10,615 results match your criteria Wasp Stings


Back to the roots: the importance of using simple insect societies to understand the molecular basis of complex social life.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Aug 12;28:33-39. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Institute of Organismic and Molecular Evolution, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

The evolutionary trajectories toward insect eusociality come in two broad forms. In species like wasps, bees, and ants, the first helpers remained at the nest primarily to help with brood care. In species like aphids and termites, on the other hand, nest defense was initially the primary ecological driving force. Read More

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Social wasps as models to study the major evolutionary transition to superorganismality.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Aug 11;28:26-32. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Centre for Biodiversity & Environment Research, Department of Genetics, Evolution & Environment, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The major evolutionary transition to superorganismality has taken place several times in the insects. Although there has been much consideration of the ultimate evolutionary explanations for superorganismality, we know relatively little about what proximate mechanisms constrain or promote this major transition. Here, we propose that Vespid wasps represent an understudied, but potentially very useful, model system for studying the mechanisms underpinning superorganismality. Read More

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August 2018
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Enteropathogenic E. coli relies on collaboration between the formin mDia1 and the Arp2/3 complex for actin pedestal biogenesis and maintenance.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 14;14(12):e1007485. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Institute for Systems Genomics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, United States of America.

Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EPEC and EHEC) are closely related extracellular pathogens that reorganize host cell actin into "pedestals" beneath the tightly adherent bacteria. This pedestal-forming activity is both a critical step in pathogenesis, and it makes EPEC and EHEC useful models for studying the actin rearrangements that underlie membrane protrusions. Read More

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December 2018

Two's company, three's a crowd: co-occurring pollinators and parasite species in Breynia oblongifolia (Phyllanthaceae).

BMC Evol Biol 2018 Dec 14;18(1):193. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Hawkesbury Campus, Western Sydney University, Science Rd, Richmond, NSW, 2753, Australia.

Background: Obligate pollination mutualisms (OPMs) are specialized interactions in which female pollinators transport pollen between the male and female flowers of a single plant species and then lay eggs into those same flowers. The pollinator offspring hatch and feed upon some or all of the developing ovules pollinated by their mothers. Strong trait matching between plants and their pollinators in OPMs is expected to result in reciprocal partner specificity i. Read More

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December 2018

Write a Scientific Paper (WASP) - What can I publish [1]? Types of studies.

Authors:
Victor Grech

Early Hum Dev 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Academic Department of Paediatrics, Mater Dei Hospital, Malta. Electronic address:

As an experienced writer, one is often asked the question "what can I publish" by younger and inexperienced colleagues who must publish. This paper will briefly review the reasons why academics publish and will then outline what kind of papers one may be able to publish with relative ease, using personal experience and citing first hand material as a practical guide. Potential authors must cultivate "a lean and hungry look" as competition from fellow writers is stiff, and editors are choosy. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Write a Scientific Paper (WASP): Academic hoax and fraud.

Authors:
Victor Grech

Early Hum Dev 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

University of Malta, Msida, Malta; Mater Dei Hospital, Msida, Malta. Electronic address:

Academics may deliberately hoax colleagues with false research, so as to forcibly and dramatically make a particular point. Moreover, false research may a process of deliberate and outright fraud. This paper will review a few examples as cautionary tales for academics and researchers. Read More

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December 2018

Past and anticipated trends in cardiology service requirements at Mater Dei Hospital, Malta.

Early Hum Dev 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Mater Dei Hospital, Malta. Electronic address:

Introduction: The requirement for medical services fluctuates. This study was carried out in order to attempt to extrapolate the service requirements for various cardiology services at Mater Dei Hospital, Malta over the coming five years, based on service demands from previous years.

Methods: Past annual data was obtained from hospital records for various services (to 2017). Read More

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December 2018
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Differential Expression Analysis of Olfactory Genes Based on a Combination of Sequencing Platforms and Behavioral Investigations in .

