4,219 results match your criteria Wegener Granulomatosis


Along-shelf connectivity and circumpolar gene flow in Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica).

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17856. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biology, University of Padua, Via G. Colombo 3, Padua, 35121, Italy.

The Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica) is a critically important forage species with a circumpolar distribution and is unique among other notothenioid species for its wholly pelagic life cycle. Previous studies have provided mixed evidence of population structure over regional and circumpolar scales. The aim of the present study was to test the recent population hypothesis for Antarctic silverfish, which emphasizes the interplay between life history and hydrography in shaping connectivity. Read More

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December 2018

Infection by invasive parasites increases susceptibility of native hosts to secondary infection via modulation of cellular immunity.

J Anim Ecol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

AWI Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Wadden Sea Station Sylt, Hafenstraße 43, D-25992, List/Sylt, Germany.

1.Parasite spillover from invasive aliens to native species increases the risk of disease emergence within native biota - either by direct harm to the new host or by indirect effects like increased risks of secondary infection. 2. Read More

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December 2018

Daphnia galeata responds to the exposure to an ichthyosporean gut parasite by down-regulation of immunity and lipid metabolism.

BMC Genomics 2018 Dec 14;19(1):932. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Berlin, Germany.

Background: Regulatory circuits of infection in the emerging experimental model system, water flea Daphnia and their microparasites, remain largely unknown. Here we provide the first molecular insights into the response of Daphnia galeata to its highly virulent and common parasite Caullerya mesnili, an ichthyosporean that infects the gut epithelium. We generated a transcriptomic dataset using RNAseq from parasite-exposed (vs. Read More

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December 2018

Pandemic GII.4 Sydney and Epidemic GII.17 Kawasaki308 Noroviruses Display Distinct Specificities for Histo-Blood Group Antigens Leading to Different Transmission Vector Dynamics in Pacific Oysters.

Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:2826. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, University Children's Hospital Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.

Noroviruses are the major cause of foodborne outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis, which are often linked to raw oyster consumption. Previous studies have suggested histo-blood group antigens (HBGA)-like structures in the oyster tissues as ligands for norovirus binding and persistence. To better understand how oysters function as vectors for the most common human noroviruses, we first tested the ability of the norovirus strains GI. Read More

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November 2018

Evaluation of the reconstructed dose from the three-dimensional dose module of a helical diode array: factors of influence and error detection.

Phys Med Biol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Klinik fur Strahlentherapie, Julius-Maximilians-Universitat Wurzburg, Josef-Schneider-str 11, Würzburg, 97080, GERMANY.

The 3D-dose module (3DVH) of the ArcCHECK-phantom reconstructs the dose distribution in the phantom volume and transfers it to the patient geometry. Our aim was to evaluate the 3DVH-reconstructed dose systematically building up from simple to complex cases. Therefore, the influence of different field sizes without and with blocking the isocenter was tested. Read More

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November 2018

Variability in sulfur isotope composition suggests unique dimethylsulfoniopropionate cycling and microalgae metabolism in Antarctic sea ice.

Commun Biol 2018 4;1:212. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

2Institute of Earth Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 91904 Israel.

Sea ice microbial communities produce large amounts of the sulfur metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a precursor of the climate cooling gas dimethylsulfide. Despite their importance to the polar sulfur cycle, drivers and metabolic pathways of sea ice DMSP are uncertain. Here we report the first measurements of sea ice DMSP sulfur isotopic composition (S/S ratio, δS). Read More

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December 2018

Environmental Drivers of Free-Living vs. Particle-Attached Bacterial Community Composition in the Mauritania Upwelling System.

Front Microbiol 2018 23;9:2836. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research (ZMT), Bremen, Germany.

Saharan dust input and seasonal upwelling along North-West Africa provide a model system for studying microbial processes related to the export and recycling of nutrients. This study offers the first molecular characterization of prokaryotic particle-attached (PA; >3.0 μm) and free-living (FL; 0. Read More

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November 2018

Coupling of urban energy balance model with 3-D radiation model to derive human thermal (dis)comfort.

