6,092 results match your criteria West Nile Encephalitis


Emergent Viral Infections of the CNS.

Authors:
Clayton A Wiley

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

From the Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Biological evolution of the microbiome continually drives the emergence of human viral pathogens, a subset of which attack the nervous system. The sheer number of pathogens that have appeared, along with their abundance in the environment, demand our attention. For the most part, our innate and adaptive immune systems have successfully protected us from infection; however, in the past 5 decades, through pathogen mutation and ecosystem disruption, a dozen viruses emerged to cause significant neurologic disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlaa054DOI Listing

West Nile Virus in Slovenia.

Viruses 2020 Jul 3;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes. Birds are the reservoir for the virus; humans, horses and other mammals are dead-end hosts. Infections caused by WNV in humans can vary from asymptomatic infections to West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12070720DOI Listing

The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2017.

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EFSA J 2018 Dec 12;16(12):e05500. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2017 in 37 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and nine non-MS). Campylobacteriosis was the commonest reported zoonosis and its EU trend for confirmed human cases increasing since 2008 stabilised during 2013-2017. The decreasing EU trend for confirmed human salmonellosis cases since 2008 ended during 2013-2017, and the proportion of human Enteritidis cases increased, mostly due to one MS starting to report serotype data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009540PMC
December 2018

Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): West Nile fever.

EFSA J 2017 Aug 8;15(8):e04955. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

West Nile fever (WNF) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of WNF to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of WNF according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to WNF. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before, also at collective level. The output is composed of the categorical answer, and for the questions where no consensus was reached, the different supporting views are reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009844PMC

The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2016.

Authors:

EFSA J 2017 Dec 12;15(12):e05077. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2016 in 37 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and nine non-MS). Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis and the increasing European Union (EU) trend for confirmed human cases since 2008 stabilised during 2012-2016. In food, the occurrence of remained high in broiler meat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009962PMC
December 2017

Serological survey for Saint Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus in domestic mammals in Córdoba, Argentina: are our pets potential sentinels?

Arch Virol 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Instituto de Virología "Dr. J.M. Vanella", Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Enfermera Gordillo Gómez s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5016, Córdoba, Argentina.

We evaluated the seroprevalence of Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) in dogs and cats in Córdoba, Argentina. Monotypic and heterotypic serological patterns were differentiated by means of a neutralization test. The SLEV seroprevalence in dogs was 14. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04719-yDOI Listing

The European Union One Health 2018 Zoonoses Report.

Authors:

EFSA J 2019 Dec 11;17(12):e05926. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2018 in 36 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and 8 non-MS). The first and second most commonly reported zoonoses in humans were campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis, respectively. The European Union (EU) trend for confirmed human cases of these two diseases was stable during 2014-2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055727PMC
December 2019

Identification and characterization of long noncoding RNAs and their association with acquisition of blood meal in Culex quinquefasciatus.

Insect Sci 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia, 11800.

The Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) is an important vector that transmit multiple diseases including West Nile encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis and lymphatic filariasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-7917.12847DOI Listing

The first detection of anti-West Nile virus antibody in domestic ruminants in Egypt.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne disease, usually present as a symptomatic disease but can cause various clinical signs ranged from mild fever to severe encephalitis and death in various animals and humans. In Egypt, the epidemiological data about WNV infection in different animal species particularly in domestic ruminants are scarce. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of WNV in cattle, buffalo, camel, sheep, and goats at some Governorates northern Egypt. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-020-02339-xDOI Listing

Two case reports of neuroinvasive West Nile virus infection in the Almaty region, Kazakhstan.

IDCases 2020 15;21:e00872. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Almaty Branch of National Center for Biotechnology, 14g Zhahanger Str., Almaty, 050054, Kazakhstan.

