7,159 results match your criteria West Nile Virus


Genetic Population Diversity of Aedes caspius in Southern Provinces of Iran.

Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2018 ;111(1):31-37

Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

has a wide distribution throughout the world and can transmit Chikungunya virus, West Nile Virus (WNV), Tahyna virus and the bacterium . Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome C-oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and cytochrome C-oxidase subunit 2 (COII) genes have been widely used to estimate phylogenetic relationships at different taxonomic levels among this species. Adult collections were carried out by human bait, Center for Deseases Control Light Traps (CDC-LT) and aspirator during February/April, June and October/December 2013-2015 from different southern provinces of Iran and then identified morphologically with reliable keys. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3166/bspe-2018-0011DOI Listing
January 2018

Corrigendum: Human West Nile Virus Disease Outbreak in Pakistan, 2015-2016.

Front Public Health 2018 29;6:384. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Comparative Diagnostic and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362614PMC
January 2019

Short-term Forecasting of Daily Abundance of West Nile Virus Vectors Culex pipiens-restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes vexans Based on Weather Conditions in Southern Québec (Canada).

J Med Entomol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada.

Since 2002, human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) have occurred every year in southern Canada, but WNV risk remains challenging to predict. Here, we explored the ability of weather-based forecasting models to predict the seasonal abundance of two WNV vector species (Culex pipiens-restuans and Aedes vexans) in Québec, Canada, and explored the importance of accounting for larvicide use and local habitat (forest park vs residential garden). A gamma-generalized linear model predicting mosquito abundance was developed based on an approach previously used in Ontario combining temperature and precipitation during the days preceding mosquito captures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjz002DOI Listing
February 2019

Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells as Model to Evaluate Species Tropism of Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 28;9. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Institute of Virology and Immunology (IVI), Bern, Switzerland.

Several mosquito-borne Flaviviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue Virus (DENV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) can cause severe clinical disease. Being zoonotic, Flaviviruses infect a wide variety of terrestrial vertebrates, which dependent of the virus-host interactions, can enhance ongoing epidemics and maintain the virus in the environment for prolonged periods. Targeted species can vary from amphibians, birds to various mammals, dependent on the virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360178PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Astrocytes in Flavivirus Infections.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Feb 6;20(3). Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloška 4, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Virus infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can manifest in various forms of inflammation, including that of the brain (encephalitis) and spinal cord (myelitis), all of which may have long-lasting deleterious consequences. Although the knowledge of how different viruses affect neural cells is increasing, understanding of the mechanisms by which cells respond to neurotropic viruses remains fragmented. Several virus types have the ability to infect neural tissue, and astrocytes, an abundant and heterogeneous neuroglial cell type and a key element providing CNS homeostasis, are one of the first CNS cell types to get infected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030691DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Effects of host blood meal source on reproductive output, nutrient reserves and gut microbiome of West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus.

J Insect Physiol 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Biology Program, University of South Florida Sarasota-Manatee, Sarasota, FL 34243, USA.

Female mosquitoes feed on blood from vertebrates, including humans, as a protein source to provision eggs. Through blood feeding, mosquitoes may transmit pathogens to humans and other animals. In diseases like malaria and dengue, humans are the main hosts and mosquitoes that preferentially feed on humans transmit the pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Uncovering mechanisms behind mosquito seasonality by integrating mathematical models and daily empirical population data: Culex pipiens in the UK.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Feb 7;12(1):74. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, OX10 8BB, UK.

Background: Many mosquito-borne diseases exhibit substantial seasonality, due to strong links between environmental variables and vector and pathogen life-cycles. Further, a range of density-dependent and density-independent biotic and abiotic processes affect the phenology of mosquito populations, with potentially large knock-on effects for vector dynamics and disease transmission. Whilst it is understood that density-independent and density-dependent processes affect seasonal population levels, it is not clear how these interact temporally to shape the population peaks and troughs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3321-2DOI Listing
February 2019

Serological evidence of infection with dengue and Zika viruses in horses on French Pacific Islands.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Feb 7;13(2):e0007162. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

UMR 1161 Virology, ANSES, INRA, ENVA, ANSES Animal Health Laboratory, EURL for equine diseases, Maisons-Alfort, France.

