442 results match your criteria Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome


Chronic Neurologic Effects of Alcohol.

Clin Liver Dis 2019 Feb;23(1):141-155

Department of Neurology, Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Baylor College of Medicine, 7200 Cambridge Street, 9th Floor, MS:BCM609, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:

Chronic alcohol use induces silent changes in the structure and function of the central and peripheral nervous systems that eventually result in irreversible, debilitating repercussions. Once identified, nutritional supplementation and cessation measures are critical in preventing further neurologic damage. The proposed mechanisms of neuronal injury in chronic alcohol abuse include direct toxic effects of alcohol and indirect effects, including those resulting from hepatic dysfunction, nutritional deficiencies, and neuroinflammation. Read More

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February 2019
1 Read

[Neurological pathology associated with vitamin B group deficiency: thiamine, folate and cobalamin].

Nutr Hosp 2018 Sep 7;35(Spec No6):54-59. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

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The "fragility" of the nervous system, especially concerning to its nutrition and metabolism, explains why vitamin deficits are an important cause of neurological pathology. Some deficiency diseases, which can be very severe and irreversible, are still present in our environment; diagnosis, which must be early so as not to delay treatment, can be difficult if we do not have them in mind. In this review we address the most relevant neurological diseases associated with thiamine, folate and cobalamin deficiency, and we focus especially combined subacute degeneration and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Review of thiamine deficiency disorders: Wernicke encephalopathy and Korsakoff psychosis.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2018 Oct 2. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Clinical Research Unit, Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) and Korsakoff psychosis (KP), together termed Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS), are distinct yet overlapping neuropsychiatric disorders associated with thiamine deficiency. Thiamine pyrophosphate, the biologically active form of thiamine, is essential for multiple biochemical pathways involved in carbohydrate utilization. Both genetic susceptibilities and acquired deficiencies as a result of alcoholic and non-alcoholic factors are associated with thiamine deficiency or its impaired utilization. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome in End-Stage Renal Disease: A Case Report.

Ther Apher Dial 2018 Dec 15;22(6):676-679. Epub 2018 Jul 15.

Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, "Pugliese-Ciaccio" Hospital of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy.

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December 2018
18 Reads
1.532 Impact Factor

Is physical rehabilitation effective for Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome? A case report.

Int J Rehabil Res 2018 Dec;41(4):373-376

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a type of brain disorder caused by the lack of thiamine, most commonly because of chronic alcohol misuse. It consists of two separate conditions including Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome. Various levels of cognitive impairments are associated with the severity of the syndrome. Read More

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December 2018
8 Reads

Beyond Thiamine: Treatment for Cognitive Impairment in Korsakoff's Syndrome.

Psychosomatics 2018 Jul - Aug;59(4):311-317. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Wernicke's encephalopathy is a condition whose treatment many consultation-liaison psychiatrists know quite well. Less clear, however, is the treatment of its dementia disorder descendent, the Korsakoff's syndrome (KS).

Objective: This article seeks to review treatment options and provide recommendations for consultation-liaison psychiatrists treating cognitive impairment in KS. Read More

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March 2018
4 Reads

What can go wrong in hyperemesis gravidarum: Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

Clin Case Rep 2018 May 8;6(5):802-804. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Department of Medicine United Bulawayo Hospitals 2 St Lukes Road, Ascot Bulawayo Zimbabwe.

We report two cases of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) secondary to hyperemesis gravidarum. Oral thiamine was administered (intravenous unavailable locally). However, both the patient's condition improved in the first 48 h and progressively over a month. Read More

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May 2018
3 Reads

Severe neurological complication following adjustable gastric banding.

G Chir 2018 Mar-Apr;39(2):92-96

Aim: In the last years with the increase of bariatric surgery, first of all as a result of new indications, a rise in the incidence of nutrient-related complications has been observed. Currently little is known about the impact of post-bariatric malnutrition and neurological complications. Wernicke's encephalopathy is a severe neurological syndrome which occurs as a result of thiamine deficiency. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

Non-alcoholic Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome heralding non-Hodgkin lymphoma progression.