Int J Biometeorol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

While capabilities in urban climate modeling have substantially increased in recent decades, the interdependency of changes in environmental surface properties and human (dis)comfort have only recently received attention. The open-source solar long-wave environmental irradiance geometry (SOLWEIG) model is one of the state-of-the-art models frequently used for urban (micro-)climatic studies. Here, we present updated calculation schemes for SOLWEIG allowing the improved prediction of surface temperatures (wall and ground). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

N fixation in free-floating filaments of Trichodesmium is higher than in transiently suboxic colony microenvironments.

New Phytol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Celsiusstr. 1, 28359, Bremen, Germany.

To understand the role of micrometer-scale oxygen (O ) gradients in facilitating dinitrogen (N ) fixation, we characterized O dynamics in the microenvironment around free-floating trichomes and colonies of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101. Diurnal and spatial variability in O concentrations in the bulk medium, within colonies, along trichomes and within single cells were determined using O optodes, microsensors and model calculations. Carbon (C) and N fixation as well as O evolution and uptake under different O concentrations were analyzed by stable isotope incubations and membrane inlet mass spectrometry. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Biogeochemical markers across a pollution gradient in a Patagonian estuary: A multidimensional approach of fatty acids and stable isotopes.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Dec 13;137:617-626. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany.

A combined approach merging stable isotopes and fatty acids was applied to study anthropogenic pollution in the Río Negro estuary. Fatty acid markers of vegetal detritus indicated considerable allochthonous inputs at freshwater sites. Correlative evidence of diatom fatty acids, δC, chlorophyll and particulate organic matter suggested the importance of diatoms for the autochthonous organic matter production at the river mouth. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Diversity, distribution, and azaspiracids of Amphidomataceae (Dinophyceae) along the Norwegian coast.

Harmful Algae 2018 Dec 20;80:15-34. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Institut für Chemie und Biologie des Meeres (ICBM), Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Schleusenstraße 1, D-26382 Wilhelmshaven, Germany.

Azaspiracids (AZA) are a group of lipophilic polyether compounds which have been implicated in shellfish poisoning incidents around Europe. They are produced by a few species of the dinophycean genera Azadinium and Amphidoma (Amphidomataceae). The presence of AZA toxins in Norway is well documented, but knowledge of the distribution and diversity of Azadinium and other Amphidomataceae along the Norwegian coast is rather limited and poorly documented. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Family history of venous thromboembolism in the paediatric population: The need for a standardized definition.

Thromb Res 2018 Nov 16;173:91-95. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Positive family history is known to be an independent risk factor for venous thromboembolic (VTE) that may or may not reflect an underlying hereditary disorder. However, there is no clear standardized definition of what constitutes a positive family history for VTE in children. We aimed to assess the current published definitions of positive family history as a risk factor for VTE in children and ascertain if any consensus exists. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Northern cod species face spawning habitat losses if global warming exceeds 1.5°C.

Sci Adv 2018 Nov 28;4(11):eaas8821. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany.

Rapid climate change in the Northeast Atlantic and Arctic poses a threat to some of the world's largest fish populations. Impacts of warming and acidification may become accessible through mechanism-based risk assessments and projections of future habitat suitability. We show that ocean acidification causes a narrowing of embryonic thermal ranges, which identifies the suitability of spawning habitats as a critical life-history bottleneck for two abundant cod species. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Temporal and spatial patterns of mitochondrial haplotype and species distributions in Siberian larches inferred from ancient environmental DNA and modeling.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 29;8(1):17436. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Periglacial Research Section, Telegrafenberg A43, 14473, Potsdam, Germany.

Changes in species' distributions are classically projected based on their climate envelopes. For Siberian forests, which have a tremendous significance for vegetation-climate feedbacks, this implies future shifts of each of the forest-forming larch (Larix) species to the north-east. However, in addition to abiotic factors, reliable projections must assess the role of historical biogeography and biotic interactions. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Atypical Presentation of Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis.