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the genus , which transmitted to humans mainly by mosquitoes. Recent pilot serosurveillance data from the Almaty region, Kazakhstan, suggest widespread WNV circulation in this area. This report includes two cases of neuroinvasive WNV infection in the same family living in a rural area near Tekeli city, Eskeldinsky district, Almaty region, Kazakhstan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2020.e00872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305403PMC

Antiviral Natural Products for Arbovirus Infections.

Molecules 2020 Jun 17;25(12). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Laboratory of Molecular RNA Virology and Antiviral Strategies, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117545, Singapore.

Over the course of the last 50 years, the emergence of several arboviruses have resulted in countless outbreaks globally. With a high proportion of infections occurring in tropical and subtropical regions where arthropods tend to be abundant, Asia in particular is a region that is heavily affected by arboviral diseases caused by dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. Major gaps in protection against the most significant emerging arboviruses remains as there are currently no antivirals available, and vaccines are only available for some. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122796DOI Listing

Antigenic Characterization of New Lineage II Insect-Specific Flaviviruses in Australian Mosquitoes and Identification of Host Restriction Factors.

mSphere 2020 Jun 17;5(3). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia

We describe two new insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) isolated from mosquitoes in Australia, Binjari virus (BinJV) and Hidden Valley virus (HVV), that grow efficiently in mosquito cells but fail to replicate in a range of vertebrate cell lines. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BinJV and HVV were closely related (90% amino acid sequence identity) and clustered with lineage II (dual-host affiliated) ISFs, including the Lammi and Nounané viruses. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies prepared to BinJV viral proteins, we confirmed a close relationship between HVV and BinJV and revealed that they were antigenically quite divergent from other lineage II ISFs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00095-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300350PMC

Vesicular stomatitis virus and DNA vaccines expressing Zika virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) induce substantial but not sterilizing protection against Zika virus infection.

J Virol 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of several flaviviruses, including West Nile, dengue, and yellow fever viruses, is capable of inducing variable degrees of protection against flavivirus infection in animal models. However, the immunogenicity of NS1 protein of Zika virus (ZIKV) is less understood. Here, we determined the efficacy of ZIKV NS1-based vaccine candidates using two delivery platforms, methyltransferase-defective recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (mtdVSV) and a DNA vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00048-20DOI Listing

Retrospective review and current knowledge on the occurrence of West Nile virus in mosquito vectors, reservoirs and hosts in Slovakia (Central Europe).

Acta Virol 2020 ;64(2):187-200

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus (the genus Flavivirus) representing a medical and veterinary public health concern. Birds are the most important reservoirs. Culicine mosquitoes transmit WNV to vertebrate hosts (including horses and humans) and migratory birds play role in its long-distance transport. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4149/av_2020_209DOI Listing
January 2020

Seropositivity of West Nile Virus Among Acute Febrile Patients in Southern Ethiopia.

Infect Drug Resist 2020 20;13:1491-1497. Epub 2020 May 20.

Hawassa University, College of Medicine and Health Science, School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia.

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is one of the widely distributed arboviruses in the world, and it is a pathogen of both humans and animals. The evidence that supports the prevalence of the WNV infection in Ethiopia is very scarce. Hence, this study aimed to assess the seropositivity of WNV among patients with acute febrile illness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S245518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246317PMC

Peli1 signaling blockade attenuates congenital zika syndrome.

PLoS Pathog 2020 Jun 16;16(6):e1008538. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, United States of America.

Zika virus (ZIKV) infects pregnant women and causes devastating congenital zika syndrome (CZS). How the virus is vertically transmitted to the fetus and induces neuronal loss remains unclear. We previously reported that Pellino (Peli)1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, promotes p38MAPK activation in microglia and induction of lethal encephalitis by facilitating the replication of West Nile virus (WNV), a closely related flavivirus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297310PMC

Ivermectin: a systematic review from antiviral effects to COVID-19 complementary regimen.