Neurol Sci 2018 08 26;39(8):1493-1495. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Neurology Unit, Ospedale del Mare, Via Enrico Russo, 80147, Naples, Italy.

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August 2018
5 Reads

Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes Associated With High-Dose Intravenous Thiamine Administration in Patients With Encephalopathy.

Psychosomatics 2018 Jul - Aug;59(4):379-387. Epub 2018 Jan 11.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

Background: Wernicke encephalopathy is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome due to thiamine deficiency. There is no consensus regarding thiamine dosing when Wernicke encephalopathy is suspected. A longstanding dosing strategy for Wernicke encephalopathy is 100mg daily, yet updated clinical guidelines suggest using high-dose intravenous (HDIV) thiamine. Read More

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January 2018
9 Reads

Diagnosis makes a difference: Perceptions of older persons with dementia symptoms.

Exp Aging Res 2018 Mar-Apr;44(2):148-161. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

c Department of Psychology , The University of Wisconsin Oshkosh , Oshkosh , WI.

Background/Study Context: Employing the stereotype content model and terror management theory, we examined whether stereotypes and feelings about persons with dementia vary depending on the type of dementia diagnosis and purported causes of the dementia.

Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to read one of four vignettes that depicted a man who consulted his doctor because of memory problems. All vignettes described the same symptoms and diagnostic tests, but each of four groups read a different result: all tests normal (Normal); Alzheimer's disease (AD); Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS) associated with alcohol abuse; and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) associated with head injuries from playing football in high school and college. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome as a rare phenotype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Prion 2018 Mar 9;12(2):143-146. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

a Department of Neurology , Medical University of Lublin , Lublin , Poland.

We reported the case of a patient with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKs) as an early clinical manifestation of sporadic Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (sCJD). The 66-year-old female complained of dizziness and imbalance which mostly occurred while walking. A neurological examination revealed a triad of symptoms characteristic for WKs such as gaze paresis, ataxia of limbs and trunk as well as memory disturbances with confabulations. Read More

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March 2018
6 Reads

[Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome secondary to cytomegalovirus encephalitis: A case report].

Biomedica 2017 Dec 1;37(4):444-451. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Departamento de Infectología, Hospital Universitario de Bucaramanga "Los Comuneros", Bucaramanga, Colombia.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the opportunistic microorganisms with the highest prevalence in immunocompromised patients. Reactivation has decreased after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Encephalitis has been reported in the coinfection as one of the most frequent presentations. Read More

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December 2017
19 Reads

Wet Beriberi Associated with Hikikomori Syndrome.

J Gen Intern Med 2018 Mar 29;33(3):384-387. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu-city, Japan.

Wet beriberi, characterized by high cardiac output with predominantly right-sided heart failure and lactic acidosis, is a disease caused by thiamine deficiency, and is rarely seen in modern society. However, patients with social withdrawal syndrome, also known as hikikomori syndrome, may be a new population at risk of thiamine deficiency. Hikikomori syndrome, first recognized in Japan, is becoming a worldwide issue. Read More

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March 2018
10 Reads

Impairment of Thiamine Transport at the GUT-BBB-AXIS Contributes to Wernicke's Encephalopathy.

Mol Neurobiol 2018 Jul 11;55(7):5937-5950. Epub 2017 Nov 11.

Laboratory of Neurovascular Inflammation and Neurodegeneration, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Injury Bio Mechanics, Materials and Medicine, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 111 Lock Street, Newark, NJ, 07102, USA.

Wernicke's encephalopathy, a common neurological disease, is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Neuropathy resulting from thiamine deficiency is a hallmark of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in chronic alcohol users. The underlying mechanisms of this deficiency and progression of neuropathy remain to be understood. Read More

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July 2018
12 Reads

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome complicated by subacute beriberi neuropathy in an alcoholic patient.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2018 01 8;164:1-4. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neurosciences (BioNeC), University of Palermo, Italy. Electronic address:

Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency is a common condition in alcohol abusers, which can lead to damage of both the peripheral and the central nervous systems. Here we describe the case of an alcoholic patient who presented with acute onset of ataxia, severe weakness of the four limbs, and hypoesthesia and dysesthesia of the distal portion of the upper and lower extremities. The clinical picture also included mental confusion and amnesia. Read More

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January 2018
15 Reads

Alcohol-related diseases.

Handb Clin Neurol 2017 ;145:175-180

Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.

Alcohol abuse and dependence are serious medical and economic problems in Western countries. Brain changes encountered in alcoholism are manifold and encompass brain atrophy, selective neuronal loss, astroglial, and microglial changes. Alcohol-related disorders are complex multifactorial disorders where the interaction of multiple genes and environment plays an important role in the pathogenesis. Read More

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January 2018
2 Reads

A Case of Bariatric Surgery-related Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome with Persisting Anterograde Amnesia.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2017 Aug;32(5):610-617

Department of Psychological Science, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX, USA.

Objective: To describe the theoretical and clinical implications of the neuropsychological evaluation of a case of bariatric surgery-related Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

Method: The patient was a 37-year old, female, bilingual, bachelor's degree educated, Mexican American public relations consultant without preexisting psychiatric, neurological, or substance abuse history. Recovery from laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy surgery for morbid obesity was complicated by intraabdominal abscess, multibacterial infection, and prolonged nausea and vomiting. Read More

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August 2017
27 Reads

Thiamine Assays-Advances, Challenges, and Caveats.

ChemistryOpen 2017 04 8;6(2):178-191. Epub 2017 Mar 8.

Department of Natural Resources Cornell University Ithaca NY 14853 USA.

Thiamine (vitamin B1) is essential to the health of all living organisms and deficiency has long been associated with diseases in animals such as fish, birds, alligators, and domesticated ruminant mammals. Thiamine is also implicated in several human diseases including Alzheimer's, diabetes, dementia, depression and, most notably, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and Beriberi disease. Yet, highly sensitive and specific detection of thiamine remains an analytical challenge, as pM to nm levels of thiamine need to be detected in environmental and human samples, respectively, various phosphorylated variants need to be discriminated, and rapid on-site detection would be highly desirable. Read More

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April 2017
13 Reads

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: recognition and treatment.

Nurs Stand 2017 Mar;31(31):46-53

Colman Centre for Specialist Rehabilitation Services, Norwich, England.

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a potentially debilitating and fatal condition that is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in the brain. It can be treated effectively or prevented completely; however, the condition is often undiagnosed and inadequately managed. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is commonly considered to be specific to individuals who misuse alcohol; however, there are many other predisposing factors and causes associated with the condition. Read More

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March 2017
8 Reads

Long-Term Mortality of Patients with an Alcohol-Related Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome.

Alcohol Alcohol 2017 Jul;52(4):466-471

Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Ctra. Canyet s/n, 08916 Badalona, Spain.

Aims: To characterize a series of contemporary patients with alcohol-related Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) or Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) and to update the current prognosis of disease.

Methods: Retrospective and prospective study of patients diagnosed with an alcohol-related WE or KS between 2002 and 2011 in a tertiary hospital. Socio-demographic, alcohol use characteristics, signs and symptoms, co-morbidity and blood parameters were obtained at admission. Read More

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July 2017
46 Reads

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome: A Case Report.

Ann Rehabil Med 2017 Feb 28;41(1):162-166. Epub 2017 Feb 28.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Eulji University Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.

A 57-year-old man who was diagnosed with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome showed severe impairment of cognitive function and a craving for alcohol, even after sufficient supplementation with thiamine. After completing 10 sessions of 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at 100% of the resting motor threshold over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dramatic improvement in cognitive function and a reduction in craving for alcohol were noted. This is the first case report of the efficacy of a high-frequency rTMS in the treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Read More

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February 2017
10 Reads

Thiamine deficiency, oxidative metabolic pathways and ethanol-induced neurotoxicity: how poor nutrition contributes to the alcoholic syndrome, as Marchiafava-Bignami disease.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2017 05 22;71(5):580-586. Epub 2017 Feb 22.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil.

Ethanol is an important risk factor for the occurrence of several brain disorders that depend on the amount, period and frequency of its consumption. Chronic use of ethanol often leads to the development of neurodegenerative syndromes, which cause morphological and functional impairments such as foetal alcohol syndrome in newborns exposed to ethanol during pregnancy, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome and, more rarely, Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD). MBD is characterized by primary degeneration of the corpus callosum, without inflammation and is associated with oxidative stress and hypovitaminosis, as well as altered mental status, to mention dementia, seizures, depression and so on. Read More

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May 2017
9 Reads

Thiamine Deprivation Produces a Liver ATP Deficit and Metabolic and Genomic Effects in Mice: Findings Are Parallel to Those of Biotin Deficiency and Have Implications for Energy Disorders.

J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics 2016 18;9(5-6):287-299. Epub 2017 Feb 18.

Unidad de Genética de la Nutrición, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas UNAM - Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Mexico City, Mexico.

Thiamine is one of several essential cofactors for ATP generation. Its deficiency, like in beriberi and in the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, has been studied for many decades. However, its mechanism of action is still not completely understood at the cellular and molecular levels. Read More

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November 2017
15 Reads

Neurologic Manifestations of Vitamin B Deficiency after Bariatric Surgery.

Obes Surg 2017 08;27(8):2079-2082

Bariatric and Metabolic Institute, Department of General Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, M61, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, clinical presentation, and outcomes of neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiencies following bariatric surgery.

Methods: Patients at a single academic institution who underwent bariatric surgery and developed neurologic complications secondary to low levels of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and B12 between the years 2004 and 2015 were studied.

Results: In total, 47 (0. Read More

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August 2017
10 Reads

Brain endothelial dysfunction following pyrithiamine induced thiamine deficiency in the rat.

Neurotoxicology 2016 12 28;57:298-309. Epub 2016 Oct 28.

Office of Testing & Research, CDER/FDA, White Oak, MD-20993, USA.

Prolonged vitamin B (thiamine) deficiency can lead to neurological disorders such as Wernicke's encephalopathy and Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS) in humans. These thiamine deficiency disorders have been attributed to vascular leakage, blood-brain barrier breakdown and neuronal loss in the diencephalon and brain stem. However, endothelial dysfunction following thiamine deficiency and its relationship to the phenomenon of neurodegeneration has not been clearly elucidated. Read More

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December 2016
11 Reads
3.380 Impact Factor

Olmesartan-induced Enteropathy Manifesting as Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome.

Intern Med 2016;55(24):3675-3678. Epub 2016 Dec 15.

Department of General Medicine, Chiba University Hospital, Japan.

Cases of sprue-like enteropathy associated with olmesartan have sporadically been encountered since it was first reported in 2012, and their most characteristic manifestation is severe diarrhea. We herein report the first case of sprue-like enteropathy manifesting as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome due to vitamin B1 malabsorption with only minimally increased bowel movements. When patients are receiving olmesartan and they complain of nonspecific chronic gastrointestinal symptoms, it is important to consider changing the drugs before any serious malabsorption syndrome develops. Read More

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April 2017
9 Reads

Alcohol-related cognitive impairment: current trends and future perspectives.

Neurodegener Dis Manag 2016 12 18;6(6):509-523. Epub 2016 Nov 18.

School of Psychiatry, UNSW, Sydney, Australia.

Excessive alcohol use is associated with a wide range of physical, psychological and social consequences, and is responsible for a significant proportion of the burden of disease globally. An area which has received increasing interest is alcohol-related brain damage, not just because of the cost to the individual and society through resource utilization, but also because of the potential for prevention and reversibility. This paper aims to review the current literature on this subject and seeks to explore issues around diagnosis and treatment of alcohol-related brain damage. Read More

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December 2016
7 Reads

Alcohol-Related Dementia and Neurocognitive Impairment: A Review Study.

Int J High Risk Behav Addict 2016 Sep 7;5(3):e27976. Epub 2016 Feb 7.

Department of Neurology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi, India.

Context: Alcohol consumption has escalated rapidly in many countries over the past decade. Evidence suggests a correlation between alcohol use and cognitive decline. We have systematically reviewed the concept and controversies, epidemiology, nosology, neuropathology and neurobiology, neuropsychology and management updates of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) in this paper. Read More

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September 2016
70 Reads
6 Citations

Vitamin B1-deficient mice show impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory formation and loss of hippocampal neurons and dendritic spines: potential microendophenotypes of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2016 Dec 31;80(12):2425-2436. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

a Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Department of Bioscience , Tokyo University of Agriculture , Tokyo , Japan.

Patients with severe Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) associated with vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency (TD) show enduring impairment of memory formation. The mechanisms of memory impairment induced by TD remain unknown. Here, we show that hippocampal degeneration is a potential microendophenotype (an endophenotype of brain disease at the cellular and synaptic levels) of WKS in pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) mice, a rodent model of WKS. Read More

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December 2016
7 Reads

Psychiatric Emergencies for Clinicians: Emergency Department Management of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome.

J Emerg Med 2016 Oct 20;51(4):401-404. Epub 2016 Aug 20.

University of Colorado Denver, School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado; University of California at San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California; Department of Behavioral Health, Psychiatric Emergency Service, Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, Colorado.

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October 2016
6 Reads

[Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2016;116(7):4-11

M.F. Vladimirski Moscow Regional Research Institute, Moscow, Russia.

Aim: To study the diagnosis and treatment of non-alcoholic Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS).

Material And Methods: Eight patients (5 men and 3 women), mean age 38,9±1,4 years, with WKS developed due to acute gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disease (3 patients), the exacerbation of chronic GIT disease with malabsorption (2 patients) and after surgery on the upper GIT (3 patients) were included in the study.

Results: The disease manifested with consciousness disturbance, symptoms of ataxia, eye movement disorders and bulbar syndrome that developed after 24-48 h. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Severe Infections are Common in Thiamine Deficiency and May be Related to Cognitive Outcomes: A Cohort Study of 68 Patients With Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome.

Psychosomatics 2016 Nov - Dec;57(6):624-633. Epub 2016 Jun 18.

Department of Psychiatry, Epidemiological and Social Psychiatric Research Institute (ESPRi), Erasmus MC: University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Parnassia Psychiatric Institute, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Wernicke encephalopathy can have different clinical outcomes. Although infections may precipitate the encephalopathy itself, it is unknown whether infections also modify the long-term outcome in patients developing Korsakoff syndrome.

Objective: To determine whether markers of infection, such as white blood cell (WBC) counts and absolute neutrophil counts in the Wernicke phase, are associated with cognitive outcomes in the end-stage Korsakoff syndrome. Read More

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November 2017
54 Reads

[Alcohol and the Risk of Dementia].

Brain Nerve 2016 Jul;68(7):819-27

National Hospital Organization, Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center.

This article reviews studies examining the relationship between alcohol consumption and dementia. Several studies have found that light to moderate alcohol consumption might be associated with decreased dementia risk compared to alcohol abstention. However, not all studies drew the same conclusion and there is no consensus regarding decreased dementia risk related to light to moderate alcohol consumption. Read More

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July 2016
1 Read

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in patients with cancer: a systematic review.

Lancet Oncol 2016 04 29;17(4):e142-e148. Epub 2016 Mar 29.

Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in patients with cancer is understudied. Much of what is known-that significant under-recognition and delays in treatment exist-comes from studies of alcohol misuse disorders or non-alcohol-related Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in patients. We investigated the frequency and associated features of cancer-related Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in the published literature. Read More

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April 2016
36 Reads

Cancer-related Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

Lancet Oncol 2016 06;17(6):e221-e222

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurological Clinic, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy.

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June 2016
18 Reads

Challenges in Diagnosis and Treatment of Wernicke Encephalopathy: Report of 2 Cases.

Nutr Clin Pract 2016 Apr 11;31(2):186-90. Epub 2016 Feb 11.

Unit of Neurology, IRCCS San Martino University Hospital IST, Largo R. Benzi, Genoa, Italy.

Background: Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is a medical emergency caused by thiamine deficiency, characterized by cerebellar ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and cognitive disturbances that may progress to Korsakoff amnesia. We describe 2 patients with WE who needed high-dose and long-term treatment with thiamine to obtain neurological improvement and recovery.

Case Description: The first patient was a woman diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Read More

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April 2016
6 Reads

Nonalcoholic Thiamine-Related Encephalopathy (Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome) Among Inpatients With Cancer: A Series of 18 Cases.

Psychosomatics 2016 Jan-Feb;57(1):71-81. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Manhattan, NY.

Background: Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome caused by thiamine deficiency. Cancer predisposes to thiamine deficiency through various mechanisms. Although many case reports exist on nonalcoholic WKS in cancer, larger qualitative studies are lacking. Read More

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January 2017
36 Reads

[THIAMINE--"THE ROAD EXPERIENCE" OF THE VITAMIN AS A MANIFESTATION OF DEFICIENCY IN A WORLD OF ABUNDANCE].

Harefuah 2015 Oct;154(10):661-4, 674

Thiamine or vitamin B1 is a water soluble vitamin of the vitamin B complex. It is synthetized by bacteria, fungi and plants and is an essential component of multicellular living organisms. Humans are not able to synthetize this vitamin and have to obtain it from different foods. Read More

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October 2015
8 Reads

Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome as a Consequence of Delusional Food Refusal: A Case Study.

Cogn Behav Neurol 2015 Dec;28(4):215-9

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, Kansas.

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, typically resulting from malnutrition secondary to chronic alcohol abuse. Less often, other conditions can lead to malnutrition and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. We describe a 35-year-old man who developed Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome with a typical neurologic and neuropsychological presentation after somatic delusions led him to refuse to eat. Read More

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December 2015
4 Reads

[Neuroanatomical Networks Supporting Memory and Their Relation to Amnesia; a View from the Thalamus].

Brain Nerve 2015 Dec;67(12):1481-94

Department of Behavioral Neurology and Cognitive Neuroscience, Tohoku University School of Medicine.

The anterior and mediodorsal thalamic nuclei form neuroanatomical networks supporting memory along with the mammillary body, medial temporal structures, prefrontal cortices and posterior cingulate cortex. In this review article, we discuss human diencephalic amnesic syndromes, including Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and amnesia associated with thalamic infarcts, and animal neuropsychological studies from a neuroanatomical network perspective. In addition, we suggest future research directions for understanding the functional roles of the anterior and mediodorsal thalamic nuclei in memory function based on findings from recent animal studies. Read More

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December 2015
13 Reads

Interactions between chronic ethanol consumption and thiamine deficiency on neural plasticity, spatial memory, and cognitive flexibility.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2015 Nov 30;39(11):2143-53. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Department of Psychology, Behavioral Neuroscience Program, Binghamton University, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York.

Background: Many alcoholics display moderate to severe cognitive dysfunction accompanied by brain pathology. A factor confounded with prolonged heavy alcohol consumption is poor nutrition, and many alcoholics are thiamine deficient. Thus, thiamine deficiency (TD) has emerged as a key factor underlying alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD). Read More

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November 2015
12 Reads

[The role of thiamine in neurodegenerative diseases].

Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online) 2015 Sep 21;69:1096-106. Epub 2015 Sep 21.

Anuszewska.

Vitamin B1 (thiamine) plays an important role in metabolism. It is indispensable for normal growth and development of the organism. Thiamine has a favourable impact on a number of systems, including the digestive, cardiovascular and nervous systems. Read More

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September 2015
31 Reads

Spatial cognitive deficits in an animal model of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome are related to changes in thalamic VDAC protein concentrations.

Neuroscience 2015 May 9;294:29-37. Epub 2015 Mar 9.

Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental e Molecular, LaNeC, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-010, Brazil. Electronic address:

Proteomic profiles of the thalamus and the correlation between the rats' performance on a spatial learning task and differential protein expression were assessed in the thiamine deficiency (TD) rat model of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis detected 320 spots and a significant increase or decrease in seven proteins. Four proteins were correlated to rat behavioral performance in the Morris Water Maze. Read More

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May 2015
2 Reads

Hypomagnesaemia and its potential impact on thiamine utilisation in patients with alcohol misuse at the Alice Springs Hospital.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2015 May 19;34(3):323-8. Epub 2015 Feb 19.

Menzies School of Health Research, Institute of Advanced Studies, Charles Darwin University, Alice Springs, Australia.

Introduction And Aims: Alcohol rapidly reduces thiamine among alcohol-dependent individuals. Poor diet and alcohol's impact on absorption, storage, activation and excretion of thiamine are thought to be the mechanisms. Previous literature identifies magnesium as an important cofactor in thiamine utilisation, which might also be compromised in alcohol dependent patients. Read More

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May 2015
2 Reads

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome not related to alcohol use: a systematic review.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2015 Dec 14;86(12):1362-8. Epub 2015 Jan 14.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, St. Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: Although Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is a common condition, diagnosis remains difficult. WKS not associated with alcohol is rare and thought to present differently to alcohol-related WKS. We conducted a systematic review of WKS not related to alcohol to enhance understanding of WKS not related to alcohol and WKS in general. Read More

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December 2015
12 Reads

A Case of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome Treated 1 Year After the Onset of Symptoms.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2015 26;17(6). Epub 2015 Nov 26.

Department of Psychiatry, Erenkoy Mental Health and Research Hospital, Erenkoy-Kadıkoy, Istanbul, Turkey.

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April 2016
4 Reads

Need for early diagnosis of mental and mobility changes in Wernicke encephalopathy.

Cogn Behav Neurol 2014 Dec;27(4):215-21

*Lelie Care Group, Slingedael Korsakoff Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands †Lelie Care Group, Slingedael Korsakoff Center; and Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands ‡Atlant Care Group, Nursing Home Markenhof, Beekbergen, The Netherlands §Department of Internal Medicine, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort, The Netherlands ∥Epidemiological and Social Psychiatric Research institute (ESPRi), Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry; and Parnassia Psychiatric Institute, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Korsakoff syndrome is a chronic form of amnesia resulting from thiamine deficiency. The syndrome can develop from unrecognized or undertreated Wernicke encephalopathy. The intra-individual course of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome has not been studied extensively, nor has the temporal progression of gait disturbances and other symptoms of Wernicke encephalopathy. Read More

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December 2014
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The role of ventral midline thalamus in cholinergic-based recovery in the amnestic rat.

Neuroscience 2015 Jan 13;285:260-8. Epub 2014 Nov 13.

Department of Psychology, Behavioral Neuroscience Program, Binghamton University, State University of New York, United States. Electronic address:

The thalamus is a critical node for several pathways involved in learning and memory. Damage to the thalamus by trauma, disease or malnourishment can impact the effectiveness of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) and lead to a profound amnesia state. Using the pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) rat model of human Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, we tested the hypothesis that co-infusion of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine across the PFC and HPC would recover spatial alternation performance in PTD rats. Read More

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January 2015
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