J Belg Soc Radiol 2018 Nov 1;102(1):72. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Azienda USL-IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, IT.

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November 2018
1 Read

Altered fecal microbiota composition in the Flinders sensitive line rat model of depression.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Translational Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Rationale: The gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as a potential mediator of psychiatric diseases. Depressed patients have been shown to have a different microbiota composition compared with healthy controls, and several lines of research now aim to restore this dysbiosis. To develop novel treatments, preclinical models may provide novel mechanistic insights. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Cystine-thiamin-containing hair-growth formulation modulates the response to UV radiation in an in vitro model for growth-limiting conditions of human keratinocytes.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2018 Dec 17;189:318-325. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Alfred-Wegener-Straße 2, 60438 Frankfurt, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be harmful to normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) of the epidermal skin layer, as well as to hair-follicle-associated keratinocytes. An oral formulation containing l-cystine, thiamin, calcium d-pantothenate, medicinal yeast, keratin and p-aminobenzoic acid (Panto[vi]gar®) has demonstrated clinical efficacy for the treatment of diffuse telogen effluvium; however, its mode of action at the cellular level, and in particular whether protective mechanisms are involved, has yet to be elucidated.

Objectives: To assess the capacity of ingredients of this oral formulation, both separately and in combination, to modulate the effects of UVR in growth-limited NHEKs in vitro. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

The Kdm/Kmt gene families in the self-fertilizing mangrove rivulus fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, suggest involvement of histone methylation machinery in development and reproduction.

Gene 2018 Nov 17;687:173-187. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Laboratory of Evolutionary and Adaptive Physiology, Institute of Life, Earth and Environment, University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur, Belgium.

Histone modifications such as methylation of key lysine residues play an important role in embryonic development in a variety of organisms such as of Pacific oysters, zebrafish and mice. The action of demethylase ("erasers") and methyltransferase ("writers") enzymes regulates precisely the methylation status of each lysine residue. However, despite fishes being very useful model organisms in medicine, evolution and ecotoxicology, most studies have focused on mammalian and plant model organisms, and mechanisms underlying regulation of histones are unknown in fish development outside of zebrafish. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

The Response of Three Southern Ocean Phytoplankton Species to Ocean Acidification and Light Availability: A Transcriptomic Study.

Protist 2018 Dec 27;169(6):958-975. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Center for Marine and Polar Research, Am Handelshafen 12, Bremerhaven 27570, Germany; Marine Botany, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.

Ocean acidification (OA) and high light was found to negatively affect the Antarctic key species Phaeocystis antarctica, Fragilariopsis kerguelensis and Chaetoceros debilis. To unravel the underlying physiological response at the transcriptomic level, these species were grown under ambient and elevated pCO combined with low or high light. RNA sequencing revealed that the haptophyte was much more tolerant towards OA than the two diatoms as only these showed distinct OA-dependent gene regulation patterns. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

A large impact crater beneath Hiawatha Glacier in northwest Greenland.

Sci Adv 2018 Nov 14;4(11):eaar8173. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Cryospheric Sciences Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.

We report the discovery of a large impact crater beneath Hiawatha Glacier in northwest Greenland. From airborne radar surveys, we identify a 31-kilometer-wide, circular bedrock depression beneath up to a kilometer of ice. This depression has an elevated rim that cross-cuts tributary subglacial channels and a subdued central uplift that appears to be actively eroding. Read More

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November 2018
9 Reads

Identification of Novel Gymnodimines and Spirolides from the Marine Dinoflagellate .

Mar Drugs 2018 Nov 14;16(11). Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Section Ecological Chemistry, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany.

Cyclic imine toxins are neurotoxic, macrocyclic compounds produced by marine dinoflagellates. Mass spectrometric screenings of extracts from natural plankton assemblages revealed a high chemical diversity among this toxin class, yet only few toxins are structurally known. Here we report the structural characterization of four novel cyclic-imine toxins (two gymnodimines (GYMs) and two spirolides (SPXs)) from cultures of . Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Temperature Controls Crystalline Iron Oxide Utilization by Microbial Communities in Methanic Ferruginous Marine Sediment Incubations.

