7,704 results match your criteria West Nile Virus


Central nervous system infections in renal transplant recipients.

Transpl Infect Dis 2020 May 26:e13341. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Nephrology, Arterial Hypertension, Dialysis and Transplantation, Department of Urology, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.

Background: The aim of this study is to determine the incidence, etiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of renal transplant recipients diagnosed and treated for central nervous system (CNS) infection at our institution.

Methods: We analysed data from all renal transplant recipients between January 2007 and December 2019 that were diagnosed and treated for CNS infections at our institution.

Results: Of 1374 patients who received renal allografts, 13 were diagnosed with CNS infections (9 males), with a mean age of 53. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13341DOI Listing

Protein Evolution in the Flaviviruses.

Authors:
Miguel Arenas

J Mol Evol 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Immunology, University of Vigo, 36310, Vigo, Spain.

Proteins are commonly used as molecular targets against pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. However, pathogens can evolve rapidly permitting their populations to increase in protein diversity over time and thus escape to the activity of a molecular therapy. Subsequently, in order to design more durable and robust therapies as well as to understand viral evolution in a host and subsequent transmission, it is central to understand the evolution of pathogen proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00239-020-09953-1DOI Listing

Structural and molecular analyses of functional epitopes and escape mutants in Japanese encephalitis virus envelope protein domain III.

Authors:
Urmi Roy

Immunol Res 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Chemistry & Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Potsdam, NY, 13699-5820, USA.

The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is one of the vector borne causes of encephalitis found in southeastern Asia. This positive single-stranded RNA virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family, which notably includes dengue, tick-borne, West Nile, Zika as well as yellow fever, and transmits to humans by infected mosquitos. The main site of interactions for antibodies against this virus is the envelope protein domain III (ED3). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12026-020-09130-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243247PMC

West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Vector Competence of Indigenous and Mosquitoes from Germany at Temperate Climate Conditions.

Viruses 2020 May 19;12(5). Epub 2020 May 19.

Institute of Infectology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a widespread zoonotic arbovirus and a threat to public health in Germany since its first emergence in 2018. It has become of particular relevance in Germany in 2019 due to its rapid geographical spread and the detection of the first human clinical cases. The susceptibility of indigenous (biotypes and ) for a German WNV lineage 2 strain was experimentally compared to that of Serbian biotype and invasive German . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12050561DOI Listing

The drivers of West Nile virus human illness in the Chicago, Illinois, USA area: Fine scale dynamic effects of weather, mosquito infection, social, and biological conditions.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(5):e0227160. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America.

West Nile virus (WNV) has consistently been reported to be associated with human cases of illness in the region near Chicago, Illinois. However, the number of reported cases of human illness varies across years, with intermittent outbreaks. Several dynamic factors, including temperature, rainfall, and infection status of vector mosquito populations, are responsible for much of these observed variations. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227160PLOS

Enhanced West Nile Virus Circulation in the Emilia-Romagna and Lombardy Regions (Northern Italy) in 2018 Detected by Entomological Surveillance.

Front Vet Sci 2020 5;7:243. Epub 2020 May 5.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Della Lombardia e Dell'Emilia-Romagna, B. Ubertini, Brescia, Italy.

With several human cases reported annually since 2008 and the unapparent risk of infection of blood donors, the West Nile virus (WNV) is emerging as an important health issue in Europe. Italy, as well as other European countries, experienced a recrudescence of the virus circulation in 2018, which led to an increased number of human cases. An integrated surveillance plan was activated in the Emilia-Romagna and Lombardy regions (Northern Italy) since 2008 in order to monitor the intensity and timing of WNV circulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214930PMC

Emergence of Zika virus infection in China.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 May 19;14(5):e0008300. Epub 2020 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, P.R. China.

Currently, Zika virus (ZIKV) is spreading across the world and no ZIKV infection cases have ever been reported in China. Here, we aimed to determine whether ZIKV infection exists in China. Blood samples of 273 healthy individuals were collected from Nanning City, Guangxi Province, China in March 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008300DOI Listing

Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Signaling May Contribute to Chronic West Nile Virus Post-infectious Proinflammatory State.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 30;7:164. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, United States.