New Caledonia and French Polynesia are areas in which arboviruses circulate extensively. A large serological survey among horses from New Caledonia and French Polynesia was carried out to investigate the seroprevalence of flaviviruses in the horse population. Here, 293 equine sera samples were screened for flaviviruses using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007162DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Flavivirus NS1 Triggers Tissue-Specific Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction Reflecting Disease Tropism.

Cell Rep 2019 Feb;26(6):1598-1613.e8

Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Flaviviruses cause systemic or neurotropic-encephalitic pathology in humans. The flavivirus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a secreted glycoprotein involved in viral replication, immune evasion, and vascular leakage during dengue virus infection. However, the contribution of secreted NS1 from related flaviviruses to viral pathogenesis remains unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.01.036DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

The Role of Host Cytoskeleton in Flavivirus Infection.

Virol Sin 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China.

The family of flaviviruses is one of the most medically important groups of emerging arthropod-borne viruses. Host cell cytoskeletons have been reported to have close contact with flaviviruses during virus entry, intracellular transport, replication, and egress process, although many detailed mechanisms are still unclear. This article provides a brief overview of the function of the most prominent flaviviruses-induced or -hijacked cytoskeletal structures including actin, microtubules and intermediate filaments, mainly focus on infection by dengue virus, Zika virus and West Nile virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-019-00086-4DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Implementation of the One Health approach to fight arbovirus infections in the Mediterranean and Black Sea Region: Assessing integrated surveillance in Serbia, Tunisia and Georgia.

Zoonoses Public Health 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Italy.

Background: In the Mediterranean and Black Sea Region, arbovirus infections are emerging infectious diseases. Their surveillance can benefit from one health inter-sectoral collaboration; however, no standardized methodology exists to study One Health surveillance.

Methods: We designed a situation analysis study to document how integration of laboratory/clinical human, animal and entomological surveillance of arboviruses was being implemented in the Region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12562DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

DDX3X helicase inhibitors as new strategy to fight West Nile Virus infection.

J Med Chem 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Increased frequency of arbovirus outbreaks in the last ten years represents an important emergence for global health. Climate warming, extensive urbanization of tropical regions and human migrations flows facilitate the expansion of anthropophilic mosquitos and the emerging or re-emerging of new viral infections. Only recently the human ATPase/RNA helicase X-linked DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3X) emerged as a novel therapeutic target in the fight against infectious diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b01403DOI Listing
February 2019

Homologs of Human Dengue-Resistance Genes, and , Confer Antiviral Resistance in Mosquitoes.

Insects 2019 Feb 2;10(2). Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Access Bio, Inc., Somerset, NJ 08873, USA.

Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted by mosquitoes and is a major public health concern. The study of innate mosquito defense mechanisms against DENV have revealed crucial roles for the Toll, Imd, JAK-STAT, and RNAi pathways in mediating DENV in the mosquito. Often overlooked in such studies is the role of intrinsic cellular defense mechanisms that we hypothesize to work in concert with the classical immune pathways to affect organismal defense. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects10020046DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Comparative fitness of West Nile virus isolated during California epidemics.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Feb 4;13(2):e0007135. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Center for Vectorborne Diseases, Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, United States of America.

West Nile virus (WNV) has been circulating in California since its first detection in 2003, causing repeated outbreaks affecting public, wildlife and veterinary health. Epidemics of WNV are difficult to predict due to the multitude of factors influencing transmission dynamics among avian and mosquito hosts. Typically, high levels of WNV amplification are required for outbreaks to occur, and therefore associated viral strains may exhibit enhanced virulence and mortality in competent bird species resulting in increased mosquito infection prevalence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007135DOI Listing
February 2019

Plant extracts for developing mosquito larvicides: from laboratory to the field, with insights on the modes of action.