Front Physiol 2018 27;9:1679. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

The State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Ashmead is a dominant endoparasitoid of aphids, such as and , and plays an important role in controlling aphids in various habitats, including tobacco plants and wheat in China. has been successfully applied for the biological control of aphids, especially , in green houses and fields in China. The corresponding parasites, as well as its mate-searching behaviors, are subjects of considerable interest. Read More

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November 2018

Clever Cooperation: Interactions Between EspF and Host Proteins.

Front Microbiol 2018 22;9:2831. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Microbiology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

EspF is a central effector protein of enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), and (CR) that is secreted through the type III secretion system to host cells. The interaction between EspF and host proteins plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis. EspF protein binds to host SNX9 and N-WASP proteins to promote the colonization of pathogenic bacteria in intestinal epithelial cells; combines with cytokeratin 18, actin, 14-3-3ζ, Arp2/3, profilin, and ZO-1 proteins to intervene in the redistribution of intermediate filaments, the rearrangement of actin, and the disruption of tight junctions; acts together with Abcf2 to boost host cell intrinsic apoptosis; and collaborates with Anxa6 protein to inhibit phagocytosis. Read More

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November 2018

Ground-based detection of an extended helium atmosphere in the Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-69b.

Science 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Centro de Astrobiología (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas - Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, CSIC-INTA), Crta. de Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.

Hot gas giant exoplanets can lose part of their atmosphere due to strong stellar irradiation, affecting their physical and chemical evolution. Studies of atmospheric escape from exoplanets have mostly relied on space-based observations of the hydrogen Lyman-α line in the far ultraviolet which is strongly affected by interstellar absorption. Using ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy we detect excess absorption in the helium triplet at 1083 nm during the transit of the Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-69b, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 18. Read More

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December 2018
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Nudel involvement in the high glucose-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

pathology, Hebei medical university, China.

Nudel is a newly discovered factor related to cell migration. The tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) includes four steps: the loss of the adhesive properties of epithelial cells, the acquisition of a mesenchymal cell phenotype, the destruction of the tubular basal membrane and the migration into the renal interstitium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Nudel in the high glucose-induced EMT of tubular epithelial cells. Read More

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December 2018

Myosin-II activity generates a dynamic steady state with continuous actin turnover in a minimal actin cortex.

J Cell Sci 2018 Dec 11;132(4). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, 82152 Martinsried, Germany

Dynamic reorganization of the actomyosin cytoskeleton allows fast modulation of the cell surface, which is vital for many cellular functions. Myosin-II motors generate the forces required for this remodeling by imparting contractility to actin networks. However, myosin-II activity might also have a more indirect contribution to cytoskeletal dynamics; it has been proposed that myosin activity increases actin turnover in various cellular contexts, presumably by enhancing disassembly. Read More

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December 2018

Write a Scientific Paper (WASP): An overview of differences in styles between the sciences and the humanities.

Authors:
Victor Grech

Early Hum Dev 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

University of Malta, Msida, Malta; Mater Dei Hospital, Msida, Malta. Electronic address:

Researchers who cross a discipline may experience culture shock at the different worlds of science and medicine. This paper outlines the differences in concepts and philosophies and in presentation styles. The acute difficulties when attempting to read or write works in different disciplines are also addressed, as well as the differences in perceptions and values when approaching written works in unfamiliar branches of academia. Read More

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December 2018

A Novel Method to Evaluate the Reproductive Potential of Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Under Laboratory Conditions.

J Insect Sci 2018 Nov 1;18(6). Epub 2018 Nov 1.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Stoneville, USA.

Life fertility tables were constructed for Phymastichus coffea LaSalle, the only known endoparasitoid wasp that attacks the adult female of the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari. No preoviposition period was observed, and the parasitoid female attacked the CBB females immediately after emergence. The reproductive period was 20. Read More

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November 2018

Structure-function-guided exploration of the antimicrobial peptide polybia-CP identifies activity determinants and generates synthetic therapeutic candidates.

