5,718 results match your criteria West Nile Encephalitis


Four human diseases with significant public health impact caused by mosquito-borne flaviviruses: West Nile, Zika, dengue and yellow fever.

Semin Diagn Pathol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Anatomic Pathology and Molecular Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States.

In this review we will discuss the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnostic tests, pathologic features, treatment and disease prevention strategies for four mosquito-borne flaviviruses. West Nile and Zika viruses, once thought to be restricted geographically, emerged on the American continent in the first part of the 21st century. They have been constantly in the lay press and have caused a heightened awareness of emerging infections by the public, particularly given the manifestation of microcephaly in congenital Zika syndrome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semdp.2019.04.009DOI Listing

Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging changes in Japanese encephalitis.

Brain Dev 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Asahi General Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Japanese encephalitis is a flavivirus that can cause pandemic encephalitis, and is prevalent in Southeast Asia and Australia. Brain images of patients with Japanese encephalitis are characterized by thalamic lesions, distinct from those seen in viral encephalopathies caused by the herpes simplex virus and West Nile virus.

Aim: Herein, we describe for the first time a time-dependent magnetic resonance imaging pattern in Japanese encephalitis in a 10-month-old Japanese boy. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03877604183056
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2019.04.005DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Production and Biomedical Application of Flavivirus-like Particles.

Trends Biotechnol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Recombinant Vaccines, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Abrahama 58, 80-307 Gdansk, Poland. Electronic address:

Many viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae family are transmitted by invertebrate vectors. Among those transmitted by mosquitos, there are many human pathogens of great medical importance, such as Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, Zika virus, or yellow fever virus. Millions of people contract mosquito-borne diseases each year, leading to thousands of deaths. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01677799193007
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2019.03.013DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Specific detection and differentiation of tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile virus induced IgG antibodies in humans and horses.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology, Department of Immunology, Perlickstrasse 1, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are important arthropod-borne zoonotic flaviviruses. Due to the emergence of WNV in TBEV-endemic regions co-circulation of both viruses is increasing. Flaviviruses are structurally highly similar, which leads to cross-reacting antibodies upon infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13205DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Pathways Exploited by Flaviviruses to Counteract the Blood-Brain Barrier and Invade the Central Nervous System.

Front Microbiol 2019 28;10:525. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Departamento de Virologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Human infection by different flaviviruses may cause severe neurologic syndromes, through pathogenic mechanisms that are still largely unknown. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue virus (DENV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) are believed to reach the central nervous system by a hematogenous route, upon crossing the blood-brain barrier. Although the disruption of BBB during flavivirus infection has been largely evidenced in experimental models, the relevance of BBB breakdown for virus entering the brain was not completely elucidated. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00525
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447710PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Arboviral diseases and malaria in Australia, 2014–15: Annual report of the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2019 Apr 15;43. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Royal Darwin Hospital Northern Territory; Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory

This report describes the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases of public health importance in Australia during the 2014–15 season (1 July 2014 to 30 June 2015) and includes data from human notifications, sentinel chicken, vector and virus surveillance programs. The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received notifications for 12,849 cases of disease transmitted by mosquitoes during the 2014–15 season. The Australasian alphaviruses Barmah Forest virus and Ross River virus accounted for 83% (n=10,723) of notifications. Read More

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April 2019
3 Reads

The rash with maculopapules and fever in adults.

Clin Dermatol 2019 Mar - Apr;37(2):109-118. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Dermatology Department, University of CT Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, USA. Electronic address:

There is a broad differential diagnosis for the presentation of fever and maculopapular rash in an adult. Although some causative conditions are benign, others are medical emergencies that require prompt diagnosis. We describe various conditions that result in a fever and maculopapular rash in adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2018.12.004DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Editorial: Host-Pathogen Interactions During Arboviral Infections.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 26;9:77. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Center for Infection and Immunity, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, United States.

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00077
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443840PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

The Unfolded Protein Response: A Key Player in Zika Virus-Associated Congenital Microcephaly.

Front Cell Neurosci 2019 26;13:94. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

GIGA-Stem Cells, Interdisciplinary Cluster for Applied Genoproteomics (GIGA-R), University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that belongs to the family, together with dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile viruses. In the wake of its emergence in the French Polynesia and in the Americas, ZIKV has been shown to cause congenital microcephaly. It is the first arbovirus which has been proven to be teratogenic and sexually transmissible. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2019.00094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445045PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Dengue and Zika Virus 5' Untranslated Regions Harbor Internal Ribosomal Entry Site Functions.