J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Kish International Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Ivermectin proposes many potentials effects to treat a range of diseases, with its antimicrobial, antiviral, and anti-cancer properties as a wonder drug. It is highly effective against many microorganisms including some viruses. In this comprehensive systematic review, antiviral effects of ivermectin are summarized including in vitro and in vivo studies over the past 50 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41429-020-0336-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290143PMC

Investigation of Japanese encephalitis virus as a cause of acute encephalitis in southern Pakistan, April 2015-January 2018.

PLoS One 2020 12;15(6):e0234584. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Departments of Pathology, Pediatrics, and Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Japanese encephalitis (JE) occurs in fewer than 1% of JE virus (JEV) infections, often with catastrophic sequelae including death and neuropsychiatric disability. JEV transmission in Pakistan was documented in 1980s and 1990s, but recent evidence is lacking. Our objective was to investigate JEV as a cause of acute encephalitis in Pakistan. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234584PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7292402PMC
June 2020
3.234 Impact Factor

Livestock Challenge Models of Rift Valley Fever for Agricultural Vaccine Testing.

Front Vet Sci 2020 27;7:238. Epub 2020 May 27.

USDA, Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Unit (ABADRU), Manhattan, KS, United States.

Since the discovery of Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) in Kenya in 1930, the virus has become widespread throughout most of Africa and is characterized by sporadic outbreaks. A mosquito-borne pathogen, RVFV is poised to move beyond the African continent and the Middle East and emerge in Europe and Asia. There is a risk that RVFV could also appear in the Americas, similar to the West Nile virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266933PMC

West Nile Virus-associated Hospitalizations, California, USA, 2004-2017.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jun 11. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Infectious Diseases Branch, Division of Communicable Disease Control, California Department of Public Health, Sacramento and Richmond, California, USA.

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is the most commonly reported mosquito-borne disease in the United States. California reports more WNV disease than any other state.

Methods: We identified WNV-associated hospitalizations from 2004 through 2017 in California and estimated hospitalization incidence using California Patient Discharge Data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa749DOI Listing

Embryo Microinjection Techniques for Efficient Site-Specific Mutagenesis in Culex quinquefasciatus.

J Vis Exp 2020 May 24(159). Epub 2020 May 24.

Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego; Tata Institute for Genetics and Society, University of California, San Diego;

Culex quinquefasciatus is a vector of a diverse range of vector-borne diseases such as avian malaria, West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis, and Saint Louis encephalitis. Notably, avian malaria has played a major role in the extinction of numerous endemic island bird species, while WNV has become an important vector-borne disease in the United States. To gain further insight into C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/61375DOI Listing

West Nile Virus Restriction in Mosquito and Human Cells: A Virus under Confinement.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 May 29;8(2). Epub 2020 May 29.

Viral Trafficking, Restriction and Innate Signaling Team, Institut de Recherche en Infectiologie de Montpellier (IRIM), CNRS, 34090 Montpellier, France.

West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging neurotropic flavivirus that naturally circulates between mosquitoes and birds. However, WNV has a broad host range and can be transmitted from mosquitoes to several mammalian species, including humans, through infected saliva during a blood meal. Although WNV infections are mostly asymptomatic, 20% to 30% of cases are symptomatic and can occasionally lead to severe symptoms, including fatal meningitis or encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020256DOI Listing

Beyond HIV infection: Neglected and varied impacts of CCR5 and CCR5Δ32 on viral diseases.

Virus Res 2020 May 30;286:198040. Epub 2020 May 30.

Laboratório de Imunobiologia e Imunogenética, Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Electronic address:

The interactions between chemokine receptors and their ligands may affect susceptibility to infectious diseases as well as their clinical manifestations. These interactions mediate both the traffic of inflammatory cells and virus-associated immune responses. In the context of viral infections, the human C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) receives great attention from the scientific community due to its role as an HIV-1 co-receptor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260533PMC

West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease associated with rituximab therapy.

J Neurovirol 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Neurology, Geisinger Medical Center, 100 N Academy Avenue, Danville, PA, 17822, USA.