Commun Biol 2018 7;1:221. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

1Synthetic Biology Group, MIT Synthetic Biology Center; The Center for Microbiome Informatics and Therapeutics; Research Laboratory of Electronics, Department of Biological Engineering, and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute promising alternatives to classical antibiotics for the treatment of drug-resistant infections, which are a rapidly emerging global health challenge. However, our understanding of the structure-function relationships of AMPs is limited, and we are just beginning to rationally engineer peptides in order to develop them as therapeutics. Here, we leverage a physicochemical-guided peptide design strategy to identify specific functional hotspots in the wasp-derived AMP polybia-CP and turn this toxic peptide into a viable antimicrobial. Read More

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December 2018
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Novel Factors of Viral Origin Inhibit TOR Pathway Gene Expression.

Front Physiol 2018 26;9:1678. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, United States.

Polydnaviruses (PDVs) are obligate symbionts of endoparasitoid wasps, which exclusively attack the larval stages of their lepidopteran hosts. The Polydnavirus is injected by the parasitoid female during oviposition to selectively infect host tissues by the expression of viral genes without undergoing replication. bracovirus (BV) is associated with (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) wasp, an endoparasitoid of the tobacco budworm larval stages, (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Read More

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November 2018

Between extreme simplification and ideal optimization: antennal sensilla morphology of miniaturized wasps (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

PeerJ 2018 30;6:e6005. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Entomology, Biological Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

One of the major trends in the evolution of parasitoid wasps is miniaturization, which has produced the smallest known insects. spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) are smaller than some unicellular organisms, with an adult body length of the smallest only 170 µm. Read More

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November 2018

Write a Scientific Paper (WASP) - what can I publish (2)? Hierarchies of evidence.

Early Hum Dev 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

University of Malta, Consultant Paediatric Cardiologist, Mater Dei Hospital, Msida, Malta. Electronic address:

Evidence-based published data is the prime source used for clinical decision making, the issuance of guidelines and the drafting new policies. A number of different study designs are used to perform and publish research studies, corresponding to the research question being investigated. Over the decades, a hierarchical system of evidence has been established. Read More

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December 2018

Regulatory and sequence evolution in response to selection for improved associative learning ability in Nasonia vitripennis.

BMC Genomics 2018 Dec 10;19(1):892. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Ecological Science, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081, HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Selection acts on the phenotype, yet only the genotype is inherited. While both the phenotypic and genotypic response to short-term selection can be measured, the link between these is a major unsolved problem in evolutionary biology, in particular for complex behavioural phenotypes.

Results: Here we characterize the genomic and the transcriptomic basis of associative learning ability in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis and use gene network analysis to link the two. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular cross-talk in a unique parasitoid manipulation strategy.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva, 84105, Israel; Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva, 84105, Israel. Electronic address:

Envenomation of cockroach cerebral ganglia by the parasitoid Jewel wasp, Ampulex compressa, induces specific, long-lasting behavioural changes. We hypothesized that this prolonged action results from venom-induced changes in brain neurochemistry. Here, we address this issue by first identifying molecular targets of the venom, i. Read More

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November 2018
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Overlooked gall-inducing moths revisited, with the description of gen. et sp. n. and sp. n. from Chile (Lepidoptera, Cecidosidae).

Zookeys 2018 12(795):127-157. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 37012-7012, USA.

There are still many gall systems associated with larvae of Lepidoptera in which the true gall-inducers have not been identified to species. Reports on misidentification of gall inducers have been recurrent for these galls, particularly in complex gall-systems that may include inquilines, kleptoparasites, and cecidophages, among other feeding guilds such as predators and parasitoid wasps. Here we describe and illustrate the adults, larvae, pupae and galls, based on light and scanning microscopy, of and , two sympatric cecidosid moths that are associated with (Cav. Read More

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November 2018

ARP3 Controls the Podocyte Architecture at the Kidney Filtration Barrier.