Front Microbiol 2018 30;9:2574. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Microbial Ecophysiology Group, Faculty of Biology/Chemistry, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.

Microorganisms can use crystalline iron minerals for iron reduction linked to organic matter degradation or as conduits for direct interspecies electron transfer (mDIET) to syntrophic partners, e.g., methanogens. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Induction of domoic acid production in diatoms-Types of grazers and diatoms are important.

Harmful Algae 2018 Nov 2;79:64-73. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Sølvgade 83S, 1307 Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Grazers can induce toxin (domoic acid, DA) production in diatoms. The toxic response has been observed in two species of Pseudo-nitzschia and was induced by Calanus copepods. In this study, interactions between diatoms and copepods were further explored using different species of diatoms and copepods. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Can domoic acid affect escape response in copepods?

Harmful Algae 2018 Nov 21;79:50-52. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, 1307 Copenhagen K Denmark.

Copepods are important grazers on toxic phytoplankton and serve as vectors for algal toxins up the marine food web. Success of phytoplankton depends among other factors on protection against grazers like copepods, and same way copepod survival and population resilience relies on their ability to escape predators. Little is, however, known about the effect of toxins on the escape response of copepods. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Pattern of Scleritis in an Egyptian Cohort.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018 Nov 9:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

d Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine , Fayoum University , Fayoum , Egypt.

Purpose: To report the clinical experience with scleritis at four Egyptian tertiary care eye centers.

Methods: Multicenter retrospective chart review of all patients with scleritis visiting four ocular inflammation referral clinics in Egypt between January 2013 and October 2017.

Results: A total of 303 scleritis patients were enrolled. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Steeper dose gradients resulting from reduced source to target distance-a planning system independent study.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Purpose: To quantify the contribution of penumbra in the improvement of healthy tissue sparing at reduced source-to-axis distance (SAD) for simple spherical target and different prescription isodoses (PI).

Method: A TPS-independent method was used to estimate three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution for stereotactic treatment of spherical targets of 0.5 cm radius based on single beam two-dimensional (2D) film dosimetry measurements. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Comparison of Aerobic Scope for Metabolic Activity in Aquatic Ectotherms With Temperature Related Metabolic Stimulation: A Novel Approach for Aerobic Power Budget.

Front Physiol 2018 22;9:1438. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Unidad Multidisciplinaria de Docencia e Investigación, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Sisal, Mexico.

Considering that swim-flume or chasing methods fail in the estimation of maximum metabolic rate and in the estimation of Aerobic Scope (AS) of sedentary or sluggish aquatic ectotherms, we propose a novel conceptual approach in which high metabolic rates can be obtained through stimulation of organism metabolic activity using high and low non-lethal temperatures that induce high (HMR) and low metabolic rates (LMR), This method was defined as TIMR: Temperature Induced Metabolic Rate, designed to obtain an aerobic power budget based on temperature-induced metabolic scope which may mirror thermal metabolic scope (TMS = HMR-LMR). Prior to use, the researcher should know the critical thermal maximum (CT max) and minimum (CT min) of animals, and calculate temperature TIMR max (at temperatures -5-10% below CT max) and TIMR min (at temperatures +5-10% above CT min), or choose a high and low non-lethal temperature that provoke a higher and lower metabolic rate than observed in routine conditions. Two sets of experiments were carried out. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Brain volumetric alterations accompanied with loss of striatal medium-sized spiny neurons and cortical parvalbumin expressing interneurons in Brd1 mice.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 7;8(1):16486. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

iPSYCH, The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, Aarhus, Denmark.