West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease (WNVND) manifests with meningitis, encephalitis, and/or acute flaccid paralysis. It represents less than 1% of the clinical syndromes associated with West Nile virus (WNV) infection in immunocompetent patients. Immunosuppressive therapy is associated with increased risk of WNVND and worse prognosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-020-00854-zDOI Listing
May 2020
2.595 Impact Factor

Zika virus subversion of chaperone GRP78/BiP expression in A549 cells during UPR activation.

Biochimie 2020 May 25;175:99-105. Epub 2020 May 25.

Université de La Réunion, INSERM UMR 1187, CNRS 9192, IRD 249, PIMIT, Processus Infectieux en Milieu Insulaire Tropical, Plateforme CYROI, 2, Rue Maxime Rivière, 97490 Sainte-Clotilde, Ile de La Réunion, France. Electronic address:

Flaviviruses replicate in membranous factories associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Significant levels of flavivirus polyprotein integration contribute to ER stress and the host cell may exhibit an Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) to this protein accumulation, stimulating appropriate cellular responses such as adaptation, autophagy or cell death. These different stress responses support other antiviral strategies initiated by infected cells and can help to overcome viral infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2020.05.011DOI Listing

Degradation of miR-466d-3p by Japanese encephalitis virus NS3 facilitates viral replication and IL-1β expression.

J Virol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

The State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Regulation and Breeding of Grassland Livestock, School of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, 010070, China

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection alters microRNA (miRNA) expression in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the mechanism contributing to miRNA regulation in the CNS is not known. We discovered global degradation of mature miRNA in mouse brains and neuroblastoma cells (NA) after JEV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00294-20DOI Listing
May 2020
4.439 Impact Factor

The Implications of EU Regulation 2016/429 on Neglected Diseases of Small Ruminants including Contagious Agalactia with Particular Reference to Italy.

Animals (Basel) 2020 May 22;10(5). Epub 2020 May 22.

Direzione Generale della Sanità Animale e dei Farmaci Veterinari-Ministero della Salute Viale Giorgio Ribotta, 5-00144 Rome, Italy.

After almost 40 years, the 27 member states (MS) of the European Union (EU) will comply with the European Law 429/2016 in 2021 by completing a process of unification and harmonization of all regulations related to animal health between MS. These new provisions are based on modern scientific principles on animal health, on long-term epidemiological data, and, above all, on the most current risk assessment and analysis. The paper describes all changes and updates, which will impact the Italian current National regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10050900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278377PMC

Retrospective Descriptive Analysis of West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease (WNND) in Northwest Louisiana.

Int J Microbiol 2020 8;2020:3513859. Epub 2020 May 8.

Infectious Diseases, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA, USA.

Aims: The aim of the study was to describe the presentation characteristics and epidemiology of WNND in Louisiana to improve future recognition of cases and decrease inappropriate antibiotic use. . It was a retrospective descriptive-analytic cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3513859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231183PMC

Central nervous system infections in renal transplant recipients.

Transpl Infect Dis 2020 May 26:e13341. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Nephrology, Arterial Hypertension, Dialysis and Transplantation, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.

Background: The aim of this study is to determine the incidence, etiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of renal transplant recipients diagnosed and treated for central nervous system (CNS) infection at our institution.

Methods: We analyzed data from all renal transplant recipients between January 2007 and December 2019 that were diagnosed and treated for CNS infections at our institution.

Results: Of 1374 patients who received renal allografts, 13 were diagnosed with CNS infections (9 males), with a mean age of 53. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13341DOI Listing

Structural and molecular analyses of functional epitopes and escape mutants in Japanese encephalitis virus envelope protein domain III.

Authors:
Urmi Roy

Immunol Res 2020 Apr;68(2):81-89

Department of Chemistry & Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Potsdam, NY, 13699-5820, USA.

The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is one of the vector borne causes of encephalitis found in southeastern Asia. This positive single-stranded RNA virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family, which notably includes dengue, tick-borne, West Nile, Zika as well as yellow fever, and transmits to humans by infected mosquitos. The main site of interactions for antibodies against this virus is the envelope protein domain III (ED3). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12026-020-09130-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243247PMC

Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Signaling May Contribute to Chronic West Nile Virus Post-infectious Proinflammatory State.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 30;7:164. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, United States.

West Nile virus (WNV) causes a spectrum of human disease ranging from a febrile illness (WNV fever) to severe neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis). Since WNV gained entry into North America in 1999, clinicians caring for WNV survivors have observed persistent neurological symptoms occurring long-after the production of neutralizing antibodies and clearance of the virus. Accordingly, alternative pathogeneses other than direct viral invasion have been hypothesized to explain these post-infectious symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.00164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203783PMC

Improved detection of dengue and Zika viruses using multiplex RT-qPCR assays.

J Virol Methods 2020 May 15;282:113862. Epub 2020 May 15.

Virology Unit, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Institut Pasteur International Network, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Electronic address:

Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are important viral pathogens, known to cause human infections with similar symptoms, are transmitted by common vectors and co-circulate in intertropical regions. Moreover, dengue fever results from infection with one of four different serotypes of dengue virus. Considering the recent ZIKV emergence, multiplex and up-to-date assays are more preferable for detection of both viruses in a single reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2020.113862DOI Listing

Evidence of West Nile virus infection in migratory and resident wild birds in west coast of peninsular Malaysia.

One Health 2020 Dec 19;10:100134. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Wildlife Conservation Division, Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Malaysia.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus that is harbored and amplified by wild birds via the enzootic transmission cycle. Wide range of hosts are found to be susceptible to WNV infection including mammals, amphibians and reptiles across the world. Several studies have demonstrated that WNV was present in the Malaysian and captive birds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7210594PMC
December 2020

Investigation of Vector-Borne Viruses in Ticks, Mosquitos, and Ruminants in the Thrace District of Turkey.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Virology, Veterinary Faculty, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey.

There is a considerable increase in vector-borne zoonotic diseases around the world, including Turkey, such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), tick borne encephalitis (TBE), Rift Valley fever (RVF), and West Nile fever (WNF), causing disease and death in humans and animals and significant economical losses. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CCHF virus (CCHFV) and TBE virus (TBEV) in ticks and RVF virus (RVFV) and WNF virus (WNV) in mosquitos, as well as in sheep and cattle, in the Thrace district of the Marmara region, which borders Bulgaria and Greece. Buffy-coat samples from 86 cattle and 81 sheep, as well as 563 ticks and 7390 mosquitos, were collected and examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR for the presence of CCHFV, TBEV, RVFV, and WNV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2532DOI Listing

Epidemiology, management, and graft outcomes after West Nile virus encephalitis in kidney transplant recipients.

Transpl Infect Dis 2020 May 9:e13317. Epub 2020 May 9.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Madison, WI, USA.

Background: Minimal data exist describing the epidemiology, management, and long-term graft outcomes after West Nile viral disease in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs).

Methods: Single-center observational cohort study of patients who received a kidney transplant between 1/1/1994 and 12/31/2018 and developed WNV at any time point after transplantation.

Results: During the 24-year study period, 11 patients had documented WNV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13317DOI Listing

Biocontrol of mosquito vectors through herbal-derived silver nanoparticles: prospects and challenges.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jul 8;27(21):25987-26024. Epub 2020 May 8.

Medicinal Plant Biotechnology Lab, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007, India.

Mosquitoes spread several life-threatening diseases such as malaria, filaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever and are associated with millions of deaths every year across the world. However, insecticides of synthetic origin are conventionally used for controlling various vector-borne diseases but they have various associated drawbacks like impact on non-targeted species, negative effects on the environment, and development of resistance in vector species by alteration of the target site. Plant extracts, phytochemicals, and their nanoformulations can serve as ovipositional attractants, insect growth regulators, larvicides, and repellents with least effects on the environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08444-6DOI Listing
July 2020
2.828 Impact Factor

Enhancing Preparedness for Arbovirus Infections with a One Health Approach: The Development and Implementation of Multisectoral Risk Assessment Exercises.