Dev Cell 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Medicine IV, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg 79106, Germany; III. Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg 20246, Germany; BIOSS Center for Biological Signaling Studies, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Freiburg 79106, Germany. Electronic address:

Podocytes, highly specialized epithelial cells, build the outer part of the kidney filtration barrier and withstand high mechanical forces through a complex network of cellular protrusions. Here, we show that Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization controls actomyosin contractility and focal adhesion maturation of podocyte protrusions and thereby regulates formation, maintenance, and capacity to adapt to mechanical requirements of the filtration barrier. We find that N-WASP-Arp2/3 define the development of complex arborized podocyte protrusions in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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November 2018
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Fairyflies.

Curr Biol 2018 Dec;28(23):R1331-R1332

National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental research, GKVK campus, Bellary Road, Bangalore, Karnataka 560065, India. Electronic address:

A Quick Guide to fairyflies, miniature parasitoid wasps which have the smallest adult size known for any insect. Read More

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December 2018

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is a tumor suppressor in T cell lymphoma.

Nat Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.

In T lymphocytes, the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP) and WASP-interacting-protein (WIP) regulate T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling, but their role in lymphoma is largely unknown. Here we show that the expression of WASP and WIP is frequently low or absent in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) compared to other T cell lymphomas. In anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) ALCL, WASP and WIP expression is regulated by ALK oncogenic activity via its downstream mediators STAT3 and C/EBP-β. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Arthropod assassins: Crawling biochemists with diverse toxin pharmacopeias.

Authors:
Volker Herzig

Toxicon 2018 Nov 27;158:33-37. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

The millions of extant arthropod species are testament to their evolutionary success that can at least partially be attributed to venom usage, which evolved independently in at least 19 arthropod lineages. While some arthropods primarily use venom for predation (e.g. Read More

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November 2018

Insect-flower interaction networks vary among endemic pollinator taxa over an elevation gradient.

PLoS One 2018 29;13(11):e0207453. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Interaction networks are sensitive to elevation gradients through changes in local distribution of interacting partners. Here, we use plant-pollinator interaction network metrics to assess the effect of elevation on flowers and flower-visiting insect assemblages on a sentinel mountain used for monitoring climate change in the flower- and insect-rich Cape Floristic Region. We also use these interaction metrics to explain the effect of environmental factors on the interaction networks. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Development of microsatellite markers for an outbreaking species of oak gall wasp, Zapatella davisae (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), in the northeastern United States.

Bull Entomol Res 2018 Nov 29:1-8. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Environmental Conservation,University of Amherst Massachusetts,160 Holdsworth Way, Amherst, MA 01003,USA.

Populations of the recently described black oak gall wasp, Zapatella davisae Buffington (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), have been identified as the cause of extensive tree damage and mortality to black oaks, Quercus velutina Lamarck (Fagales: Fagaceae), in the northeastern United States. Relatively little is known, however, about the distribution, phylogenetic placement, and lifecycle of this important tree pest. Therefore, we conducted next-generation sequencing using the Ion Torrent™ PGM (ThermoFisher Scientific, Inc. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Effect of Seasonality on Rates of Gregarine Infection in Workers of a Social Wasp Polybia Paulista (Hymenoptera, Vespidae).

Neotrop Entomol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Depto de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Univ de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14040-901, Brasil.

Social insects face strong selection from parasites because the conditions of group living often favor the transmission of infection among nestmates. However, there is little detailed information on the effects of parasite infection in the host species. Workers of Polybia species, neotropical swarm-founding wasps, are commonly infected by gregarines, protozoans that are exclusively parasitic on invertebrates. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

An interactive key to Central European species of the species group and other species of the genus (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae), with the description of a new species.

Biodivers Data J 2018 14(6):e27722. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Invertebrates, Natural History Museum Bern, Bern, Switzerland Department of Invertebrates, Natural History Museum Bern Bern Switzerland.