Acta Trop 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

In the last decades, major research efforts have been done to investigate the insecticidal activity of plant-based products against mosquitoes. This is a modern and timely challenge in parasitology, aimed to reduce the frequent overuse of synthetic pesticides boosting resistance development in mosquitoes and causing serious threats to human health and environment. This review covers the huge amount of literature available on plant extracts tested as mosquito larvicides, particularly aqueous and alcoholic ones, due to their easy formulation in water without using surfactants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.01.019DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Scaling of Host Competence.

Trends Parasitol 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Global and Planetary Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA.

Body size influences many traits including those that affect host competence, the propensity to cause new infections. Here, we employ a new framework to reveal that, for at least two infections, West Nile virus and Lyme disease, large hosts should be more competent than small ones, but their lower abundance could mitigate their impacts on local risk. By contrast, for rabies, small hosts will be disproportionately more competent than large ones, an effect amplified by the higher densities of small species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2018.12.002DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

CSF1R antagonism limits local restimulation of antiviral CD8 T cells during viral encephalitis.

J Neuroinflammation 2019 Jan 31;16(1):22. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Background: Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) locally maintained through colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) signaling. Microglial depletion via CSF1R inactivation improves cognition in mouse models of neuroinflammation, but limits virologic control in the CNS of mouse models of neurotropic infections by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesize that CSF1R plays a critical role in myeloid cell responses that restrict viral replication and locally restimulate recruited antiviral T cells within the CNS. Read More

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https://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1397-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354430PMC
January 2019
5 Reads

West Nile virus encephalitis in GATA2 deficiency.

Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2019 24;15. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

1Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, 269 Campus Drive, CCSR 3215, MC 5366, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.

We report a male with longstanding warts who presented with severe West Nile virus encephalitis (WNVE) and recovered after interferon alfa-2b and intravenous immunoglobulin. He was later found to have GATA2 deficiency and underwent successful hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13223-019-0321-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346581PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Epidemiology of West Nile Virus in the Eastern Mediterranean region: A systematic review.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 29;13(1):e0007081. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Arboviruses and Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (National Reference Laboratory), Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: West Nile Virus (WNV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, is one of the most widely distributed arboviruses in the world. Despite some evidence for circulation of WNV in countries summarized by the World Health Organization as the Eastern Mediterrian Regional Office (EMRO), comprehensive knowledge about its epidemiology remains largely unknown. This study aims to provide a concise review of the published literature on WNV infections in the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office of WHO (EMRO). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007081DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Serological Evidence of Tick-Borne Encephalitis and West Nile Virus Infections Among Children with Arthritis in Turkey.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

1 Department of Virology, Veterinary Faculty, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Avcilar, Istanbul, Turkey.

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are mainly transmitted by arthropod vectors to vertebrate hosts including humans, resulting in fever and neurological signs. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of antibodies to TBEV and WNV, and TBEV-RNA and WNV-RNA in Turkish children with fever and/or arthritis. For this purpose, 110 sera and buffy-coat samples were collected; sera were analyzed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to TBEV and WNV, and buffy-coat-derived white blood cells were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR for TBEV-RNA and WNV-RNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2349DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

First detection of Aedes japonicus in Spain: an unexpected finding triggered by citizen science.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Jan 23;12(1):53. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplicacions Forestals (CREAF), Cerdanyola del Vallès, 08193, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Aedes japonicus is an invasive vector mosquito from Southeast Asia which has been spreading across central Europe since the year 2000. Unlike the Asian Tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) present in Spain since 2004, there has been no record of Ae. japonicus in the country until now. Read More

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https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.11
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3317-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6344982PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

VAPiD: a lightweight cross-platform viral annotation pipeline and identification tool to facilitate virus genome submissions to NCBI GenBank.