West Nile virus (WNV) causes a spectrum of human disease ranging from a febrile illness (WNV fever) to severe neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis). Since WNV gained entry into North America in 1999, clinicians caring for WNV survivors have observed persistent neurological symptoms occurring long-after the production of neutralizing antibodies and clearance of the virus. Accordingly, alternative pathogeneses other than direct viral invasion have been hypothesized to explain these post-infectious symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.00164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203783PMC

West Nile virus in Europe: after action reviews of preparedness and response to the 2018 transmission season in Italy, Slovenia, Serbia and Greece.

Global Health 2020 May 18;16(1):47. Epub 2020 May 18.

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: After Action Reviews (AAR) with a One Health perspective were performed in Slovenia, Italy, Serbia and Greece following a severe West Nile virus (WNV) transmission season in 2018. A protocol combining traditional techniques and organizational process analysis was developed and then implemented in each country.

Results: In 2018, response to the unusually intense transmission season of WNV in Slovenia, Italy, Serbia and Greece took place through routine response mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12992-020-00568-1DOI Listing

West Nile virus lineage 2 in Culex mosquitoes in Thessaly, Greece, 2019.

Acta Trop 2020 May 15;208:105514. Epub 2020 May 15.

EcoDevelopment SA, Thessaloniki, Greece.

West Nile virus is a flavivirus transmitted to humans mainly by mosquito bites. Outbreaks are observed in several European countries, and Greece is one of the most affected countries during the recent years. Thessaly was one of the most affected regions in Greece in 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105514DOI Listing

Improved detection of dengue and Zika viruses using multiplex RT-qPCR assays.

J Virol Methods 2020 May 14:113862. Epub 2020 May 14.

Virology Unit, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Institut Pasteur International Network, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Electronic address:

Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are important viral pathogens, known to cause human infections with similar symptoms, are transmitted by common vectors and co-circulate in intertropical regions. Moreover, dengue fever results from infection with one of four different serotypes of dengue virus. Considering the recent ZIKV emergence, multiplex and up-to-date assays are more preferable for detection of both viruses in a single reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2020.113862DOI Listing

Usutu Virus Infection of Embryonated Chicken Eggs and a Chicken Embryo-Derived Primary Cell Line.

Viruses 2020 May 12;12(5). Epub 2020 May 12.

Fundamental and Applied Research for Animals & Health (FARAH), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Sart Tilman B43, B-4000 Liège, Belgium.

Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, closely related to the West Nile virus (WNV). Similar to WNV, USUV may cause infections in humans, with occasional, but sometimes severe, neurological complications. Further, USUV can be highly pathogenic in wild and captive birds and its circulation in Europe has given rise to substantial avian death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12050531DOI Listing

Evidence of West Nile virus infection in migratory and resident wild birds in west coast of peninsular Malaysia.

One Health 2020 Dec 19;10:100134. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Wildlife Conservation Division, Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Malaysia.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus that is harbored and amplified by wild birds via the enzootic transmission cycle. Wide range of hosts are found to be susceptible to WNV infection including mammals, amphibians and reptiles across the world. Several studies have demonstrated that WNV was present in the Malaysian and captive birds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7210594PMC
December 2020

Investigation of Vector-Borne Viruses in Ticks, Mosquitos, and Ruminants in the Thrace District of Turkey.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Virology, Veterinary Faculty, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey.

There is a considerable increase in vector-borne zoonotic diseases around the world, including Turkey, such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), tick borne encephalitis (TBE), Rift Valley fever (RVF), and West Nile fever (WNF), causing disease and death in humans and animals and significant economical losses. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CCHF virus (CCHFV) and TBE virus (TBEV) in ticks and RVF virus (RVFV) and WNF virus (WNV) in mosquitos, as well as in sheep and cattle, in the Thrace district of the Marmara region, which borders Bulgaria and Greece. Buffy-coat samples from 86 cattle and 81 sheep, as well as 563 ticks and 7390 mosquitos, were collected and examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR for the presence of CCHFV, TBEV, RVFV, and WNV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2532DOI Listing

Epidemiology, management, and graft outcomes after West Nile virus encephalitis in kidney transplant recipients.