Biomed Res Int 2020 20;2020:4832360. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

Background: One Health is receiving attention for arbovirus infection prevention and control and for defining national "intersectoral" priorities. Increasing awareness of intersectoral priorities through multisectorial risk assessments (MRA) is promising, where data are not systematically shared between sectors. Towards this aim, the MediLabSecure project organized three MRA exercises (hereby called exercises): one on West Nile virus, one on Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, and one on Rift Valley fever, assessing the added value of this approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4832360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191441PMC

Comparison of a human neuronal model proteome upon Japanese encephalitis or West Nile Virus infection and potential role of mosquito saliva in neuropathogenesis.

PLoS One 2020 6;15(5):e0232585. Epub 2020 May 6.

Institut Pasteur, Environment and Infectious Risks Unit, Arbovirus Group, Paris, France.

Neurotropic flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are amongst the leading causes of encephalitis. Using label-free quantitative proteomics, we identified proteins differentially expressed upon JEV (gp-3, RP9) or WNV (IS98) infection of human neuroblastoma cells. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD016805. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232585PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202638PMC

A Duplex Quantitative Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR for Simultaneous Detection and Differentiation of Flaviviruses of the Japanese Encephalitis and Ntaya Serocomplexes in Birds.

Front Vet Sci 2020 21;7:203. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (CISA), Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Valdeolmos-Alalpardo, Spain.

High impact, mosquito-borne flaviviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Tembusu virus (TMUV), and Bagaza/Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus (BAGV/ITV) are emerging in different areas of the world. These viruses belong to the Japanese encephalitis (JE) serocomplex (JEV, WNV, and USUV) and the Ntaya serocomplex (TMUV and BAGV/ITV). Notably, they share transmission route (mosquito bite) and reservoir host type (wild birds), and some of them co-circulate in the same areas, infecting overlapping mosquito and avian population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186316PMC

Dancing eyes syndrome from West Nile virus encephalitis.

Postgrad Med J 2020 Jul 5;96(1137):442. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, Greece.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-137827DOI Listing

Baseline Susceptibility of (Diptera: Culicidae) to Different Imagicides, in Eastern Azerbaijan, Iran.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2019 Dec 31;13(4):407-415. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: is an important vector for many human diseases such as brucellosis, avian influenza and West Nile encephalitis. It is likely an intermediate host of avian that can transmit Malta fever. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility level of to different classes of imagicides which are recommended by World Health Organization . Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188768PMC
December 2019

A Molecular Screening of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for Flaviviruses in a Focus of West Nile Virus Infection in Northern Iran.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2019 Dec 31;13(4):391-398. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Health Education, Research Center of Health and Environment, School of Health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Mosquito-borne arboviruses such as West Nile (WN), dengue, Rift Valley fever, and Sindbis viruses are reported in Iran, but large-scale studies have not been performed on mosquitoes to find their vectors. A molecular study of the adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for flaviviruses was carried out in a focus of WN infection, Guilan Province, northern Iran.

Methods: Mosquito collections were carried out in five stations of two counties (Anzali and Rasht) using light traps, hand catch by manual aspirators and night landing catch during August-September 2013 and 2014. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188771PMC
December 2019

The continued threat of emerging flaviviruses.

Nat Microbiol 2020 Jun 4;5(6):796-812. Epub 2020 May 4.

Departments of Medicine, Molecular Microbiology, Pathology & Immunology, Andrew M. and Jane M. Bursky Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Flaviviruses are vector-borne RNA viruses that can emerge unexpectedly in human populations and cause a spectrum of potentially severe diseases including hepatitis, vascular shock syndrome, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, congenital abnormalities and fetal death. This epidemiological pattern has occurred numerous times during the last 70 years, including epidemics of dengue virus and West Nile virus, and the most recent explosive epidemic of Zika virus in the Americas. Flaviviruses are now globally distributed and infect up to 400 million people annually. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-0714-0DOI Listing

Infectious and Autoimmune Causes of Encephalitis in Children.

Pediatrics 2020 Jun 1;145(6). Epub 2020 May 1.

Section of Pediatric Tropical Medicine, National School of Tropical Medicine,

Background And Objectives: Encephalitis can result in neurologic morbidity and mortality in children. Newly recognized infectious and noninfectious causes of encephalitis have become increasingly important over the past decade.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records from pediatric patients in Houston diagnosed with encephalitis in both an urban and rural catchment area between 2010 and 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-2543DOI Listing

Amino acid 159 of the envelope protein affects viral replication and T-cell infiltration by West Nile virus in intracranial infection.

Sci Rep 2020 Apr 28;10(1):7168. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Laboratory of Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, N18, W9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-0818, Japan.

West Nile virus (WNV) is an important cause of viral encephalitis in birds and animals, including humans. Amino acid 159 of the envelope (E) protein is reportedly implicated in the different levels of neurovirulence in mice infected with WNV NY99 or Eg101. We investigated the role of amino acid 159 of the E protein in the pathogenesis of WNV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64199-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189269PMC

Arboviruses: A global public health threat.

Vaccine 2020 May 24;38(24):3989-3994. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Duke NUS Medical School, Singapore. Electronic address:

A conference on «ARBOVIRUSES, A GLOBAL PUBLIC HEALTH THREAT» was organized on June 20-22, 2018 at the Merieux Foundation Conference Center in Veyrier du Lac, France, to review and raise awareness to the global public health threat of epidemic arboviruses, and to advance the discussion on the control and prevention of arboviral diseases. The presentations by scientists and public health officials from Asia, the Americas, Europe and Africa strengthened the notion that arboviral diseases of both humans and domestic animals are progressively becoming dominant public health problems in the world. The repeated occurrence of recent deadly epidemics strongly reinforces the call for action against these viral diseases, and the need for developing effective vaccines, drugs, vector control tools and strong prevention programs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.04.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7180381PMC

Role of RNA-binding proteins during the late stages of Flavivirus replication cycle.

Virol J 2020 04 25;17(1):60. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore.

The genus Flavivirus encompasses several worldwide-distributed arthropod-borne viruses including, dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, Zika virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Infection with these viruses manifest with symptoms ranging from febrile illness to life- threatening hypotensive shock and encephalitis. Therefore, flaviviruses pose a great risk to public health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-020-01329-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183730PMC

Fatal case of West Nile encephalitis associated with acute anteroseptal ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): a case report.

New Microbiol 2020 Jan 13;43(1):51-53. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Virology, Croatian Institute of Public Health, Zagreb Croatia.

Cardiac involvement has rarely been reported in West Nile (WNV) infection. We report a fatal case of WNV encephalitis associated with an acute anteroseptal ST elevation myocardial infarction. The patient was hospitalized with a fever, headache, nausea and vomiting. Read More

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January 2020

West Nile Virus Epidemic in Germany Triggered by Epizootic Emergence, 2019.

Viruses 2020 Apr 15;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus and Hemorrhagic Fever Reference and Research, 20359 Hamburg, Germany.

One year after the first autochthonous transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) to birds and horses in Germany, an epizootic emergence of WNV was again observed in 2019. The number of infected birds and horses was considerably higher compared to 2018 (12 birds, two horses), resulting in the observation of the first WNV epidemy in Germany: 76 cases in birds, 36 in horses and five confirmed mosquito-borne, autochthonous human cases. We demonstrated that Germany experienced several WNV introduction events and that strains of a distinct group (Eastern German WNV clade), which was introduced to Germany as a single introduction event, dominated mosquito, birds, horse and human-related virus variants in 2018 and 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12040448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232143PMC