BMC Bioinformatics 2019 Jan 23;20(1):48. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: With sequencing technologies becoming cheaper and easier to use, more groups are able to obtain whole genome sequences of viruses of public health and scientific importance. Submission of genomic data to NCBI GenBank is a requirement prior to publication and plays a critical role in making scientific data publicly available. GenBank currently has automatic prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome annotation pipelines but has no viral annotation pipeline beyond influenza virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-019-2606-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343335PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Linking Bird and Mosquito Data to Assess Spatiotemporal West Nile Virus Risk in Humans.

Ecohealth 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Room 217A, 600 Peter Morand Crescent, Ottawa, ON, K1G 5Z3, Canada.

West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae) causes a disease in humans that may develop into a deadly neuroinvasive disease. In North America, several peridomestic bird species can develop sufficient viremia to infect blood-feeding mosquito vectors without succumbing to the virus. Mosquito species from the genus Culex, Aedes and Ochlerotatus display variable host preferences, ranging between birds and mammals, including humans, and may bridge transmission among avian hosts and contribute to spill-over transmission to humans. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10393-019-01393-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10393-019-01393-8DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

First isolation of West Nile virus in Brazil.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2019 Jan 17;114:e180332. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Instituto Evandro Chagas, Seção de Arbovirologia e Febres Hemorrágicas, Ananindeua, PA, Brasil.

Background: Serological evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection has been reported in different regions of Brazil from equine and human hosts but the virus had never been isolated in the country.

Objectives: We sought to identify the viral etiology of equine encephalitis in Espírito Santo state.

Methods: We performed viral culture in C6/36 cells, molecular detection of WNV genome, histopathology and immunohistochemistry from horse cerebral tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0074-02760180332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343470PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Expanding Usutu virus circulation in Italy: detection in the Lazio region, central Italy, 2017 to 2018.

Euro Surveill 2019 Jan;24(3)

Laboratory of Virology, National Institute for Infectious Diseases 'Lazzaro Spallanzani' IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Blood donation screening for West Nile virus (WNV) was mandatory in the Lazio region in 2017 and 2018 (June-November) according to the national surveillance plan. In these years, all five donations reactive in WNV nucleic acid amplification tests harboured instead Usutu virus (USUV). Clade 'Europe 2' was identified in four blood donations and a 2018 mosquito pool. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.3.1800649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6344840PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Bloodmeal Host Selection of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Las Vegas, Nevada, United States.

J Med Entomol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Arbovirus Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO.

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) have recently emerged in the southwestern United States. Surveillance for arboviruses in Las Vegas, NV, detected a surge of SLEV activity in the southern house mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus Say) during 2016. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jme/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jme
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy237DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads
1.953 Impact Factor

Acute and Delayed Deaths after West Nile Virus Infection, Texas, USA, 2002-2012.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 Feb;25(2)

Infection with West Nile virus (WNV) has a well-characterized acute disease process. However, long-term consequences are less understood. We searched death records for 4,142 residents of Texas, USA, infected with WNV during 2002-2012 and identified 557 (13%) deaths. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2502.181250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346437PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Cumulative Incidence of West Nile Virus Infection, Continental United States, 1999-2016.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 Feb;25(2):325-327

Using reported case data from ArboNET and previous seroprevalence data stratified by age and sex, we conservatively estimate that ≈7 million persons in the United States have been infected with West Nile virus since its introduction in 1999. Our data support the need for public health interventions and improved surveillance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2502.180765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346444PMC
February 2019

West Nile Virus Infection in Travelers Returning to United Kingdom from South Africa.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 Feb;25(2):367-369

West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-transmitted flavivirus that causes West Nile fever and may infrequently cause neuroinvasive disease in humans. We present 2 cases of confirmed WNV infection, 1 of severe encephalitis and 1 of mild febrile illness, in a couple returning to the United Kingdom from South Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2502.172101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346434PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Detection of West Nile virus lineage 1 sequences in blood donors, Punjab province, Pakistan.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Objectives: This study was performed to determine the presence of West Nile virus (WNV) in mosquito specimens and human blood donors from Pakistan.