MBio 2019 Apr 9;10(2). Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA

The genus of the family encompasses numerous enveloped plus-strand RNA viruses. Dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus, is the leading cause of serious arthropod-borne disease globally. The genomes of DENV, like the genomes of yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile fever virus (WNV), or Zika virus (ZIKV), control their translation by a 5'-terminal capping group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00459-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456755PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Insecticide resistance genes affect Culex quinquefasciatus vector competence for West Nile virus.

Proc Biol Sci 2019 Jan;286(1894):20182273

1 Department of Virology, Institut Pasteur, Arboviruses and Insect Vectors , Paris , France.

Insecticide resistance has been reported to impact the interactions between mosquitoes and the pathogens they transmit. However, the effect on vector competence for arboviruses still remained to be investigated. We examined the influence of two insecticide resistance mechanisms on vector competence of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus for two arboviruses, Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) and West Nile virus (WNV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.2273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367175PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Emergence of West Nile virus lineage 2 belonging to the Eastern European subclade, Greece.

Arch Virol 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

General Directorate of Public Health and Social Care of Region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, Komotini, Greece.

West Nile virus (WNV) emerged in Greece in 2010 and since then human outbreaks occurred every year except 2015 and 2016. An early start and prolonged WNV transmission season was observed in 2018 with a record number of 316 reported cases and 47 fatalities. The Greek WNV strains detected during 2010-2018 clustered within the central European subclade of lineage 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04243-8DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Development and Field Evaluation of a System to Collect Mosquito Excreta for the Detection of Arboviruses.

J Med Entomol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland, Australia.

Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health concern globally and early detection of pathogens is critical to implement vector management and control strategies. Existing methods for pathogen detection include screening sentinel animals for antibodies and analyzing mosquitoes for pathogen presence. While these methods are effective, they are also expensive, labor-intense, and logistically challenging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjz031DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Culex species diversity, susceptibility to insecticides and role as potential vector of Lymphatic filariasis in the city of Yaoundé, Cameroon.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Apr 3;13(4):e0007229. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Laboratoire de Recherche sur le Paludisme, Organisation de Coordination pour la lutte Contreles Endémies en Afrique Centrale (OCEAC), Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: Culex species are widespread across Cameroon and responsible for high burden of nuisance in most urban settings. However, despite their high nuisance, they remain less studied compared to anophelines. The present study aimed to assess Culex species distribution, susceptibility to insecticide, bionomics and role in Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) transmission in the city of Yaoundé. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007229DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

West Nile virus infections are here! Are we prepared to face another flavivirus epidemic?

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2019 Mar 28;52:e20190089. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.

Emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as chikungunya and Zika viruses, are a major threat to public health in countries like Brazil where biodiversity is high and medical care is sometimes precarious. West Nile fever is a disease caused by the West Nile Virus (WNV), an RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. It is transmitted by infected mosquitoes to numerous animals like birds, reptiles and mammals, including human and non-human primates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0089-2018DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Simultaneous detection of Dengue virus, Chikungunya virus, Zika virus, Yellow fever virus and West Nile virus.

J Virol Methods 2019 Jun 28;268:53-55. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias (HUCA) and Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Principado de Asturias (ISPA), Oviedo, Spain.

Although certain mosquito-borne virus, such as Dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Zika virus (ZIKV), Yellow fever virus (YFV) and West Nile virus (WNV), are an important public health concern in those countries where transmitter mosquitoes are endemic, several cases of travelers from those endemic countries have been recently reported in Europe. Thus, early diagnosis of these viruses is essential for patient management and adoption of preventive measures. An assay for the simultaneous detection of DENV, CHIKV, ZIKV, YFV and WNV based on a multiplex real-time (RT)-PCR and its usefulness for diagnosis in infection screenings and surveillance of arbovirus in non-endemic countries are described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2019.03.014DOI Listing
June 2019
2 Reads

Emerging arboviruses of medical importance in the Mediterranean region.