Background: Parasitoid wasps of the genus play an important role in biological pest control, however, the genus includes a large number of cryptic species, which makes reliable identification difficult. The latest identification key dates back to Graham (1969) and since then many new species have been described and nomenclatural changes proposed.

New Information: Here we present an interactive and fully illustrated identification key in Xper3 for 27 species of the species group as well as for 18 similar species. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Ichneumonid wasps of the subfamily Mesochorinae: new replacement names, combinations and an updated key to the World genera (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).

Zootaxa 2018 Nov 13;4521(1):52-60. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

HYMN Laboratório de Hymenoptera, Departamento de Entomologia, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista, São Cristóvão 20940-040 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Laboratorio de Ecología de Abejas, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Químicas, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Católica del Maule, Avenida San Miguel, 3605, Talca, Chile.

Mesochorinae is a relatively small but widely distributed subfamily of Ichneumonidae, with most species occurring in the Neotropical Region. Currently, there are two classifications in use regarding mesochorine genera, causing numerous taxonomic conflicts. To resolve nomenclature conflicts, seven new replacement names and twelve new combinations are proposed for species now recognized as members of Mesochorus Gravenhorst. Read More

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November 2018
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The oak gall wasps of Israel (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini)-diversity, distribution and life history.

Zootaxa 2018 Nov 15;4521(4):451-498. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

School of Zoology, the Steinhardt Museum of Natural History, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.

Oak-galling wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Cynipini) have been studied in Israel only superficially so far, despite interest in the Israeli fauna given its location at the southern edge of distribution range of the wasps and their oak hosts. We provide the first comprehensive review of the Israeli fauna of oak cynipids based on an extensive survey of the five naturally occurring oak species in Israel. We report 53 cynipid species, 37 of which are reported from Israel for the first time, 10 are currently known only from this country, and 9 are undescribed. Read More

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November 2018
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Two new species of Dentilabus Heinrich (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ichneumoninae) from Japan and Korea, with redefinition of the genus.

Zootaxa 2018 Nov 20;4524(1):87-96. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Systematic Entomology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589, Japan..

We discovered Dentilabus Heinrich (Icneumoninae: Platylabini) for the first time from the Eastern Palearctic region. Two new species, D. nigripodus sp. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

An illustrated atlas for male genitalia of the New World Polistes Latreille, 1802 (Vespidae: Polistinae).

Zootaxa 2018 Oct 25;4504(3):301-344. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Coordenação de Biodiversidade, Av. André Araújo, 2936, 69067-375, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil..

The male genitalia of 58 species of the New World Polistes are described: 29 of Polistes (Aphanilopterus), 12 of Polistes (Epicnemius), 13 of Polistes (Fuscopolistes), one of Polistes (Onerarius) and three of Polistes (Palisotius). Comments and remarks are also provided. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Rediscovery of Calymmochilus russoi Gibson, 1995 (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eupelmidae), and revision of European Calymmochilus Masi, 1919.

Zootaxa 2018 Oct 26;4504(4):501-523. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Faculty of Biology and CERNESIM, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Bd Carol I nr. 11, 700506, Iasi, Romania..

The European species of Calymmochilus Masi (Hymenoptera, Eupelmidae) are revised. Calymmochilus atratus Masi stat. rev. Read More

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October 2018
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Revision of the subgenus Stigmatodipogon Ishikawa of the genus Dipogon Fox (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae: Pepsinae).

Zootaxa 2018 Nov 5;4514(1):1-22. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan..

The systematics of the subgenus Stigmatodipogon Ishikawa of the genus Dipogon Fox is revised. Six species are listed. Two new species, Dipogon (Stigmatodipogon) kurokawai Shimizu, sp. Read More

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November 2018
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Dip1 Co-opts Features of Branching Nucleation to Create Linear Actin Filaments that Activate WASP-Bound Arp2/3 Complex.