Methods: 4,500 mosquito specimens were collected using CO-baited traps from five selected districts of Punjab province, Pakistan. Mosquito were taxonomically identified using standard morphological keys resulting in 166 pools. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.01.020DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads
2.330 Impact Factor

Antiviral Protection by IFITM3 In Vivo.

Curr Clin Microbiol Rep 2018 Dec 3;5(4):229-237. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, Infectious, Diseases Institute, The Ohio State University, 460 W 12th Ave, Biomedical Research Tower 790, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is a cellular restriction factor that blocks fusion between virus and host membranes. Here, we provide an introduction to IFITM3 and the biochemical regulation underlying its antiviral activity. Further, we analyze and summarize the published literature examining phenotypes of IFITM3 knockout mice upon infections with viral pathogens and discuss the controversial association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human gene and severe virus infections. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40588-018-0103-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40588-018-0103-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334760PMC
December 2018
4 Reads

An observer blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase I dose escalation trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated West Nile virus Vaccine, HydroVax-001, in healthy adults.

Vaccine 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is the most common mosquito-borne infection in the United States. HydroVax-001 WNV is a hydrogen peroxide inactivated, whole virion (WNV-Kunjin strain) vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide.

Methods: We performed a phase 1, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind (within dosing group), dose escalation clinical trial of the HydroVax-001 WNV vaccine administered via intramuscular injection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.12.026DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Uncovering Flavivirus Host Dependency Factors through a Genome-Wide Gain-of-Function Screen.

Viruses 2019 Jan 15;11(1). Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Viral Genomics and Vaccination Unit, UMR3569 CNRS, Virology department, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France.

Flaviviruses, such as dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV), yellow fever (YFV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses, are mosquito-borne pathogens that present a major risk to global public health. To identify host factors that promote flavivirus replication, we performed a genome-wide gain-of-function cDNA screen for human genes that enhance the replication of flavivirus reporter particles in human cells. The screen recovered seventeen potential host proteins that promote viral replication, including the previously known dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide--protein glycosyltransferase non-catalytic subunit (DDOST). Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/11/1/68
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11010068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356745PMC
January 2019
5 Reads

EEG in WNV Neuroinvasive Disease.

J Clin Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, U.S.A.

Purpose: Neuroinvasive West Nile virus (WNV) is rare, occurring in less than 1% of those infected, and may manifest as meningitis, encephalitis, and/or acute flaccid paralysis. Patients may present initially with nonspecific symptoms including fevers. Although rare, neuroinvasive WNV is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004691-900000000-9948
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNP.0000000000000558DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Microbiota variations in disease vector mosquito of West Nile virus and Saint Louis Encephalitis from different geographic origins.

PeerJ 2019 9;6:e6168. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.

Although mosquito microbiota are known to influence reproduction, nutrition, disease transmission, and pesticide resistance, the relationship between host-associated microbial community composition and geographical location is poorly understood. To begin addressing this knowledge gap, we characterized microbiota associated with adult females of mosquito vectors of Saint Louis Encephalitis and West Nile viruses sampled from three locations in Florida (Vero Beach, Palmetto Inland, and Palmetto Coast). High-throughput sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes demonstrated significant differences among microbial communities of mosquitoes sampled from the three locations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6330035PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor 7-deaza-2'methyladenosine prevents death in a mouse model of West Nile virus infection.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Virology, Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, CZ-62100 Brno, Czech Republic

West Nile virus (WNV) is a medically important emerging arbovirus causing serious neuroinfections in humans against which no approved antiviral therapy is currently available. In this study, we demonstrate that 2'methyl- or 4'-azido-modified nucleosides are highly effective inhibitors of WNV replication, showing nanomolar or low micromolar anti-WNV activity and negligible cytotoxicity in cell culture. One representative of 2'-methylated nucleosides, 7-deaza-2'methyladenosine, significantly protected WNV-infected mice from disease progression and mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02093-18DOI Listing
January 2019
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Dengue virus is an under-recognised causative agent of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES): Results from a four year AES surveillance study of Japanese encephalitis in selected states of India.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

CDC India, New Delhi, India.

Background: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) surveillance in India has indicated that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) accounts for 5-35% of AES cases annually; the etiology remains unknown in the remaining cases. We implemented comprehensive AES surveillance to identify other etiological agents of AES, with emphasis on dengue virus.

Methods: Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from patients enrolled prospectively in AES surveillance from 2014-2017 at selected sites of three high burden states of India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.01.008DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads
2.330 Impact Factor

Molecular characterization of viruses associated with encephalitis in São Paulo, Brazil.

PLoS One 2019 14;14(1):e0209993. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

LIM / 46-Laboratory of Medical Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine-IMT, University of São Paulo Medical School USP, São Paulo, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of viral encephalitis due to arbovirus infection of the Togaviridae and Flaviviridae families in São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 500 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected between August 2012 and January 2013, from patients with symptoms of acute encephalitis were analyzed. Findings suggestive of viral encephalitis-elevations in cell concentration, glucose and total protein-were observed in 234 (46. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209993PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331147PMC
January 2019
1 Read

The Microtubule-Associated Innate Immune Sensor GEF-H1 Does Not Influence Mouse Norovirus Replication in Murine Macrophages.

Viruses 2019 Jan 10;11(1). Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia.

Norovirus is an acute infection of the gastrointestinal tract causing rapid induction of vomiting and diarrhoea. The infection is sensed and controlled by the innate immune system, particularly by the RNA helicase MDA-5 and type I and III interferons (IFNs). We have observed that intracellular replication of murine norovirus (MNV) occurs in membranous clusters proximal to the microtubule organising centre, a localisation dependent on intact microtubules. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/11/1/47
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11010047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356845PMC
January 2019
4 Reads

West Nile virus outbreak in the South of France: Implications for travel medicine.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Aix Marseille Univ, IRD, AP-HM, MEPHI, IHU-Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2019.01.002DOI Listing
January 2019
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Mosquito-borne epornitic flaviviruses: an update and review.

J Gen Virol 2019 Feb 22;100(2):119-132. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

1​FARAH Research Center, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Sart Tilman B43, B-4000 Liège, Belgium.

West Nile Virus, Usutu virus, Bagaza virus, Israel turkey encephalitis virus and Tembusu virus currently constitute the five flaviviruses transmitted by mosquito bites with a marked pathogenicity for birds. They have been identified as the causative agents of severe neurological symptoms, drop in egg production and/or mortalities among avian hosts. They have also recently shown an expansion of their geographic distribution and/or a rise in cases of human infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001203DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF YELLOW-BILLED MAGPIES ( PICA NUTALLI) BEFORE AND AFTER A WEST NILE VIRUS EPIDEMIC.

J Wildl Dis 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

1   Wildlife Genomics and Disease Ecology Lab, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Wyoming, 1174 Snowy Range Road, Laramie, Wyoming 82070, USA.

The appearance of West Nile virus (WNV) coincided with declines in California bird populations beginning in 2004, and particularly affected corvid populations, including Yellow-billed Magpies ( Pica nutalli), an endemic species to California. Our objective was to determine if the timing of the WNV epidemic correlated with changes in the genetic diversity or population structure of magpies. We hypothesized the declines in magpie abundance from WNV would lead to genetic bottlenecks and reduced genetic diversity, but not to changes in population genetic structure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2018-01-023DOI Listing
January 2019

West Nile virus-inclusive single-cell RNA sequencing reveals heterogeneity in the type I interferon response within single cells.

J Virol 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic mosquito-borne flavivirus of global importance. Neuroinvasive WNV infection results in encephalitis and can lead to prolonged neurological impairment or death. Type I interferon (IFN-I) is crucial for promoting antiviral defenses through the induction of antiviral effectors, which function to restrict viral replication and spread. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.01778-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01778-18DOI Listing
January 2019
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Viral Exploration of Negative Acute Febrile Cases Observed during Chikungunya Outbreaks in Gabon.