Authors:
Anna Papa

J Clin Virol 2019 Mar 16;115:5-10. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Microbiology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54124, Greece. Electronic address:

The epidemiology of viral infections transmitted by arthropods is changing due to a variety of parameters related to the virus, the host and the environment. The Mediterranean region is highly affected by changes in the intensity and extension of global-scale climate patterns, and, due to its location, it provides a vulnerable environment for emergence of arboviral diseases. The main arboviruses that pose currently a public health threat in the Mediterranean region are West Nile virus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and, in less extend, tick-borne encephalitis virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.03.007DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Seasonal Activity of Adult Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Focus of Dirofilariasis and West Nile Infection in Northern Iran.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2018 Dec 25;12(4):398-413. Epub 2018 Dec 25.

Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Mosquito-borne arboviruses such as West Nile, dengue, Rift Valley fever, and Sindbis viruses and the nematode are reported in Iran, but there is little information on the seasonal activity of their vectors in the country. We aimed to determine the seasonal activity of adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a focus of dirofilariasis and West Nile infection in Guilan Province, northern Iran.

Methods: Collections were carried out using light traps in seven counties at least two times from random sites and every two weeks from a fixed site (Pareh Village, Rudbar County) during Aug-Dec 2015 and Apr-Oct 2016. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423458PMC
December 2018

Emergence and Associated Risk Factors of Vector Borne West Nile Virus Infection in Ilorin, Nigeria.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2018 Dec 25;12(4):341-350. Epub 2018 Dec 25.

Infectious Diseases and Environmental Health Research Group, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Background: West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne viral pathogen that is the causative agent of West Nile fever and encephalitis. Diagnostic tools for WNV infection in Nigeria are not well established hence the current prevalence rate of WNV infection in Nigeria is unknown. We aimed to establish the serological prevalence of WNV infection in febrile patients in Ilorin, Nigeria in 2016, and to assess the risk factors associated with the acquisition of the virus. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423457PMC
December 2018
4 Reads

Effect of overwintering on survival and vector competence of the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Mar 27;12(1):147. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University & Research, PO Box 16, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus that is mainly transmitted among birds by Culex pipiens mosquitoes. The species Cx. pipiens consists of two biotypes named pipiens and molestus, which together can form hybrids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3400-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437999PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Emerging zoonotic viral infections of occupational health importance.

Pathog Dis 2019 Mar;77(2)

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Hygiene, Italian National Workers Compensation Authority, Rome, Italy.

Emerging viral infections represent a public health risk pointed out by the spreading of pathogens with potential zoonotic risk. Moreover, the risk of zoonosis has probably been underestimated in occupational settings. A literature review between 2007 and 2018 was performed to identify evidences concerning the epidemiological associations between some emerging viruses and occupational diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femspd/ftz018DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

The Conserved Molecular Determinants of Virulence in Dengue Virus.

Int J Med Sci 2019 24;16(3):355-365. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Centre for Virus and Vaccine Research, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

Dengue virus belongs to the Flaviviridae family which also includes viruses such as the Zika, West Nile and yellow fever virus. Dengue virus generally causes mild disease, however, more severe forms of the dengue virus infection, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever with shock syndrome (DSS) can also occur, resulting in multiple organ failure and even death, especially in children. The only dengue vaccine available in the market, CYD-TDV offers limited coverage for vaccinees from 9-45 years of age and is only recommended for individuals with prior dengue exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.29938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428985PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Cognitive behavioural impairment with irreversible sensorineural deafness as a complication of West Nile encephalitis.

J Neurovirol 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Despite common clinical features to suggest encephalitis, different viral encephalitides are known to have some specific clinical features, which if present, may suggest infection by a particular virus. West Nile viral (WNV) encephalitis has not been described with any specific diagnostic feature so far. In this context, we describe three patients of West Nile encephalitis (WNE) who had behavioural and cognitive impairment with acute irreversible bilaterally symmetrical sensorineural deafness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00733-2DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Vector Competence for West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis Virus () of Three Tick Species of the Genus (Acari: Ixodidae).

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Instituto de Virología "Dr. J. M. Vanella", CONICET, Facultad Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Enfermera Gordillo Gómez s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba, Argentina.

Many species of ticks are commonly found infesting wild birds in South America, where birds are important hosts for several arboviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV) and Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). In this study, WNV and SLEV transmission experiments were performed to evaluate the vector competence of three South American tick species: , , and . Larval and nymphal ticks of each species were allowed to feed on chicks needle inoculated with WNV or SLEV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0134DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Vector-borne transmission and evolution of Zika virus.

Nat Ecol Evol 2019 04 18;3(4):561-569. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Laboratory of Vector Control Research, Unit Transmission Reservoir and Pathogen Diversity, Institute Pasteur of Guadeloupe, Les Abymes, Guadeloupe, France.