Schizophrenia is a common and severe mental disorder arising from complex gene-environment interactions affecting brain development and functioning. While a consensus on the neuroanatomical correlates of schizophrenia is emerging, much of its fundamental pathobiology remains unknown. In this study, we explore brain morphometry in mice with genetic susceptibility and phenotypic relevance to schizophrenia (Brd1 mice) using postmortem 3D MR imaging coupled with histology, immunostaining and regional mRNA marker analysis. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage and Pulmonary Vasculitides: Histopathologic Findings.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Aug 7;39(4):425-433. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California.

Vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of disorders in which inflammation of blood vessel walls is present at least some time during the course of the disease. Vasculitides can affect any caliber or type of vessel in many anatomic sites; however, the disease can alter more than just vasculature. Given the diversity of vasculitides, in 2012, a revised classification system was proposed to categorize vasculitides by the type of vessel involved including size, function, and structural attributes. Read More

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August 2018
8 Reads

A new mathematical model to explore microbial processes and their constraints in phytoplankton colonies and sinking marine aggregates.

Sci Adv 2018 Oct 31;4(10):eaat1991. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Biogeochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany.

N-fixing colonies of cyanobacteria and aggregates of phytoplankton and detritus sinking hundreds of meters per day are instrumental for the ocean's sequestration of CO from the atmosphere. Understanding of small-scale microbial processes associated with phytoplankton colonies and aggregates is therefore crucial for understanding large-scale biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Phytoplankton colonies and sinking aggregates are characterized by steep concentration gradients of gases and nutrients in their interior. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

The antidepressant-like effect of probiotics and their faecal abundance may be modulated by the cohabiting gut microbiota in rats.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Medical Endocrinology, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, Aarhus C, Denmark.

Numerous studies have been published describing the effect of various probiotics (PRO) on behaviours related to psychiatric disease. We have previously shown a robust antidepressant-like effect of PRO in rats, but over time, the treatment effect seems to vary significantly between different sets of rats from the same commercial vendor. Therefore, we hypothesised that the antidepressant-like response may be modulated by the cohabiting gut microbiota. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Generalized Hartmann-Shack array of dielectric metalens sub-arrays for polarimetric beam profiling.

Nat Commun 2018 11 2;9(1):4607. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Institute of Nanotechnology and Institute of Applied Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76021, Karlsruhe, Germany.

To define and characterize optical systems, obtaining the amplitude, phase, and polarization profile of optical beams is of utmost importance. Traditional polarimetry is well established to characterize the polarization state. Recently, metasurfaces have successfully been introduced as compact optical components. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads
10.742 Impact Factor

UltraMassExplorer - a browser-based application for the evaluation of high-resolution mass spectrometric data.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2018 Oct 26. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570, Bremerhaven, Germany.

Rational: High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with high sample throughput has become an important analytical tool for the analysis of highly complex samples and data processing has become a major challenge for the user community. Evaluating direct-infusion HRMS data without automated tools for batch processing can be a time consuming step in the analytical pipeline. Therefore, we developed a new browser-based software tool for processing HRMS data. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Dependence of Present and Future European Temperature Extremes on the Location of Atmospheric Blocking.

Geophys Res Lett 2018 Jun;45(12):6311-6320

Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change University of Graz Graz Austria.

The impact of atmospheric blocking on European heat waves (HWs) and cold spells (CSs) is investigated for present and future conditions . A 50-member ensemble of the second generation Canadian Earth System Model is used to quantify the role of internal variability in the response to blocking. We find that the present blocking-extreme temperature link is well represented compared to ERA-Interim, despite a significant underestimation of blocking frequency in most ensemble members. Read More

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June 2018
6 Reads

Sensorimotor stroke alters hippocampo-thalamic network activity.

Sci Rep 2018 Oct 25;8(1):15770. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital and University of Zurich, Zurich, 8006, Switzerland.

Many stroke survivors experience persisting episodic memory disturbances. Since hippocampal and para-hippocampal areas are usually spared from the infarcted area, alterations of memory processing networks remote from the ischemic brain region might be responsible for the observed clinical symptoms. To pinpoint changes in activity of hippocampal connections and their role in post-stroke cognitive impairment, we induced ischemic stroke by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) in adult rats and analyzed the functional and structural consequences using activity-dependent manganese (Mn) enhanced MRI (MEMRI) along with behavioral and histopathological analysis. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

Comparison of Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for the Quantification of Microplastics in the Aquatic Environment.