Intervirology 2019 Jan 9:1-11. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville (CIRMF), Franceville,

Non-malarial febrile illness outbreaks were documented in 2007 and 2010 in Gabon. After investigation, these outbreaks were attributed to the chikungunya and dengue viruses (CHIKV and DENV). However, for more than half of the samples analyzed, the causative agent was not identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000495136DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

RNA Structure Duplication in the Dengue Virus 3' UTR: Redundancy or Host Specificity?

MBio 2019 Jan 8;10(1). Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Fundación Instituto Leloir-CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Flaviviruses include a diverse group of medically important viruses that cycle between mosquitoes and humans. During this natural process of switching hosts, each species imposes different selective forces on the viral population. Using dengue virus (DENV) as model, we found that paralogous RNA structures originating from duplications in the viral 3' untranslated region (UTR) are under different selective pressures in the two hosts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02506-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6325252PMC
January 2019
11 Reads

Surveillance of animal diseases through implementation of a Bayesian spatio-temporal model: A simulation example with neurological syndromes in horses and West Nile Virus.

Prev Vet Med 2019 Jan 26;162:95-106. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

A potentially sensitive way to detect disease outbreaks is syndromic surveillance, i.e. monitoring the number of syndromes reported in the population of interest, comparing it to the baseline rate, and drawing conclusions about outbreaks using statistical methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2018.11.010DOI Listing
January 2019
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Epidemiologic and phylogenetic analysis of the 2018 West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak in Israel demonstrates human infection of WNV lineage I.

Euro Surveill 2019 Jan;24(1)

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

As at 12 November 2018, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) was responsible for 139 WNV infection cases in Israel. Here, we characterise the epidemiology of the outbreak and demonstrate that only WNV lineage I was circulating in mosquitoes and responsible for WNV infection in humans. This suggests that the concurrence of the outbreak in Israel with WNV outbreaks in several European countries is not due to a common, more virulent WNV genotype. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.1.1800662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6325669PMC
January 2019
1 Read

An amplicon-based sequencing framework for accurately measuring intrahost virus diversity using PrimalSeq and iVar.

Genome Biol 2019 01 8;20(1). Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.

How viruses evolve within hosts can dictate infection outcomes; however, reconstructing this process is challenging. We evaluate our multiplexed amplicon approach, PrimalSeq, to demonstrate how virus concentration, sequencing coverage, primer mismatches, and replicates influence the accuracy of measuring intrahost virus diversity. We develop an experimental protocol and computational tool, iVar, for using PrimalSeq to measure virus diversity using Illumina and compare the results to Oxford Nanopore sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-018-1618-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6325816PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Viral Enrichment Methods Affect the Detection but Not Sequence Variation of West Nile Virus in Equine Brain Tissue.

Front Vet Sci 2018 18;5:318. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Comparative, Diagnostic and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

West Nile virus (WNV), a small, positive sense, single stranded RNA virus continues to encroach into new locales with emergence of new viral variants. Neurological disease in the equine can be moderate to severe in the face of low to undetectable virus loads. Physical methods of virus enrichment may increase sensitivity of virus detection and enhance analysis of viral diversity, especially for deep sequencing studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305279PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Influence of Demography, Land Use, and Urban Form on West Nile Virus Risk and Human West Nile Virus Incidence in Ottawa, Canada.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

1 School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Human infection by West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae), in some cases, develops into a deadly neuroinvasive disease. WNV risk is thought to be influenced by factors affecting the density of species that promote replication and transmission of the virus, namely peridomestic bird and mosquito species. Factors influencing contact between peridomestic bird and mosquito species and contact between infected mosquitoes and vulnerable human populations may also be important in determining WNV risk in an area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2366DOI Listing
January 2019