Zika virus (ZIKV), discovered in the Zika Forest of Uganda in 1947, is a mosquito-borne flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue and West Nile viruses. From its discovery until 2007, only sporadic ZIKV cases were reported, with mild clinical manifestations in patients. Therefore, little attention was given to this virus before epidemics in the South Pacific and the Americas that began in 2013. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0836-zDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

West Nile virus encephalitis in a young immunocompetent female in Omaha Nebraska.

Intractable Rare Dis Res 2019 Feb;8(1):48-51

CHI Health, Creighton University, Omaha, NE, USA.

One of the most common cause of arbovirus encephalitis in the United States of America (USA) is West Nile virus (WNV). In immunocompetent hosts, 70-80% of infected individuals have subclinical disease. However, in less than 1% of people infected by WNV it can become fulminant neuroinvasive disease associated with neurological morbidity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/irdr.2018.01108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409123PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Global warming and arboviral infections.

Clin Med (Lond) 2019 Mar;19(2):149-152

Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Climate change is already expanding the geographic footprint of arboviral infections. In this article we consider the impact of climate change on three arboviruses with particular consideration of the effect on Europe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.19-2-149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454362PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Sinus Bradycardia and QT Interval Prolongation in West Nile Virus Encephalitis: A Case Report.

Cureus 2019 Jan 3;11(1):e3821. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Internal Medicine, Detroit Medical Center - Wayne State University, Detroit, USA.

Cardiac arrhythmias were reported in cases of West Nile Virus (WNV) encephalitis; however, the underlying pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. We present a 67-year-old male with altered mental status, later diagnosed with WNV encephalitis. Hospital course was complicated by progressive sinus bradycardia and corrected QT (QTc) prolongation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402859PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Broad spectrum anti-flavivirus pyridobenzothiazolones leading to less infective virions.

Antiviral Res 2019 Mar 6;167:6-12. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

UMR "Emergence des Pathologies Virales" (Aix-Marseille University - IRD 190 - Inserm 1207 - EHESP), Fondation IHU Méditerranée Infection, APHM Public Hospitals of Marseille, Faculté de Médecine, 27 bd Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France. Electronic address:

We report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a class of 1H-pyrido[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazol-1-ones originated from compound 1, previously identified as anti-flavivirus agent. Some of the new compounds showed activity in low μM range with reasonable selectivity against Dengue 2, Yellow fever (Bolivia strain), and West Nile viruses. One of the most interesting molecules, compound 16, showed broad antiviral activity against additional flaviviruses such as Dengue 1, 3 and 4, Zika, Japanese encephalitis, several strains of Yellow fever, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.03.004DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Diagnosing Zika virus infection against a background of other flaviviruses: Studies in high resolution serological analysis.

Sci Rep 2019 Mar 6;9(1):3648. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Division of Microbiology and Animal Hygiene, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, 37075, Germany.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus. Homologous proteins of different flaviviruses display high degrees of sequence identity, especially within subgroups. This leads to extensive immunological cross-reactivity and corresponding problems for developing a ZIKV-specific serological assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40224-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6403343PMC
March 2019
1 Read

[Selected viral neuroinfections in children].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2019 Feb;46(272):88-93

Medical University of Białystok, Poland: Department of Infectious Diseases and Neuroinfections.

Viral meningitis may be present not only in adults but also in children. It constitutes a significant public health problem in child population. The clinical manifestation of the disease in children varies depending on the age of the child, the causative agent or the way of acquiring the infection. Read More

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February 2019
2 Reads

The First Outbreak of Dengue Fever in Greater Darfur, Western Sudan.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2019 Mar 1;4(1). Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Health Emergencies and Epidemics Control Directorate, Sudan Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum 11111, Sudan.

Dengue virus (DENV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by the mosquitoes, mainly . Dengue fever is a rapidly growing disease with expanding geographical distribution worldwide. We investigated a high number of non-malaria febrile cases reported to health clinics in refugee camps in the five states of Darfur between August 2015 and March 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4010043DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

A case of West Nile virus encephalitis accompanied by diabetic ketoacidosis and rhabdomyolysis.

IDCases 2019 13;15:e00505. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine-Jacksonville, Florida, United States.

Introduction: We present here a case of West Nile Virus (WNV) encephalitis that initially presented with diabetic ketoacidosis and rhabdomyolysis.