Environ Sci Technol 2018 Nov 6;52(22):13279-13288. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Microbial Ecology , Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, Biologische Anstalt Helgoland , Kurpromenade 201 , 27498 Helgoland , Germany.

Microplastics (MPs, <5 mm) have been reported as emerging environmental contaminants, but reliable data are still lacking. We compared the two most promising techniques for MP analysis, namely, Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, by analyzing MPs extracted from North Sea surface waters. Microplastics >500 μm were visually sorted and manually analyzed by μ-Raman and attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Successful treatment outcomes in pregnant patients with ANCA-associated vasculitides: A systematic review of literature.

Int J Rheum Dis 2018 Sep;21(9):1734-1740

Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Aim: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides (AAV) are a group of small vessel vasculitis with systemic presentations and considerable morbidity and mortality. Pregnancy in these patients poses a significant therapeutic challenge. There is limited published literature regarding pregnancy in AAV. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read
1.770 Impact Factor

Seeing is Believing: Diatoms and the Ocean Carbon Cycle Revisited.

Authors:
Victor Smetacek

Protist 2018 Dec 27;169(6):791-802. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Alfred Wegener Institut Helmholtz Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany. Electronic address:

Terrestrial ecologists and biogeochemists are in direct contact with their objects of study via sense organs evolved in those environments; they hence share a common awareness because they can all see the whole elephant, as in the ancient Indian parable. Pelagic ecologists and biogeochemists on the other hand are the blind men groping different parts of the elephant - the protist-dominated biome of the planet - in attempts to understand its structure and functioning in terms of organism life cycles and the biogenic elements of which they are made. The pelagial is an alien world for us that we can only sense through instruments of our making: the propensity for bias is enormous. Read More

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December 2018

Improvement of normothermic ex vivo machine perfusion of rat liver grafts by dialysis and Kupffer Cell inhibition with glycine.

Liver Transpl 2018 Oct 20. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Surgery, Campus Charité Mitte| Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Experimental Surgery, Berlin, Germany.

Normothermic ex vivo liver machine perfusion might be a superior preservation strategy for liver grafts from extended criteria donors. However, standardized small animal models are not available for basic research on machine perfusion of liver grafts. A laboratory-scaled perfusion system was developed consisting of a custom-made perfusion chamber, a pressure-controlled roller pump, and an oxygenator. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Mature biofilm communities on synthetic polymers in seawater - Specific or general?

Mar Environ Res 2018 Nov 2;142:147-154. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Alfred-Wegener-Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, Helgoland, Germany.

To understand the ecological impacts of the "Plastisphere", those microbes need to be identified that preferentially colonize and interact with synthetic polymer surfaces, as opposed to general surface colonizers. It was hypothesized that the microbial biofilm composition varies distinctly between different substrates. A long-term incubation experiment was conducted (15month) with nine different synthetic polymer films as substrate as well as glass using a natural seawater flow-through system. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Grandmaternal high-fat diet primed anxiety-like behaviour in the second-generation female offspring.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Oct 15;359:47-55. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Translational Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Risskov, DK-8240, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, AUGUST Centre, Aarhus University, Risskov, Denmark. Electronic address:

The health consequences of maternal obesity during pregnancy are disturbing as they may contribute to mental disorders in subsequent generations. We examine the influence of suboptimal grandmaternal diet on potential metabolic and mental health outcome of grand-progenies with a high-fat diet (HFD) manipulation in adulthood in a rat HFD model. Grandmaternal exposure to HFD exacerbated granddaughter's anxiety-like phenotype. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Macro- and microplastics affect cold-water corals growth, feeding and behaviour.

Sci Rep 2018 Oct 17;8(1):15299. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Ecogéochimie des Environnements Benthiques, LECOB, F-66650, Banyuls-sur-Mer, France.

Plastic contamination is now recognized as one of the most serious environmental issues for oceans. Both macro- and microplastic debris are accumulating in surface and deep waters. However, little is known about their impact on deep marine ecosystems and especially on the deep-sea reefs built by emblematic cold-water corals. Read More

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October 2018
17 Reads

Spatial distribution of benthic macrofauna in the Central Arctic Ocean.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(10):e0200121. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany.

Permanent sea-ice cover and low primary productivity in the mostly ice-covered Central Arctic ocean basins result in significantly lower biomass and density of macrobenthos in the abyssal plains compared to the continental slopes. However, little is known on bathymetric and regional effects on the macrobenthos diversity. This study synthesizes new and available macrobenthos data to provide a baseline for future studies of the effects of Arctic change on macrofauna community composition in the Arctic basins. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Microstructures in relation to temperature-induced aragonite-to-calcite transformation in the marine gastropod Phorcus turbinatus.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(10):e0204577. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany.

Mollusk shells represent important archives for paleoclimatic studies aiming to reconstruct environmental conditions at high temporal resolution. However, the shells, made of calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite and /or calcite, can be altered through time which may undermine the suitability for any reconstruction based on geochemical proxies (i.e. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Highly bioavailable dust-borne iron delivered to the Southern Ocean during glacial periods.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 10 15;115(44):11180-11185. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964.

Changes in bioavailable dust-borne iron (Fe) supply to the iron-limited Southern Ocean may influence climate by modulating phytoplankton growth and CO fixation into organic matter that is exported to the deep ocean. The chemical form (speciation) of Fe impacts its bioavailability, and glacial weathering produces highly labile and bioavailable Fe minerals in modern dust sources. However, the speciation of dust-borne Fe reaching the iron-limited Southern Ocean on glacial-interglacial timescales is unknown, and its impact on the bioavailable iron supply over geologic time has not been quantified. Read More

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October 2018
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Comparative genomics of phenotypic antimicrobial resistances in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius of canine origin.

Vet Microbiol 2018 Nov 22;225:125-131. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an important pathogen in dogs. Since 2004, methicillin- resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) isolates, often multidrug resistant, have been observed in dogs in the Netherlands. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Development of a LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of goniodomins A and B and its application to Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax strains and plankton field samples of Danish coastal waters.

Toxicon 2018 Dec 12;155:51-60. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Technical University of Denmark, Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Søltofts Plads, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark; Technical University of Denmark, National Food Institute, Kemitorvet, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.

An external standard of goniodomin A (GDA) was prepared from a strain of Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax originating from New Zealand and its chemical structure was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Using the GDA standard, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was developed for separation and quantification of GDA. This method was successfully applied to planktonic field samples collected during an oceanographic expedition conducted with R/V Uthörn along the Danish west coast, Limfjord and Kattegat in June 2016. Read More

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December 2018

Separate and combined effects of neurotoxic and lytic compounds of Alexandrium strains on Mytilus edulis feeding activity and hemocyte function.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Oct 11;84:414-422. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Maine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570, Bremerhaven, Germany.

Multiple toxic and bioactive compounds produced by Alexandrium spp. cause adverse effects on bivalves, but these effects are frequently difficult to attribute to a single compound class. To disentangle the effect of neurotoxic vs lytic secondary metabolites, we exposed blue mussels to either a paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) producing Alexandrium spp. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Microbial communities in the nepheloid layers and hypoxic zones of the Canary Current upwelling system.

Microbiologyopen 2018 Oct 11:e705. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany.

Eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUSs) are among the most productive marine environments in the world. The Canary Current upwelling system off the coast of Mauritania and Morocco is the second most productive of the four EBUS, where nutrient-rich waters fuel perennial phytoplankton blooms, evident by high chlorophyll a concentrations off Cape Blanc, Mauritania. High primary production leads to eutrophic waters in the surface layers, whereas sinking phytoplankton debris and horizontally dispersed particles form nepheloid layers (NLs) and hypoxic waters at depth. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads