1,110 results match your criteria Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome


Clinical evaluation and management of a 45-year-old man with confusion, psychosis, agitation, stereotyped behavior, and impaired speech.

Case Rep Psychiatry 2022 17;2022:8162871. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 22 S Greene Street, Baltimore MD 21201, USA.

Our patient Mr. A is a mentally and physically disabled gentleman. He was first diagnosed with bipolar disorder as a teenager. Read More

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Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome in a Young Adult on Dialysis Who Showed Bilateral Ganglia Lesions: A Case Report.

Intern Med 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Japan.

A 30-year-old man admitted with renal dysfunction (serum creatinine, 8.19 mg/dL) was diagnosed with immunoglobulin A nephritis through a renal biopsy. He was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy and urgent hemodialysis, and eventually, he underwent maintenance hemodialysis. Read More

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Bromisoval-induced bromism with status epilepticus mimicking Wernicke's encephalopathy: report of two cases.

BMC Neurol 2022 May 16;22(1):181. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Neurology, Nagano Red Cross Hospital, 5-22-1, Wakasato, Nagano, 380-8582, Japan.

Background: Bromine compounds are used in several drugs, including over-the-counter drugs. They sometimes cause intoxication known as bromism. Although the acute neurological symptoms and sequelae of bromism vary, few reports have mentioned acute encephalopathy. Read More

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Treatment delay within the patient journey of people with Korsakoff's syndrome: A retrospective qualitative multiple-case study in the Netherlands.

Health Soc Care Community 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Faculty of Applied Social Sciences and Law, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Treatment delay is the best explanation for the development of Korsakoff's syndrome. This study aimed to improve the patient pathway to reduce treatment delay and/or increase proper care on time for people with Korsakoff's syndrome by generating knowledge about the patient journey from the first moment that professional care was deemed necessary until the time of admission into a specialised residential facility for long-term care and treatment. This retrospective exploratory multiple-case study used an individual semi-structured interview approach in 14 cases, with a total of 56 respondents. Read More

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Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome in a teenage female as a complication of COVID-19.

J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open 2022 Jun 29;3(3):e12735. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Emergency Medicine Trinity Health West Michigan Muskegon Michigan USA.

Wernicke encephalitis (WE) is usually associated with alcohol use disorder and caused by a deficiency in thiamine. Classic findings include confusion, ataxia, and ophthalmoplegia. This case is a unique presentation of WE in a 14-year-old female related to prior coronavirus disease infection. Read More

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What is the Korsakoff syndrome? - a paper in tribute to Prof Alwyn Lishman.

Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2022 Jul 28;27(4):296-313. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, Surrey, UK.

Introduction: Alwyn Lishman was interested in how memory research could be applied to clinical psychiatry. After a brief review of his major contributions, this paper will focus on his research on the alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. It will consider how his findings relate to contemporary debates, particularly on how the syndrome should be defined, and its relationship to broader alcohol-induced cognitive impairments. Read More

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Wernicke encephalopathy with epileptic seizures during pregnancy.

Neurocase 2022 Apr 24;28(2):185-187. Epub 2022 Apr 24.

Department of Neurology, Katip Çelebi University Atatürk Training and Research Hospital, İzmir, Turkey.

A 22-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with headache, dizziness, and numbness on the left side of the body. Neurologic examination revealed gaze-evoked nystagmus. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging, venous and arterial magnetic resonance angiography were normal. Read More

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What is the optimum thiamine dose to treat or prevent Wernicke's encephalopathy or Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome? Results of a randomized controlled trial.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2022 Jun 10;46(6):1133-1147. Epub 2022 May 10.

Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Background: The primary cause of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is thiamine deficiency, and more than 90% of cases are reported in alcohol-dependent patients. While observational studies show parenteral thiamine administration drastically reduced WKS-related mortality, relevant treatment trials have never been conducted to determine the optimum thiamine dose.

Methods: Two double-blind, parallel groups, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted to determine the optimal thiamine dose required for (1) the prevention of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE), the acute phase of WKS, in asymptomatic but "at-risk" alcohol misuse patients (Study 1) and (2) the treatment of WE in symptomatic alcohol misuse patients (Study 2). Read More

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[Clinical and neuropsychological survey of patients with glioma of the corpus callosum].

Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2022 ;86(2):80-88

Burdenko Neurosurgical Center, Moscow, Russia.

Background: We found no reports devoted to a comprehensive analysis of cognitive impairment that can determine the quality of life in patients with glioma of the corpus callosum and topical affiliation of these disorders.

Objective: Clinical and neuropsychological study of mental disorders in patients with gliomas of the corpus callosum, qualification of topical affiliation of the identified syndromes.

Material And Methods: We examined 30 patients with gliomas of the corpus callosum using the Luria's approach to clinical and neuropsychological survey. Read More

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Real-Life Clinical Experience With Cariprazine: A Systematic Review of Case Studies.

Front Psychiatry 2022 17;13:827744. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Institute of Genomic Medicine and Rare Disorders, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Background: The hierarchy of evidence coming from evidence-based medicine favors meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials over observational studies and clinical cases. Nonetheless, in the field of psychiatry, where conditions are much more complex, additional evidence coming from real-world clinical practice is necessary to complement data from these gold standards. Thus, in this systematic review, the aim is to summarize the evidence coming from clinical case reports regarding cariprazine, a third-generation antipsychotic drug that has been approved for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder with manic, depressive or mixed features in adults. Read More

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Wernicke encephalopathy after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in a young patient.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Mar 23;15(3). Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Internal Medicine, Sinai Grace Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

We report a case of Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) in a woman in her 20s who had Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for severe obesity, which resulted in a severe depletion of the patient's thiamine reserve and development of WE syndrome, we also emphasise the importance of prompt diagnosis of this serious complication in addition to the importance of adequate therapy. Read More

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Smartwatch reminders are as effective as verbal reminders in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome: three case studies.

Neurocase 2022 02 27;28(1):48-62. Epub 2022 Feb 27.

Utrecht University, Experimental Psychology, Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) is a neurocognitive disorder caused by severe malnutrition. KS patients typically show severe impairments in prospective memory (PM), thus, have difficulties with remembering to perform delayed intentions. The current study investigated the possible benefits of a smartwatch aid for PM tasks in patients with KS and compared its efficacy with verbal in-person reminders. Read More

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February 2022

Disinhibition-Like Behavior Correlates with Frontal Cortex Damage in an Animal Model of Chronic Alcohol Consumption and Thiamine Deficiency.

Biomedicines 2022 Jan 25;10(2). Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Department of Psychobiology and Methods in Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Psychology, Complutense University of Madrid (UCM), 28223 Madrid, Spain.

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is induced by thiamine deficiency (TD) and mainly related to alcohol consumption. Frontal cortex dysfunction has been associated with impulsivity and disinhibition in WKS patients. The pathophysiology involves oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and inflammatory responses leading to neuronal death, but the relative contributions of each factor (alcohol and TD, either isolated or in interaction) to these phenomena are still poorly understood. Read More

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January 2022

A rare case of Wernicke encephalopathy in stage IV gastric cancer.

Neurocase 2022 02 20;28(1):123-125. Epub 2022 Feb 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, HCA Houston Healthcare Kingwood, Kingwood, TX, USA.

A 38-year-old male with stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma presented with abdominal pain, nausea, bilious non-bloody vomiting, and lethargy. He was found to have an ileus and was treated appropriately with bowel rest and nasogastric tube decompression. However, the patient was also noted to have confusion and nystagmus. Read More

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February 2022

Scheduled Acetaminophen to Minimize Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome.

Fed Pract 2022 Jan 14;39(1):19-22. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Tacoma, Washington.

To manage the physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms of a veteran hospitalized for Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome secondary to chronic alcohol overuse, acetaminophen was administered in place of psychoactive medications. Read More

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January 2022

Gayet-Wernicke Syndrome: The eye surgeon in a French neurologic eponym.