Case Presentation: A 35-year-old male with no past medical history presented to the emergency department complaining of polydipsia, generalized weakness, lightheadedness, and visual disturbances of one week duration. He was found to be in diabetic ketoacidosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2019.e00505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6378900PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Deletion of Pregnancy Zone Protein and Murinoglobulin-1 Restricts the Pathogenesis of West Nile Virus Infection in Mice.

Front Microbiol 2019 13;10:259. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Biology, College of Arts and Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, United States.

West Nile virus (WNV) is an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus that causes meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis in humans. There are no therapeutic agents available for use against WNV infection. Alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M) is a major plasma proteinase inhibitor that also has important role in immune modulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6381297PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Corrigendum: Human West Nile Virus Disease Outbreak in Pakistan, 2015-2016.

Front Public Health 2018 29;6:384. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Comparative Diagnostic and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362614PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Genetic Determinants of the Re-Emergence of Arboviral Diseases.

Viruses 2019 Feb 12;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, The University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA.

Mosquito-borne diseases constitute a large portion of infectious diseases, causing more than 700,000 deaths annually. Mosquito-transmitted viruses, such as yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, chikungunya, and Zika viruses, have re-emerged recently and remain a public health threat worldwide. Global climate change, rapid urbanization, burgeoning international travel, expansion of mosquito populations, vector competence, and host and viral genetics may all together contribute to the re-emergence of arboviruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11020150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410223PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells as Model to Evaluate Species Tropism of Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 28;9. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Institute of Virology and Immunology (IVI), Bern, Switzerland.

Several mosquito-borne Flaviviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue Virus (DENV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) can cause severe clinical disease. Being zoonotic, Flaviviruses infect a wide variety of terrestrial vertebrates, which dependent of the virus-host interactions, can enhance ongoing epidemics and maintain the virus in the environment for prolonged periods. Targeted species can vary from amphibians, birds to various mammals, dependent on the virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360178PMC
January 2019
7 Reads

Astrocytes in Flavivirus Infections.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Feb 6;20(3). Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloška 4, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Virus infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can manifest in various forms of inflammation, including that of the brain (encephalitis) and spinal cord (myelitis), all of which may have long-lasting deleterious consequences. Although the knowledge of how different viruses affect neural cells is increasing, understanding of the mechanisms by which cells respond to neurotropic viruses remains fragmented. Several virus types have the ability to infect neural tissue, and astrocytes, an abundant and heterogeneous neuroglial cell type and a key element providing CNS homeostasis, are one of the first CNS cell types to get infected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386967PMC
February 2019
4 Reads

Serological evidence of infection with dengue and Zika viruses in horses on French Pacific Islands.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 02 7;13(2):e0007162. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

UMR 1161 Virology, ANSES, INRA, ENVA, ANSES Animal Health Laboratory, EURL for equine diseases, Maisons-Alfort, France.

New Caledonia and French Polynesia are areas in which arboviruses circulate extensively. A large serological survey among horses from New Caledonia and French Polynesia was carried out to investigate the seroprevalence of flaviviruses in the horse population. Here, 293 equine sera samples were screened for flaviviruses using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6382171PMC
February 2019
4 Reads

Flavivirus NS1 Triggers Tissue-Specific Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction Reflecting Disease Tropism.

Cell Rep 2019 Feb;26(6):1598-1613.e8

Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Flaviviruses cause systemic or neurotropic-encephalitic pathology in humans. The flavivirus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a secreted glycoprotein involved in viral replication, immune evasion, and vascular leakage during dengue virus infection. However, the contribution of secreted NS1 from related flaviviruses to viral pathogenesis remains unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.01.036DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Implementation of the One Health approach to fight arbovirus infections in the Mediterranean and Black Sea Region: Assessing integrated surveillance in Serbia, Tunisia and Georgia.

Zoonoses Public Health 2019 05 5;66(3):276-287. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Italy.

Background: In the Mediterranean and Black Sea Region, arbovirus infections are emerging infectious diseases. Their surveillance can benefit from one health inter-sectoral collaboration; however, no standardized methodology exists to study One Health surveillance.

Methods: We designed a situation analysis study to document how integration of laboratory/clinical human, animal and entomological surveillance of arboviruses was being implemented in the Region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12562DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Comparative fitness of West Nile virus isolated during California epidemics.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 02 4;13(2):e0007135. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Center for Vectorborne Diseases, Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, United States of America.