Curr Biol 2018 Dec 21;28(23):3886-3891.e4. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oregon, 1229 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA. Electronic address:

When activated by Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome proteins (WASP), Arp2/3 complex nucleates branched actin filaments important for processes like cellular motility and endocytosis [1]. WASP-mediated activation of Arp2/3 complex requires a preformed actin filament, ensuring that activation by WASP creates branched instead of linear filaments. However, this biochemical requirement also means that assembly of branched actin networks must be primed with an initial seed filament [2-4]. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

From solution to surface to filament: actin flux into branched networks.

Biophys Rev 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

The actin cytoskeleton comprises a set of filament networks that perform essential functions in eukaryotic cells. The idea that actin filaments incorporate monomers directly from solution forms both the "textbook picture" of filament elongation and a conventional starting point for quantitative modeling of cellular actin dynamics. Recent work, however, reveals that filaments created by two major regulators, the formins and the Arp2/3 complex, incorporate monomers delivered by nearby proteins. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

New Long-Term Memory Genes Revealed by Assessing Computational Function Prediction Methods.

G3 (Bethesda) 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth.

A major bottleneck to our understanding of the genetic and molecular foundation of life lies in the ability to assign function to a gene and, subsequently, a protein. Traditional molecular and genetic experiments can provide the most reliable forms of identification, but are generally low-throughput, making such discovery and assignment a daunting task. The bottleneck has led to an increasing role for computational approaches. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Regulation of MRTF-A by JMY via a nucleation-independent mechanism.

Cell Commun Signal 2018 Nov 21;16(1):86. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Institute for Physiological Chemistry, Medical Faculty, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, 06114, Halle (Saale), Germany.

Background: MRTF-A (myocardin-related transcription factor A) is a coactivator for SRF-mediated gene expression. The activity of MRTF-A is critically dependent on the dissociation of G-actin from N-terminal RPEL motifs. MRTF-SRF induction often correlates with enhanced polymerization of F-actin. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Responses of , , and Sensitivity of Guava Production to in Fruit Fly Integrated Pest Management.

J Nematol 2018 ;50(3):261-272

Citrus Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred, Florida, 33850.

Caribbean fruit fly, also known as Caribfly or Anastrepha suspensa , is a major tephritid pest of guavas. A virulent entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species was investigated to suppress the fruit-to-soil stages of Caribflies, which are also attacked by the koinobiont parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata in south Florida. The main objective was to develop a feasible and cost-effective EPN-application method for integrated pest management (IPM) of Caribfly to improve guava production. Read More

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January 2018
5 Reads

Quantifying Temporal Variation in the Benefits of Aphid Honeydew for Biological Control of Alfalfa Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

Environ Entomol 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Ecdysis Foundation, Estelline, SD.

Sugar feeding by biological control agents, such as parasitoid wasps, may enhance their ability to control crop pests, although its importance is likely to vary greatly through space and time. Here we quantified temporal variation in the potential importance of sugar resources associated with honeydew secreted by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)) in determining levels of parasitism of the alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica (Gyllenhal) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) by its dominant parasitoid, Bathyplectes curculionis (Thomson) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) across irrigated alfalfa fields in Montana, United States over 5 yr. A positive association between parasitism of H. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

DNA barcodes identify 99 percent of apoid wasp species (Hymenoptera: Ampulicidae, Crabronidae, Sphecidae) from the Western Palearctic.

Mol Ecol Resour 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

SNSB-Zoologische Staatssammlung, Munich, Germany.

The apoid wasps have traditionally been regarded as a paraphyletic assemblage of four families (Ampulicidae, Crabronidae, Heterogynaidae and Sphecidae) that are closely related to the bees (Anthophila). The present study covers the three families of apoid wasps known to occur in Europe, i.e. Read More

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November 2018

Pollinivory and the diversification dynamics of bees.