Rev Neurol (Paris) 2022 Feb 15. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Division of Neurocritical Care and Hospital Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Gayet-Wernicke syndrome is an eponym mainly used in France. In this article, we revisit Charles Gayet's (1833-1904) speciality and his patient example that gave rise to the eponym. Charles Gayet attributed the anatomical lesions to inflammation. Read More

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February 2022

A coordinate-based meta-analysis of white matter alterations in patients with alcohol use disorder.

Transl Psychiatry 2022 01 27;12(1):40. Epub 2022 Jan 27.

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Human Sciences, Medical School Hamburg, Am Kaiserkai 1, 20457, Hamburg, Germany.

Introduction: Besides the commonly described gray matter (GM) deficits, there is growing evidence of significant white matter (WM) alterations in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). WM changes can be assessed using volumetric and diffusive magnetic resonance imaging methods, such as voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The aim of the present meta-analysis is to investigate the spatial convergence of the reported findings on WM alterations in AUD. Read More

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January 2022

Exploring episodic and semantic contributions to past and future thinking performance in Korsakoff's syndrome.

Mem Cognit 2022 04 27;50(3):630-640. Epub 2022 Jan 27.

Experimental Psychology, Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by severe declarative memory disruption. While episodic memory deficits and confabulation are well documented, it remains unclear to what extent semantic memory is compromised in this syndrome. Moreover, how such impairments relate to the capacity for future-oriented thinking remains unknown. Read More

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[Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and other diseases associated with thyamine deficiency].

Med Clin (Barc) 2022 05 14;158(9):431-436. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca-IBSAL, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, España. Electronic address:

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is the best known consequence of thiamine deficiency, frequently associated with patients with chronic and excessive alcohol consumption, but it can be produced by any cause that produces thiamine deficiency. The disease is underdiagnosed so it is essential to have a high clinical suspicion, mainly in patients who do not have alcohol consumption as a risk factor. For this, the diagnosis continues to be eminently clinical, with the difficulty of high clinical variability. Read More

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Misplacement of the PEG tube through the transverse colon, an uncommon but possible complication.

Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2022 05;114(5):296-297

Aparato Digestivo, Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León.

Misplacement of the Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) tube through the transverse colon mainly by traction is an uncommon complication probably due to inadvertent puncture of colon during PEG placement, resulting in gastrocolocutaneous fistula. Stool drainage through the stoma is usually the only symptom. We report a 52-year-old male with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and PEG tube placement 7 months earlier and replacement one month ago. Read More

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"Vascular" Korsakoff Syndrome With Bilaterally Damaged Mammillothalamic Tracts: Insights Into the Pathogenesis of "Acute" Korsakoff Syndrome As Acute-Onset Irreversible Anterograde Amnesia.

Cureus 2021 Nov 11;13(11):e19472. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, Uonuma Kikan Hospital, Uonuma Institute of Community Medicine, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Minami-Uonuma, JPN.

The structural pathogenesis of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome remains debatable. Wernicke encephalopathy is acute and often reversible whereas Korsakoff syndrome (KS) is chronic and may be irreversible. The cognitive deficits observed in KS are considered to be primarily due to damage to the anterior nucleus of the thalamus, mammillary bodies, and corpus callosum. Read More

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November 2021

A Case of Chronic Wernicke Encephalopathy (WE): An Underdiagnosed Phenomena.

Cureus 2021 Oct 28;13(10):e19100. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Internal Medicine, Prairie Ridge Health, Columbus, USA.

Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is the most common neurological complication of thiamine deficiency in patients who have a background of chronic alcohol use disorder. WE is characterized by acute onset of confusion, gait ataxia, and oculomotor dysfunction. Prompt treatment with parenteral thiamine leads to improvement. Read More

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October 2021

Alcohol and the Brain.

Nutrients 2021 Nov 4;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Neuropsychopharmacology Unit, Division of Psychiatry, Department of Brain Sciences, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London W12 ONN, UK.

Alcohol works on the brain to produce its desired effects, e.g., sociability and intoxication, and hence the brain is an important organ for exploring subsequent harms. Read More

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November 2021

The Spectrum of Alcohol Use: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

Med Clin North Am 2022 Jan;106(1):43-60

Program in Addiction Medicine, Section of General Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, 367 Cedar Street, Harkness Hal A, Suite 417A, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

In the United States, alcohol is the most common substance used and the spectrum of unhealthy alcohol use is highly prevalent. Complications of unhealthy alcohol use affect nearly every organ system. One of the most frequent and potentially life-threatening of these complications is alcohol withdrawal syndrome for which benzodiazepines remain first-line therapy. Read More

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January 2022

A review of behavioral methods for the evaluation of cognitive performance in animal models: Current techniques and links to human cognition.

Physiol Behav 2022 02 18;244:113652. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Chronic Respiratory Disease Research Center (CRDRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Memory is defined as the ability to store, maintain and retrieve information. Learning is the acquisition of information that changes behavior and memory. Stress, dementia, head trauma, amnesia, Alzheimer's, Huntington, Parkinson's, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) may be mentioned among the diseases in which memory and learning are affected. Read More

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February 2022

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in a patient with tuberculous peritonitis.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Nov;25(21):6716-6718

Department of Gastroenterology, Süleyman Demirel University Faculty of Medicine, Isparta, Turkey.

Tuberculous peritonitis is an uncommon type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and can be present in different and rare conditions. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder due to thiamine deficiency which is caused by poor nutrition for any reason. The relationship between tuberculous peritonitis and the Wernicke-Korsakoff has not been declared yet. Read More

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November 2021

Genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease shows fatal family insomnia phenotype.

Prion 2021 12;15(1):177-182

Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

We report a case of genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (gCJD), which has a clinical phenotype that is highly similar to Fatal Family Insomnia (FFI) and has a triad of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKs) at the developmental stage of the disease. The 51-year-old male complained of sleep disorder and imbalance who had visited five different hospitals before diagnosed. A neurological examination revealed a triad of symptoms characteristic for WKs such as gaze paresis, ataxia of limbs and trunk, and memory disturbances. Read More

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December 2021

Korsakoff syndrome: An overlook (Review).

Exp Ther Med 2021 Oct 5;22(4):1132. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Morphological Sciences, 'Carol Davila' University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 020021 Bucharest, Romania.

This review aimed to analyze the latest neurobiological findings regarding Korsakoff syndrome, since alcoholism is the most prevalent addiction worldwide. In addition, we analyzed the optimal treatment that can be administered in order to minimize the symptoms and improve the outcome of these patients. The disruption of memory circuits within the brain of alcoholic patients results in the amnestic syndrome known as Korsakoff syndrome. Read More

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October 2021

The specificity of thalamic alterations in Korsakoff's syndrome: Implications for the study of amnesia.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 11 26;130:292-300. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, PSL Université Paris, EPHE, INSERM, U1077, CHU de Caen, GIP Cyceron, Neuropsychologie et Imagerie de la Mémoire Humaine, 14000, Caen, France; Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, INSERM, PhIND "Physiopathology and Imaging of Neurological Disorders", Institut Blood and Brain @ Caen-Normandie, Cyceron, 14000 Caen, France; Institut Universitaire de France (IUF), France.

The pathophysiological mechanisms behind amnesia are still unknown. Recent literature, through the study of patients with Alcohol Use Disorder with and without Korsakoff's syndrome, increasingly shows that physiological alterations to the thalamus have an important role in the development of amnesia. This review gives an overview of neuropsychological, neuropathological and neuroimaging contributions to the understanding of Korsakoff's syndrome, highlighting the central role of the thalamus in this amnesia. Read More

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November 2021

Identifying, Assessing, and Treating Korsakoff Syndrome Patients: Updated Perspectives.

J Nerv Ment Dis 2021 Aug;209(8):592-599

Minneapolis VA Health Care Center, Minneapolis.

Abstract: Objectives consist of updating published reports on the recognition, assessment, and care of patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). Methods included defining relevant terms, describing core clinical phenomena, conducting meaningful reviews for latter-day WKS publications, and selecting instructive case examples. Findings covered epidemiology, precipitants, neuroimaging studies, alternate learning strategies in WKS, adjunctive treatments, and promising research. Read More

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