West Nile virus (WNV) has been circulating in California since its first detection in 2003, causing repeated outbreaks affecting public, wildlife and veterinary health. Epidemics of WNV are difficult to predict due to the multitude of factors influencing transmission dynamics among avian and mosquito hosts. Typically, high levels of WNV amplification are required for outbreaks to occur, and therefore associated viral strains may exhibit enhanced virulence and mortality in competent bird species resulting in increased mosquito infection prevalence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375641PMC
February 2019

Scaling of Host Competence.

Trends Parasitol 2019 03 29;35(3):182-192. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Global and Planetary Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA.

Body size influences many traits including those that affect host competence, the propensity to cause new infections. Here, we employ a new framework to reveal that, for at least two infections, West Nile virus and Lyme disease, large hosts should be more competent than small ones, but their lower abundance could mitigate their impacts on local risk. By contrast, for rabies, small hosts will be disproportionately more competent than large ones, an effect amplified by the higher densities of small species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2018.12.002DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

CSF1R antagonism limits local restimulation of antiviral CD8 T cells during viral encephalitis.

J Neuroinflammation 2019 Jan 31;16(1):22. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Background: Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) locally maintained through colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) signaling. Microglial depletion via CSF1R inactivation improves cognition in mouse models of neuroinflammation, but limits virologic control in the CNS of mouse models of neurotropic infections by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesize that CSF1R plays a critical role in myeloid cell responses that restrict viral replication and locally restimulate recruited antiviral T cells within the CNS. Read More

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https://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.118
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1397-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354430PMC
January 2019
13 Reads

West Nile virus encephalitis in GATA2 deficiency.

Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2019 24;15. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

1Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, 269 Campus Drive, CCSR 3215, MC 5366, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.

We report a male with longstanding warts who presented with severe West Nile virus encephalitis (WNVE) and recovered after interferon alfa-2b and intravenous immunoglobulin. He was later found to have GATA2 deficiency and underwent successful hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13223-019-0321-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346581PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Serological Evidence of Tick-Borne Encephalitis and West Nile Virus Infections Among Children with Arthritis in Turkey.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

1 Department of Virology, Veterinary Faculty, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Avcilar, Istanbul, Turkey.

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are mainly transmitted by arthropod vectors to vertebrate hosts including humans, resulting in fever and neurological signs. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of antibodies to TBEV and WNV, and TBEV-RNA and WNV-RNA in Turkish children with fever and/or arthritis. For this purpose, 110 sera and buffy-coat samples were collected; sera were analyzed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to TBEV and WNV, and buffy-coat-derived white blood cells were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR for TBEV-RNA and WNV-RNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2349DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

First isolation of West Nile virus in Brazil.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2019 Jan 17;114:e180332. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Instituto Evandro Chagas, Seção de Arbovirologia e Febres Hemorrágicas, Ananindeua, PA, Brasil.

Background: Serological evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection has been reported in different regions of Brazil from equine and human hosts but the virus had never been isolated in the country.

Objectives: We sought to identify the viral etiology of equine encephalitis in Espírito Santo state.

Methods: We performed viral culture in C6/36 cells, molecular detection of WNV genome, histopathology and immunohistochemistry from horse cerebral tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0074-02760180332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343470PMC
January 2019
4 Reads

Bloodmeal Host Selection of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Las Vegas, Nevada, United States.

J Med Entomol 2019 Apr;56(3):603-608

Arbovirus Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO.

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) have recently emerged in the southwestern United States. Surveillance for arboviruses in Las Vegas, NV, detected a surge of SLEV activity in the southern house mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus Say) during 2016. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jme/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jme
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy237DOI Listing
April 2019
13 Reads
1.953 Impact Factor

Acute and Delayed Deaths after West Nile Virus Infection, Texas, USA, 2002-2012.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 02;25(2)

Infection with West Nile virus (WNV) has a well-characterized acute disease process. However, long-term consequences are less understood. We searched death records for 4,142 residents of Texas, USA, infected with WNV during 2002-2012 and identified 557 (13%) deaths. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2502.181250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346437PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Cumulative Incidence of West Nile Virus Infection, Continental United States, 1999-2016.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 02;25(2):325-327

Using reported case data from ArboNET and previous seroprevalence data stratified by age and sex, we conservatively estimate that ≈7 million persons in the United States have been infected with West Nile virus since its introduction in 1999. Our data support the need for public health interventions and improved surveillance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2502.180765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346444PMC
February 2019