Biol Lett 2018 Nov 14;14(11). Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Pollinivory-the consumption of pollen rather than arthropod prey-is a defining feature of bees (Anthophila; the flower lovers). In virtually all bee species, larvae consume a diet composed of pollen mixed with nectar or floral oils. Bees arose from within a group of solitary, carnivorous, apoid wasps in the Early to Mid-Cretaceous, coincident with the rapid rise of flowering plants. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Wasp sting of the cornea.

Int Med Case Rep J 2018 24;11:283-286. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Ophthalmology, Dokkyo Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Koshigaya, Japan,

Purpose: Many treatments, such as conservative management or penetrating keratoplasty, exist for corneal wasp sting. Here, we report a case of paper wasp sting of the cornea treated by anterior chamber wash immediately following admission, which soon resolved the inflammation.

Case: A healthy 9-year-old boy who had been stung by a paper wasp on his left eye 2 days prior to presentation at Dokkyo Medical University Saitama Medical Center was found to have corneal opacity accompanied by ciliary injection. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

The Pollard lab at Salk: moving the leading edge forward.

Authors:
Henry N Higgs

Biophys Rev 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, USA.

This essay will review the years that the Pollard lab was at the Salk Institute in the last half of the 1990s. It was a highly productive time both in research and in training. For me personally, it shaped my career for the better in ways I am still discovering. Read More

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November 2018

Sublethal effects from endosulfan on parasitization by the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi and specificity of nervous pathways involved.

Pest Manag Sci 2018 Nov 11. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Université de Lyon, CNRS, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR 5558, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622, Villeurbanne Cedex, France.

Background: Endosulfan is a semi-permanent pollutant that can be transported long distances through the atmosphere. Although phased out in many countries, it is still used in some populated areas and thus largely contributes to environmental pollution. It can impact non-target species such as Leptopilina boulardi, a hymenopteran parasitoid that is a beneficial insect because it controls the populations of its host. Read More

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November 2018
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Digest: Early exposure to facial cues facilitates facial learning in paper wasps.

Authors:
Matías I Muñoz

Evolution 2018 Dec 15;72(12):2830-2831. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Programa de Fisiología y Biofísica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Independencia 838000, Santiago, Chile.

Tibbetts et al. evaluated the influence of the rearing environment on the facial learning capacity of the paper wasp Polistes metricus. Wasps reared with cues signaling individual identity learned to discriminate faces more accurately than wasps reared in the absence of facial cues. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Allergy alerts - the incidence of parentally reported allergies in children presenting for general anaesthesia.

Paediatr Anaesth 2018 Nov 10. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Management, Perth Children's Hospital, Perth, Australia.

Background And Aim: Pediatric patients increasingly report allergies, including allergies to food and medications. We sought to determine the incidence and, nature of parent-reported allergies in children presenting for surgery and its significance for anaesthetists.

Method: We prospectively collected data on admissions through our surgical admission unit over a two-month period at a pediatric tertiary care teaching hospital. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Comparative transcriptional analysis and RNA interference reveal immunoregulatory pathways involved in growth of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense.

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2018 Oct 30;29:24-31. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Shandong Peninsula Engineering Research Center of Comprehensive Brine Utilization, Weifang University of Science and Technology, Shouguang 262700, PR China.

A source of premium animal protein, crustaceans are widely distributed and cultivated around the world. Short-term or long-term starvation events occur frequently owing to natural environment changes or manual management strategies in the life cycle of crustaceans. The result induced by starvation is that somatic growth of crustaceans will be retarded, while the immune mechanism is activated in this process. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Are Largely Dispensable for the Pathogenesis of Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Front Immunol 2018 25;9:2475. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition caused by an aberrant immune response to microbial components of the gastrointestinal tract. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are innate immune cells specialized in the production of type I interferons and were recently implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders such as lupus and scleroderma. While pDCs were shown to infiltrate intestinal mucosa of IBD patients and proposed to participate in intestinal inflammation, their net contribution to the disease remains unclear. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads