence for West Nile virus.

Proc Biol Sci 2019 Jan;286(1894):20182273

1 Department of Virology, Institut Pasteur, Arboviruses and Insect Vectors , Paris , France.

Insecticide resistance has been reported to impact the interactions between mosquitoes and the pathogens they transmit. However, the effect on vector competence for arboviruses still remained to be investigated. We examined the influence of two insecticide resistance mechanisms on vector competence of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus for two arboviruses, Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) and West Nile virus (WNV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.2273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367175PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Small RNA responses of Culex mosquitoes and cell lines during acute and persistent virus infection.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Apr 5;109:13-23. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, USA. Electronic address:

RNA interference is a crucial antiviral mechanism in arthropods, including in mosquito vectors of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Although the exogenous small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway constitutes an efficient antiviral response in mosquitoes, virus-derived P-element induced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have been implicated in the response to alpha-, bunya- and flaviviruses in Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2019.04.008DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Emergence of West Nile virus lineage 2 belonging to the Eastern European subclade, Greece.

Arch Virol 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

General Directorate of Public Health and Social Care of Region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, Komotini, Greece.

West Nile virus (WNV) emerged in Greece in 2010 and since then human outbreaks occurred every year except 2015 and 2016. An early start and prolonged WNV transmission season was observed in 2018 with a record number of 316 reported cases and 47 fatalities. The Greek WNV strains detected during 2010-2018 clustered within the central European subclade of lineage 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04243-8DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

West Nile Virus in Hummingbirds in California, USA, 2005-2017.

J Wildl Dis 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

1 School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California, 95616, USA.

Although West Nile virus (WNV) infects many avian species, the prevalence and impact of WNV in hummingbirds (Family Trochilidae) have not been described. We focused on hummingbird mortality and WNV infection using data from the state of California's Dead Bird Surveillance Program for the years 2005-2017. The overall prevalence of WNV in tested carcasses was 10. Read More

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April 2019
3 Reads

Immunological response in horses following West Nile virus vaccination with inactivated or recombinant vaccine.

Vet Ital 2019 Mar 31;55(1):73-79. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise "G. Caporale". Campo boario, 64100, Teramo.

To evaluate the immunological response following vaccination, 40 WNV serologically negative horses were selected and divided in two groups of 20 animals. One group was vaccinated (booster after 28 days) with a whole inactivated viral strain and the second group with a live recombinant canarypox virus expressing the genes coding for the WNV preM/E viral proteins. IgM, IgG and neutralizing antibodies were monitored by class specific ELISAs and serum neutralization assay for 360 days. Read More

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March 2019
3 Reads

JC virus identified in a patient with persistent and severe West Nile virus disease.

J Neurovirol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Central Virology Laboratory, Israel Ministry of Health, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, 52621, Tel-Hashomer, Israel.

West Nile virus is a notable cause of neuroinvasive disease, damage to the central nervous system, or even death. In this study, using metagenomics analysis and quantitative real-time PCR validation, we identified a JC virus infection in urine and cerebrospinal fluid samples of a West Nile virus patient with severe neurological symptoms and extended disease. JC virus is known to be involved in neurological complications, especially in immunocompromised individuals thus suggesting that the coinfection with JC virus is involved with the West Nile virus infection persistence and severe symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00744-zDOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

West Nile virus infections are here! Are we prepared to face another flavivirus epidemic?

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2019 Mar 28;52:e20190089. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.

Emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as chikungunya and Zika viruses, are a major threat to public health in countries like Brazil where biodiversity is high and medical care is sometimes precarious. West Nile fever is a disease caused by the West Nile Virus (WNV), an RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. It is transmitted by infected mosquitoes to numerous animals like birds, reptiles and mammals, including human and non-human primates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0089-2018DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

The West Nile virus epidemic-occupational insight.

Lancet 2019 Mar;393(10178):1298

Department of Woman/Child and Public Health Sciences, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30028-5DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Stability of West Nile Virus (Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) RNA in Mosquito Excreta.

J Med Entomol 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Public Health Virology, Forensic and Scientific Services, Department of Health, Coopers Plains, Australia.

Arbovirus surveillance is crucial for the implementation of vector-borne disease control measures. Recently, it has been demonstrated that mosquitoes with a disseminated arbovirus infection excrete viral RNA, which can be detected by molecular methods. Thereby, mosquito excreta has been proposed as a sample type that could be utilized for arbovirus surveillance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjz044DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Simultaneous detection of Dengue virus, Chikungunya virus, Zika virus, Yellow fever virus and West Nile virus.

J Virol Methods 2019 Jun 28;268:53-55. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias (HUCA) and Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Principado de Asturias (ISPA), Oviedo, Spain.

Although certain mosquito-borne virus, such as Dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Zika virus (ZIKV), Yellow fever virus (YFV) and West Nile virus (WNV), are an important public health concern in those countries where transmitter mosquitoes are endemic, several cases of travelers from those endemic countries have been recently reported in Europe. Thus, early diagnosis of these viruses is essential for patient management and adoption of preventive measures. An assay for the simultaneous detection of DENV, CHIKV, ZIKV, YFV and WNV based on a multiplex real-time (RT)-PCR and its usefulness for diagnosis in infection screenings and surveillance of arbovirus in non-endemic countries are described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2019.03.014DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

Emerging arboviruses of medical importance in the Mediterranean region.

Authors:
Anna Papa

J Clin Virol 2019 Mar 16;115:5-10. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Microbiology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54124, Greece. Electronic address:

The epidemiology of viral infections transmitted by arthropods is changing due to a variety of parameters related to the virus, the host and the environment. The Mediterranean region is highly affected by changes in the intensity and extension of global-scale climate patterns, and, due to its location, it provides a vulnerable environment for emergence of arboviral diseases. The main arboviruses that pose currently a public health threat in the Mediterranean region are West Nile virus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and, in less extend, tick-borne encephalitis virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.03.007DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Integrating social and ecological data to model metapopulation dynamics in coupled human and natural systems.

Ecology 2019 Mar 30:e02711. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California-Berkeley, 130 Mulford Hall #3114, Berkeley, California, 94720, USA.

Understanding how metapopulations persist in dynamic working landscapes requires assessing the behaviors of key actors that change patches as well as intrinsic factors driving turnover. Coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) research uses a multidisciplinary approach to identify the key actors, processes, and feedbacks that drive metapopulation and landscape dynamics. We describe a framework for modeling metapopulations in CHANS that integrates ecological and social data by coupling stochastic patch occupancy models of metapopulation dynamics with agent-based models of land-use change. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2711DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Emergence and Associated Risk Factors of Vector Borne West Nile Virus Infection in Ilorin, Nigeria.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2018 Dec 25;12(4):341-350. Epub 2018 Dec 25.

Infectious Diseases and Environmental Health Research Group, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Background: West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne viral pathogen that is the causative agent of West Nile fever and encephalitis. Diagnostic tools for WNV infection in Nigeria are not well established hence the current prevalence rate of WNV infection in Nigeria is unknown. We aimed to establish the serological prevalence of WNV infection in febrile patients in Ilorin, Nigeria in 2016, and to assess the risk factors associated with the acquisition of the virus. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423457PMC
December 2018
4 Reads

Effect of overwintering on survival and vector competence of the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Mar 27;12(1):147. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University & Research, PO Box 16, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus that is mainly transmitted among birds by Culex pipiens mosquitoes. The species Cx. pipiens consists of two biotypes named pipiens and molestus, which together can form hybrids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3400-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437999PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Emerging zoonotic viral infections of occupational health importance.

Pathog Dis 2019 Mar;77(2)

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Hygiene, Italian National Workers Compensation Authority, Rome, Italy.

Emerging viral infections represent a public health risk pointed out by the spreading of pathogens with potential zoonotic risk. Moreover, the risk of zoonosis has probably been underestimated in occupational settings. A literature review between 2007 and 2018 was performed to identify evidences concerning the epidemiological associations between some emerging viruses and occupational diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femspd/ftz018DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Sex differences in cytokine production following West Nile virus infection: Implications for symptom manifestation.

Pathog Dis 2019 Mar;77(2)

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1124, New York, NY 10029, USA.

West Nile virus (WNV) infection outcomes vary among individuals, with most infections resulting in asymptomatic or mild flu-like symptoms. We previously reported an association between early cytokine production and symptom outcome following WNV infection in US blood donors. In this meta-analysis, we found that WNV-infected females reported more symptoms than WNV-infected males, despite similar initial viremia and type I interferon responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femspd/ftz016DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

The Conserved Molecular Determinants of Virulence in Dengue Virus.

Int J Med Sci 2019 24;16(3):355-365. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Centre for Virus and Vaccine Research, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

Dengue virus belongs to the Flaviviridae family which also includes viruses such as the Zika, West Nile and yellow fever virus. Dengue virus generally causes mild disease, however, more severe forms of the dengue virus infection, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever with shock syndrome (DSS) can also occur, resulting in multiple organ failure and even death, especially in children. The only dengue vaccine available in the market, CYD-TDV offers limited coverage for vaccinees from 9-45 years of age and is only recommended for individuals with prior dengue exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.29938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428985PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

The invasive mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus is spreading in northeastern Italy.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Mar 26;12(1):120. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro, Italy.

Background: The invasive mosquito species, Aedes japonicus japonicus, was detected in northeastern Italy for the first time in 2015, at the border with Austria. After this finding, a more intensive monitoring was carried out to assess its distribution and to collect biological data. Herein, we report the results of four years (2015-2018) of activity. Read More

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https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.11
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3387-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434805PMC
March 2019
8 Reads

Novel Flavivirus Antiviral That Targets the Host Nuclear Transport Importin α/β1 Heterodimer.

Cells 2019 Mar 24;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 24.

Nuclear Signaling Laboratory, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. 3800, Australia.

Dengue virus (DENV) threatens almost 70% of the world's population, with no effective vaccine or therapeutic currently available. A key contributor to infection is nuclear localisation in the infected cell of DENV nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) through the action of the host importin (IMP) α/β1 proteins. Here, we used a range of microscopic, virological and biochemical/biophysical approaches to show for the first time that the small molecule GW5074 has anti-DENV action through its novel ability to inhibit NS5⁻IMPα/β1 interaction in vitro as well as NS5 nuclear localisation in infected cells. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/8/3/281
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells8030281DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Cognitive behavioural impairment with irreversible sensorineural deafness as a complication of West Nile encephalitis.

J Neurovirol 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Despite common clinical features to suggest encephalitis, different viral encephalitides are known to have some specific clinical features, which if present, may suggest infection by a particular virus. West Nile viral (WNV) encephalitis has not been described with any specific diagnostic feature so far. In this context, we describe three patients of West Nile encephalitis (WNE) who had behavioural and cognitive impairment with acute irreversible bilaterally symmetrical sensorineural deafness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00733-2DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Mosquito Small RNA Responses to West Nile and Insect-Specific Virus Infections in and Mosquito Cells.

Viruses 2019 Mar 18;11(3). Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University & Research, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Small RNA mediated responses are essential for antiviral defence in mosquitoes, however, they appear to differ per virus-vector combination. To further investigate the diversity of small RNA responses against viruses in mosquitoes, we applied a small RNA deep sequencing approach on five mosquito cell lines: CT cells, U4.4 and C6/36 cells, Aag2 cells (cleared from cell fusing agent virus and Culex Y virus (CYV) by repetitive dsRNA transfections) and AP-61 cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11030271DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Vector Competence for West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus () of Three Tick Species of the Genus (Acari: Ixodidae).

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Instituto de Virología "Dr. J. M. Vanella", CONICET, Facultad Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Enfermera Gordillo Gómez s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba, Argentina.

Many species of ticks are commonly found infesting wild birds in South America, where birds are important hosts for several arboviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV) and Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). In this study, WNV and SLEV transmission experiments were performed to evaluate the vector competence of three South American tick species: , , and . Larval and nymphal ticks of each species were allowed to feed on chicks needle inoculated with WNV or SLEV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0134DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Vector-borne transmission and evolution of Zika virus.

Nat Ecol Evol 2019 04 18;3(4):561-569. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Laboratory of Vector Control Research, Unit Transmission Reservoir and Pathogen Diversity, Institute Pasteur of Guadeloupe, Les Abymes, Guadeloupe, France.

Zika virus (ZIKV), discovered in the Zika Forest of Uganda in 1947, is a mosquito-borne flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue and West Nile viruses. From its discovery until 2007, only sporadic ZIKV cases were reported, with mild clinical manifestations in patients. Therefore, little attention was given to this virus before epidemics in the South Pacific and the Americas that began in 2013. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0836-zDOI Listing
April 2019
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How do we … integrate pathogen reduced platelets into our hospital blood bank inventory?

Transfusion 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Transfusion Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

For more than 50 years there has been an ongoing effort to combat transfusion-transmitted infections and provide patients with the safest possible blood. This initiative has driven much of the research within the transfusion community. Initial methods included screening donors for travel histories to banned areas and for high-risk behaviors, but pathogen-specific assays performed at the collection and manufacturing sites also have become key factors in assuring blood safety. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15241DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

West Nile virus encephalitis in a young immunocompetent female in Omaha Nebraska.

Intractable Rare Dis Res 2019 Feb;8(1):48-51

CHI Health, Creighton University, Omaha, NE, USA.

One of the most common cause of arbovirus encephalitis in the United States of America (USA) is West Nile virus (WNV). In immunocompetent hosts, 70-80% of infected individuals have subclinical disease. However, in less than 1% of people infected by WNV it can become fulminant neuroinvasive disease associated with neurological morbidity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/irdr.2018.01108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409123PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Global warming and arboviral infections.

Clin Med (Lond) 2019 Mar;19(2):149-152

Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Climate change is already expanding the geographic footprint of arboviral infections. In this article we consider the impact of climate change on three arboviruses with particular consideration of the effect on Europe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.19-2-149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454362PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Sinus Bradycardia and QT Interval Prolongation in West Nile Virus Encephalitis: A Case Report.

Cureus 2019 Jan 3;11(1):e3821. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Internal Medicine, Detroit Medical Center - Wayne State University, Detroit, USA.

Cardiac arrhythmias were reported in cases of West Nile Virus (WNV) encephalitis; however, the underlying pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. We present a 67-year-old male with altered mental status, later diagnosed with WNV encephalitis. Hospital course was complicated by progressive sinus bradycardia and corrected QT (QTc) prolongation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402859PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

A spatio-temporal individual-based network framework for West Nile virus in the USA: Spreading pattern of West Nile virus.

PLoS Comput Biol 2019 03 13;15(3):e1006875. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America.

West Nile virus (WNV)-a mosquito-borne arbovirus-entered the USA through New York City in 1999 and spread to the contiguous USA within three years while transitioning from epidemic outbreaks to endemic transmission. The virus is transmitted by vector competent mosquitoes and maintained in the avian populations. WNV spatial distribution is mainly determined by the movement of residential and migratory avian populations. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006875
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433293PMC
March 2019
5 Reads

Role of autophagy during the replication and pathogenesis of common mosquito-borne flavi- and alphaviruses.

Open Biol 2019 Mar;9(3):190009

2 Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen , Groningen , The Netherlands.

Arboviruses that are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes represent one of the most important causes of febrile illness worldwide. In recent decades, we have witnessed a dramatic re-emergence of several mosquito-borne arboviruses, including dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). DENV is currently the most common mosquito-borne arbovirus, with an estimated 390 million infections worldwide annually. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsob.190009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451359PMC
March 2019
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Broad spectrum anti-flavivirus pyridobenzothiazolones leading to less infective virions.

Antiviral Res 2019 Mar 6;167:6-12. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

UMR "Emergence des Pathologies Virales" (Aix-Marseille University - IRD 190 - Inserm 1207 - EHESP), Fondation IHU Méditerranée Infection, APHM Public Hospitals of Marseille, Faculté de Médecine, 27 bd Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France. Electronic address:

We report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a class of 1H-pyrido[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazol-1-ones originated from compound 1, previously identified as anti-flavivirus agent. Some of the new compounds showed activity in low μM range with reasonable selectivity against Dengue 2, Yellow fever (Bolivia strain), and West Nile viruses. One of the most interesting molecules, compound 16, showed broad antiviral activity against additional flaviviruses such as Dengue 1, 3 and 4, Zika, Japanese encephalitis, several strains of Yellow fever, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.03.004DOI Listing
March 2019
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Evaluation of a novel West Nile virus transmission control strategy that targets Culex tarsalis with endectocide-containing blood meals.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 7;13(3):e0007210. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United States of America.

Control of arbovirus transmission remains focused on vector control through application of insecticides directly to the environment. However, these insecticide applications are often reactive interventions that can be poorly-targeted, inadequate for localized control during outbreaks, and opposed due to environmental and toxicity concerns. In this study, we developed endectocide-treated feed as a systemic endectocide for birds to target blood feeding Culex tarsalis, the primary West Nile virus (WNV) bridge vector in the western United States, and conducted preliminary tests on the effects of deploying this feed in the field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6424467PMC
March 2019
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Assessment of West nile virus transmission risk from a weather-dependent epidemiological model and a global sensitivity analysis framework.

Acta Trop 2019 May 4;193:129-141. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission, Ispra, VA, Italy; Department of Biometry and Epidemiology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.

West Nile virus (WNV) transmission risk is strongly related to weather conditions due to the sensitivity of the mosquitoes to climatic factors. We assess the WNV transmission risk of humans to seasonal weather conditions and the relative effects of parameters affecting the transmission dynamics. The assessment involves a known epidemiological model we extend to account for temperature and precipitation and a global uncertainty and sensitivity analysis framework. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0001706X183102
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.03.003DOI Listing
May 2019
4 Reads

Diagnosing Zika virus infection against a background of other flaviviruses: Studies in high resolution serological analysis.

Sci Rep 2019 Mar 6;9(1):3648. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Division of Microbiology and Animal Hygiene, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, 37075, Germany.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus. Homologous proteins of different flaviviruses display high degrees of sequence identity, especially within subgroups. This leads to extensive immunological cross-reactivity and corresponding problems for developing a ZIKV-specific serological assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40224-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6403343PMC
March 2019
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Identification of antiviral roles for the exon-junction complex and nonsense-mediated decay in flaviviral infection.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, related to dengue virus and Zika virus. To gain insight into host pathways involved in WNV infection, we performed a systematic affinity-tag purification mass spectrometry (APMS) study to identify 259 WNV-interacting human proteins. RNA interference screening revealed 26 genes that both interact with WNV proteins and influence WNV infection. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-019-0375-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-019-0375-zDOI Listing
March 2019
7 Reads

[Selected viral neuroinfections in children].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2019 Feb;46(272):88-93

Medical University of Białystok, Poland: Department of Infectious Diseases and Neuroinfections.

Viral meningitis may be present not only in adults but also in children. It constitutes a significant public health problem in child population. The clinical manifestation of the disease in children varies depending on the age of the child, the causative agent or the way of acquiring the infection. Read More

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February 2019
2 Reads