Transpl Infect Dis 2020 May 9:e13317. Epub 2020 May 9.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Madison, WI, USA.

Background: Minimal data exist describing the epidemiology, management, and long-term graft outcomes after West Nile viral disease in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs).

Methods: Single-center observational cohort study of patients who received a kidney transplant between 1/1/1994 and 12/31/2018 and developed WNV at any time point after transplantation.

Results: During the 24-year study period, 11 patients had documented WNV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13317DOI Listing

Enhancing Preparedness for Arbovirus Infections with a One Health Approach: The Development and Implementation of Multisectoral Risk Assessment Exercises.

Biomed Res Int 2020 20;2020:4832360. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

Background: One Health is receiving attention for arbovirus infection prevention and control and for defining national "intersectoral" priorities. Increasing awareness of intersectoral priorities through multisectorial risk assessments (MRA) is promising, where data are not systematically shared between sectors. Towards this aim, the MediLabSecure project organized three MRA exercises (hereby called exercises): one on West Nile virus, one on Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, and one on Rift Valley fever, assessing the added value of this approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4832360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191441PMC

Comparison of a human neuronal model proteome upon Japanese encephalitis or West Nile Virus infection and potential role of mosquito saliva in neuropathogenesis.

PLoS One 2020 6;15(5):e0232585. Epub 2020 May 6.

Institut Pasteur, Environment and Infectious Risks Unit, Arbovirus Group, Paris, France.

Neurotropic flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are amongst the leading causes of encephalitis. Using label-free quantitative proteomics, we identified proteins differentially expressed upon JEV (gp-3, RP9) or WNV (IS98) infection of human neuroblastoma cells. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD016805. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232585PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202638PMC

An unusual case of unilateral chorioretinitis and blind spot enlargement associated with asymptomatic West Nile virus infection.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2020 Jun 23;18:100723. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR, 00921, USA.

Purpose: To report a case of unilateral chorioretinitis and acute blind spot enlargement occurring in a patient with asymptomatic West Nile virus (WNV) infection.

Observations: A 28-year-old Hispanic woman, residing in Puerto Rico, presented with an 18-month history of photopsia and a visual field disturbance of the left eye. She had no history of other neurologic symptoms or viral-like illness concurrent with the onset of her symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajoc.2020.100723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195517PMC

A Duplex Quantitative Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR for Simultaneous Detection and Differentiation of Flaviviruses of the Japanese Encephalitis and Ntaya Serocomplexes in Birds.

Front Vet Sci 2020 21;7:203. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (CISA), Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Valdeolmos-Alalpardo, Spain.

High impact, mosquito-borne flaviviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Tembusu virus (TMUV), and Bagaza/Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus (BAGV/ITV) are emerging in different areas of the world. These viruses belong to the Japanese encephalitis (JE) serocomplex (JEV, WNV, and USUV) and the Ntaya serocomplex (TMUV and BAGV/ITV). Notably, they share transmission route (mosquito bite) and reservoir host type (wild birds), and some of them co-circulate in the same areas, infecting overlapping mosquito and avian population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186316PMC

Genomic differentiation and intercontinental population structure of mosquito vectors Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens molestus.

Sci Rep 2020 May 5;10(1):7504. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Entomology and the Fralin Life Sciences Institute, Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, USA.

Understanding the population structure and mechanisms of taxa diversification is important for organisms responsible for the transmission of human diseases. Two vectors of West Nile virus, Culex pipiens pipiens and Cx. p. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63305-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7200692PMC

Dancing eyes syndrome from West Nile virus encephalitis.

Postgrad Med J 2020 May 5. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, Greece.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-137827DOI Listing

Landscape and demographic determinants of Culex infection with West Nile virus during the 2012 epidemic in Dallas County, TX.

Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol 2020 Jun 12;33:100336. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, TAMU MS 2475, College Station, 77843 TX, USA. Electronic address:

In 2012, the United States experienced one of the largest outbreaks of West Nile virus (WNV)-associated deaths, with the majority occurring in Dallas County (Co.), Texas (TX) and surrounding areas. In this study, logistic mixed models were used to identify associations between the landscape, human population, and WNV-infected Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes during the 2012 WNV epidemic in Dallas Co. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sste.2020.100336DOI Listing

A Molecular Screening of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for Flaviviruses in a Focus of West Nile Virus Infection in Northern Iran.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2019 Dec 31;13(4):391-398. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Health Education, Research Center of Health and Environment, School of Health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Mosquito-borne arboviruses such as West Nile (WN), dengue, Rift Valley fever, and Sindbis viruses are reported in Iran, but large-scale studies have not been performed on mosquitoes to find their vectors. A molecular study of the adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for flaviviruses was carried out in a focus of WN infection, Guilan Province, northern Iran.

Methods: Mosquito collections were carried out in five stations of two counties (Anzali and Rasht) using light traps, hand catch by manual aspirators and night landing catch during August-September 2013 and 2014. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188771PMC
December 2019

The continued threat of emerging flaviviruses.

Nat Microbiol 2020 May 4. Epub 2020 May 4.

Departments of Medicine, Molecular Microbiology, Pathology & Immunology, Andrew M. and Jane M. Bursky Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Flaviviruses are vector-borne RNA viruses that can emerge unexpectedly in human populations and cause a spectrum of potentially severe diseases including hepatitis, vascular shock syndrome, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, congenital abnormalities and fetal death. This epidemiological pattern has occurred numerous times during the last 70 years, including epidemics of dengue virus and West Nile virus, and the most recent explosive epidemic of Zika virus in the Americas. Flaviviruses are now globally distributed and infect up to 400 million people annually. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-0714-0DOI Listing

Infectious and Autoimmune Causes of Encephalitis in Children.

Pediatrics 2020 May 1. Epub 2020 May 1.

Section of Pediatric Tropical Medicine, National School of Tropical Medicine,

Background And Objectives: Encephalitis can result in neurologic morbidity and mortality in children. Newly recognized infectious and noninfectious causes of encephalitis have become increasingly important over the past decade.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records from pediatric patients in Houston diagnosed with encephalitis in both an urban and rural catchment area between 2010 and 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-2543DOI Listing

Identification and detection of a novel point mutation in the Chitin Synthase gene of Culex pipiens associated with diflubenzuron resistance.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 May 1;14(5):e0008284. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Crop Science, Pesticide Science Lab, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background: Diflubenzuron (DFB) is one of the most used insecticides in mosquito larval control including that of Culex pipiens, the proven vector of the recent West Nile Virus epidemics in Europe. Two mutations (I1043L and I1043M) in the chitin synthase (CHS) putative binding site of DFB have been previously reported in Cx. pipiens from Italy and associated with high levels of resistance against this larvicide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008284DOI Listing

FLAVI: An Amino Acid Substitution Model for Flaviviruses.

J Mol Evol 2020 Apr 30. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

University of Engineering and Technology, Vietnam National University Hanoi, 144 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi, 10000, Vietnam.

Amino acid substitution models represent substitution rates among amino acids during the evolution. The models play an important role in analyzing protein sequences, especially inferring phylogenies. The rapid evolution of flaviviruses is expanding the threat in public health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00239-020-09943-3DOI Listing

West Nile Virus Mosquito Vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

Viruses 2020 Apr 28;12(5). Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, 15374 Muencheberg, Germany.

In 2018, West Nile virus (WNV) broke out for the first time in Germany, with continuation of the epidemic in 2019, involving birds, horses and humans. To identify vectors and characterize the virus, mosquitoes were collected in both years in zoological gardens and on a horse meadow immediately following the diagnosis of disease cases in birds and horses. Mosquitoes were identified and screened for WNV by qRT-PCR, with virus-positive samples being sequenced for the viral envelope protein gene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12050493DOI Listing

Amino acid 159 of the envelope protein affects viral replication and T-cell infiltration by West Nile virus in intracranial infection.

Sci Rep 2020 Apr 28;10(1):7168. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Laboratory of Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, N18, W9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-0818, Japan.

West Nile virus (WNV) is an important cause of viral encephalitis in birds and animals, including humans. Amino acid 159 of the envelope (E) protein is reportedly implicated in the different levels of neurovirulence in mice infected with WNV NY99 or Eg101. We investigated the role of amino acid 159 of the E protein in the pathogenesis of WNV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64199-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189269PMC

Arboviruses: A global public health threat.

Vaccine 2020 May 24;38(24):3989-3994. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Duke NUS Medical School, Singapore. Electronic address:

A conference on «ARBOVIRUSES, A GLOBAL PUBLIC HEALTH THREAT» was organized on June 20-22, 2018 at the Merieux Foundation Conference Center in Veyrier du Lac, France, to review and raise awareness to the global public health threat of epidemic arboviruses, and to advance the discussion on the control and prevention of arboviral diseases. The presentations by scientists and public health officials from Asia, the Americas, Europe and Africa strengthened the notion that arboviral diseases of both humans and domestic animals are progressively becoming dominant public health problems in the world. The repeated occurrence of recent deadly epidemics strongly reinforces the call for action against these viral diseases, and the need for developing effective vaccines, drugs, vector control tools and strong prevention programs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.04.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7180381PMC

Role of RNA-binding proteins during the late stages of Flavivirus replication cycle.

Virol J 2020 Apr 25;17(1):60. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore.

The genus Flavivirus encompasses several worldwide-distributed arthropod-borne viruses including, dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, Zika virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Infection with these viruses manifest with symptoms ranging from febrile illness to life- threatening hypotensive shock and encephalitis. Therefore, flaviviruses pose a great risk to public health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-020-01329-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183730PMC

Fatal case of West Nile encephalitis associated with acute anteroseptal ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): a case report.

New Microbiol 2020 Jan 13;43(1):51-53. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Virology, Croatian Institute of Public Health, Zagreb Croatia.

Cardiac involvement has rarely been reported in West Nile (WNV) infection. We report a fatal case of WNV encephalitis associated with an acute anteroseptal ST elevation myocardial infarction. The patient was hospitalized with a fever, headache, nausea and vomiting. Read More

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January 2020

Emerging Diseases of Avian Wildlife.

Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2020 May;23(2):383-395

USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 12302 Beech Forest Road, Laurel, MD 20708, USA.

Climate change and the interaction with humans and domestic species influences disease in avian wildlife. This article provides updated information on emerging disease conditions such as the spread of an Asian tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, and its associated diseases among migratory birds in the eastern United States; lymphoproliferative disease virus in wild turkeys in the United States; and salmonellosis, particularly among passerines, which has zoonotic potential. In addition, it includes updated information on West Nile virus, Wellfleet Bay virus, and avian influenza and is intended to serve as a complement to the current veterinary literature for veterinarians treating avian wildlife species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvex.2020.01.002DOI Listing

West Nile Virus Epidemic in Germany Triggered by Epizootic Emergence, 2019.

Viruses 2020 Apr 15;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus and Hemorrhagic Fever Reference and Research, 20359 Hamburg, Germany.

One year after the first autochthonous transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) to birds and horses in Germany, an epizootic emergence of WNV was again observed in 2019. The number of infected birds and horses was considerably higher compared to 2018 (12 birds, two horses), resulting in the observation of the first WNV epidemy in Germany: 76 cases in birds, 36 in horses and five confirmed mosquito-borne, autochthonous human cases. We demonstrated that Germany experienced several WNV introduction events and that strains of a distinct group (Eastern German WNV clade), which was introduced to Germany as a single introduction event, dominated mosquito, birds, horse and human-related virus variants in 2018 and 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12040448DOI Listing

FDA-Approved Drugs Efavirenz, Tipranavir, and Dasabuvir Inhibit Replication of Multiple Flaviviruses in Vero Cells.

Microorganisms 2020 Apr 20;8(4). Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Virology, Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, CZ-62100 Brno, Czech Republic.

Vector-borne flaviviruses (VBFs) affect human health worldwide, but no approved drugs are available specifically to treat VBF-associated infections. Here, we performed in silico screening of a library of U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8040599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232190PMC

Systematic Review of Important Viral Diseases in Africa in Light of the 'One Health' Concept.

Pathogens 2020 Apr 20;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Infectious Diseases and Anti-Infective Therapy Research Group, Sharjah Medical Research Institute and College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, UAE.

Emerging and re-emerging viral diseases are of great public health concern. The recent emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in December 2019 in China, which causes COVID-19 disease in humans, and its current spread to several countries, leading to the first pandemic in history to be caused by a coronavirus, highlights the significance of zoonotic viral diseases. Rift Valley fever, rabies, West Nile, chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Ebola, and influenza viruses among many other viruses have been reported from different African countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040301DOI Listing

Human West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Infection: Epidemiological, Clinical, and Virological Findings.

Viruses 2020 Apr 18;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Microbiology and Virology Unit, Padova University Hospital, I-35128 Padova, Italy.

West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 is expanding and causing large outbreaks in Europe. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological, clinical, and virological features of WNV lineage 2 infection during the large outbreak that occurred in northern Italy in 2018. The study population included 86 patients with neuroinvasive disease (WNND), 307 with fever (WNF), and 34 blood donors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12040458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232435PMC
April 2020
3.279 Impact Factor

Study of Usutu virus neuropathogenicity in mice and human cellular models.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Apr 23;14(4):e0008223. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Pathogenesis and Control of Chronic Infections, University of Montpellier, INSERM, EFS, Montpellier, France.

Usutu virus (USUV), an African mosquito-borne flavivirus closely related to West Nile virus, was first isolated in South Africa in 1959. USUV emerged in Europe two decades ago, causing notably massive mortality in Eurasian blackbirds. USUV is attracting increasing attention due to its potential for emergence and its rapid spread in Europe in recent years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179837PMC

Structural basis for Zika envelope domain III recognition by a germline version of a recurrent neutralizing antibody.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 May 22;117(18):9865-9875. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125;

Recent epidemics demonstrate the global threat of Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes. Although infection is usually asymptomatic or mild, newborns of infected mothers can display severe symptoms, including neurodevelopmental abnormalities and microcephaly. Given the large-scale spread, symptom severity, and lack of treatment or prophylaxis, a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is urgently needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1919269117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211955PMC

Vaccines Against Dengue and West Viruses Nile in India: The Need of the Hour.

Authors:
Milind M Gore

Viral Immunol 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Emeritus Scientist, ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, India.

The circulation of flaviviruses, dengue (DEN), Japanese encephalitis (JE) and West Nile (WN) viruses, and others, is generating a major concern in many countries. Both JE along with DEN have been endemic in large regions of India. WN virus infection, although circulating in southern regions for many years, in recent years, WN encephalitis patients have been demonstrated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vim.2019.0122DOI Listing

Assessment of Immunoglobulin M Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Ratios to Identify West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infections During Concurrent Outbreaks of West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Diseases, Arizona 2015.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2020 Apr 21. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause clinical disease ranging from febrile illness to encephalitis. The standard for serological diagnosis is immunoglobulin M (IgM) testing followed by confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to differentiate the infecting virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2571DOI Listing

West Nile virus lineage 2 in humans and mosquitoes in Bulgaria, 2018-2019.

J Clin Virol 2020 Jun 11;127:104365. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Department of Parasitology, National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2, and especially the Hungarian clade, predominates in Europe. Most of the Hungarian clade strains cluster into 2 groups: Central/South-West European and Balkan.

Objectives: Since there was not any study on WNV in mosquitoes in Bulgaria, the present study was designed to test Culex spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104365DOI Listing

Nontransient third-degree heart block and persistent respiratory findings as sequelae of acute occupational exposure to pyrethroids insecticide.

Am J Ind Med 2020 Apr 16. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Occupational & Environmental Medicine of Long Island, Northwell Health and Occupational Medicine, New York, New York.

We present the case of a worker with occupational exposure to a pyrethroid insecticide who acutely developed nontransient third-degree heart block. In 2000, a 57-year-old male truck driver on his delivery route was accidentally exposed to pyrethroid insecticide being sprayed for West Nile virus containment. Both the driver and his vehicle were coated with the spray. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.23111DOI Listing

Catching a Moving Target: Comparative Modeling of Flaviviral NS2B-NS3 Reveals Small Molecule Zika Protease Inhibitors.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2020 Apr 3;11(4):514-520. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Pharmacy, Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise-Straße 2+4, Berlin 14195, Germany.

The pivotal role of viral proteases in virus replication has already been successfully exploited in several antiviral drug design campaigns. However, no efficient antivirals are currently available against flaviviral infections. In this study, we present lead-like small molecule inhibitors of the Zika Virus (ZIKV) NS2B-NS3 protease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.9b00629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7153273PMC

Seroprevalence and molecular characterization of West Nile Virus in Egypt.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 Mar 24;71:101473. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Animal Medicine (Infectious Diseases), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a flavivirus, mosquito-borne infection and have public health importance worldwide. WNV infection have highly significant impact on animal and human health. The virus has been detected serologically in Egypt among equids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2020.101473DOI Listing

Towards a thermodynamic mechanistic model for the effect of temperature on arthropod vector competence for transmission of arboviruses.

Authors:
Paul Gale

Microb Risk Anal 2019 Aug 5;12:27-43. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

15 Weare Close, Portland, Dorset DT5 1JP, United Kingdom.

Arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV), bluetongue virus (BTV), dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infect their arthropod vectors over a range of average temperatures depending on the ambient temperature. How the transmission efficiency of an arbovirus (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mran.2019.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104215PMC

Vector competence of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes for Mayaro virus.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Apr 14;14(4):e0007518. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Grupo Mosquitos Vetores: Endossimbiontes e Interação Patógeno-Vetor, Instituto René Rachou-Fiocruz, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Newly emerging or re-emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are important causes of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Arboviruses such as Dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), and West Nile virus (WNV) have undergone extensive geographic expansion in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. In the Americas the main vectors of DENV, ZIKV, and CHIKV are mosquito species adapted to urban environments, namely Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, whereas the main vector of WNV is Culex quinquefasciatus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182273PMC

The invasive Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus found in the Netherlands can experimentally transmit Zika virus and Usutu virus.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Apr 13;14(4):e0008217. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Background: The Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus is invading Europe and was first discovered in Lelystad, the Netherlands in 2013, where it has established a permanent population. In this study, we investigated the vector competence of Ae. japonicus from the Netherlands for the emerging Zika virus (ZIKV) and zoonotic Usutu virus (USUV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7153878PMC

Flavivirus Nonstructural Protein NS5 Dysregulates HSP90 to Broadly Inhibit JAK/STAT Signaling.

Cells 2020 Apr 7;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Center for Innate Immunity and Immune Disease, Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

Pathogenic flaviviruses antagonize host cell Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling downstream of interferons α/β. Here, we show that flaviviruses inhibit JAK/STAT signaling induced by a wide range of cytokines beyond interferon, including interleukins. This broad inhibition was mapped to viral nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) binding to cellular heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), resulting in reduced Janus kinase-HSP90 interaction and thus destabilization of unchaperoned JAKs (and other kinase clients) of HSP90 during infection by , West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9040899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226784PMC

A molecular determinant of West Nile virus secretion and morphology as a target for viral attenuation.

J Virol 2020 Apr 8. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Institut Pasteur, Arbovirus Group, Environment and Infectious Risks Unit, Paris, France

West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the genus and currently one of the most common arboviruses worldwide, is associated with severe neurological disease in humans. Its high potential to re-emerge and rapidly disseminate makes it a global public health problem. The surface membrane glycoprotein (M) has been associated with -induced pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00086-20DOI Listing