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    Intralesional immunotherapy compared to cryotherapy in the treatment of warts.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 Apr 21;56(4):474-478. Epub 2017 Jan 21.
    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
    Background: Warts are the most common clinical manifestation of the human papilloma-virus infection in the skin and mucous membranes. In spite of the various therapeutic modalities for nongenital skin warts, there is still no single method to be used as an approved treatment. In this study, we compared the efficacy of immunotherapy and cryotherapy on wart lesions. Read More

    Can We Predict the Effectiveness of Intralesional Immunotherapy in Recalcitrant Warts?
    Skinmed 2016 1;14(6):413-421. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Department of Dermatology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.
    Immunotherapy has been used for recalcitrant, large, and multiple warts, although it is difficult to predict which patient will respond. An open interventional cohort trial was conducted in 50 adult patients with recalcitrant multiple, nongenital warts in whom intralesional immunotherapy was given using the Mycobacterium welchii vaccine. The authors determined whether the wart resolution was dependent on the immune response. Read More

    Laser Treatment of Nongenital Verrucae: A Systematic Review.
    JAMA Dermatol 2016 Sep;152(9):1025-34
    Department of Dermatology, University of California Irvine School of Medicine.
    Importance: Although cutaneous warts are common lesions, full remission is not always achieved with conventional therapies. Laser modalities including carbon dioxide (CO2), erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG), pulsed dye (PDL), and Nd:YAG have been investigated as alternative treatments for warts.

    Objective: To review the use and efficacy of lasers for treating nongenital cutaneous warts. Read More

    Human papillomavirus type 2 associated with pyogenic granuloma in patients without clinical evidence of warts.
    Int J Dermatol 2016 Jul 22;55(7):745-50. Epub 2015 Oct 22.
    Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias de la Salud (CIDICS), Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico.
    Background: Pyogenic granuloma is a non-neoplastic lesion that frequently occurs in the skin and mucous membranes of children and pregnant women. The anatomical sites of pyogenic granulomas overlap with those of wart infections caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).

    Objective: This study assessed the presence of HPV DNA in pyogenic granuloma samples by polymerase chain reaction. Read More

    Metastatic Calcinosis Cutis: A Case in a Child with Acute Pre-B Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
    Case Rep Hematol 2015 5;2015:384821. Epub 2015 Aug 5.
    Department of Dermatology, Hospital Central Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, 78210 San Luis Potosí, SLP, Mexico.
    Hypercalcemia in children with malignancy is an uncommon condition. It has been described in leukemia patients with impaired renal excretion of calcium or osteolytic lesions. Metastatic calcinosis cutis (MCC) may develop if hypercalcemia persists. Read More

    HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients.
    J Clin Med 2015 Jan 29;4(2):260-81. Epub 2015 Jan 29.
    Medical School, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1401 Binz, Suite 200, Houston, TX 77004, USA.
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. Read More

    Maturation of the human papillomavirus 16 capsid.
    MBio 2014 Aug 5;5(4):e01104-14. Epub 2014 Aug 5.
    Imaging Sciences Laboratory, Center for Information Technology, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Papillomaviruses are a family of nonenveloped DNA viruses that infect the skin or mucosa of their vertebrate hosts. The viral life cycle is closely tied to the differentiation of infected keratinocytes. Papillomavirus virions are released into the environment through a process known as desquamation, in which keratinocytes lose structural integrity prior to being shed from the surface of the skin. Read More

    Acquired progressive lymphangioma in the inguinal area mimicking giant condyloma acuminatum.
    Cutis 2014 Jun;93(6):316-9
    The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 88 Jiefang Rd, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, China.
    Lymphangioma is a benign proliferation of the lymphatic vessels that accounts for approximately 4% of vascular malformations and 26% of benign vascular tumors. Compared to those arising in nongenital areas, lymphangiomas of the vulva and genital areas are more hyperplastic, possibly due to the loose connective tissue, which can cause a cauliflowerlike appearance and may easily be misdiagnosed as genital warts or molluscum contagiosum. We report a case of acquired progressive lymphangioma (APL) of the inguinal area that mimicked giant condyloma acuminatum and showed favorable results following surgical excision. Read More

    α- and β-papillomavirus infection in a young patient with an unclassified primary T-cell immunodeficiency and multiple mucosal and cutaneous lesions.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2014 Jul 4;71(1):108-15.e1. Epub 2014 Mar 4.
    Virology Unit, Department of Translational Medicine, Medical School of Novara, Novara, Italy. Electronic address:
    Background: Correlating human papillomavirus (HPV) type with the clinical and histopathological features of skin lesions (from genital and nongenital sites) can present a diagnostic challenge.

    Objective: In this study, HPV infection patterns were correlated with pathology and clinical presentation in lesional and nonlesional body sites from a young patient with a primary T-cell immunodeficiency.

    Methods: HPV infection was evaluated at both DNA and protein levels by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Read More

    Hyfrecation for recalcitrant nongenital warts.
    J Family Med Prim Care 2013 Apr;2(2):141-4
    Department of Family Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
    Background: Verruca vulgaris is a common skin condition in general practice, which often resolves without treatment. For lesions needing treatment, they often persist despite repeated treatment and become recalcitrant warts. Hyfrecation is a form of electrosurgery which has been used in treating common and recalcitrant warts. Read More

    Nongenital human papillomavirus disease.
    Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2013 Jun 29;40(2):317-37. Epub 2013 Mar 29.
    Department of Family Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA.
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common viral cause of cancer, and is responsible for 5% of cancers worldwide. Following demonstration of the causative link between HPV and cervical cancer, HPV has been shown to be associated with several anogenital malignancies and with oral pharyngeal cancers. HPV-related anal and oral pharyngeal disease is rising in incidence and includes anal warts and neoplasia, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and oral pharyngeal neoplasia. Read More

    Treatment of nongenital cutaneous warts.
    Am Fam Physician 2011 Aug;84(3):288-93
    Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester Hills, MI, USA.
    Numerous treatments for nongenital cutaneous warts are available, although no single therapy has been established as completely curative. Watchful waiting is an option for new warts because many resolve spontaneously. However, patients often request treatment because of social stigma or discomfort. Read More

    Treating common warts - options and evidence.
    Aust Fam Physician 2010 Dec;39(12):933-7
    Department of Family Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
    Background: Nongenital warts are a common condition seen in general practice, affecting patients of all ages. There are many treatment options and patients often self medicate with remedies from folklore or tradition before presenting to their doctor.

    Objective: This article attempts to summarise the quality of different treatments and to provide recommendations and a quick reference for treating common warts. Read More

    Evaluation of a novel broad-spectrum PCR-multiplex genotyping assay for identification of cutaneous wart-associated human papillomavirus types.
    J Clin Microbiol 2010 May 17;48(5):1706-11. Epub 2010 Mar 17.
    DDL Diagnostic Laboratory, Fonteijnenburghlaan 7, 2275 CX Voorburg, Netherlands.
    A large number of human papillomavirus (HPV) types, distributed over five papillomavirus genera, are detectable in the skin. HPV types belonging to the alpha, gamma, and mu genera have been detected in cutaneous warts. A state-of-the-art HPV genotyping assay for these cutaneous wart-associated HPV types does not exist although warts constitute a highly prevalent skin condition, especially in children (33%) and organ transplant recipients (45%). Read More

    Dermatologic manifestations of HPV in HIV-infected individuals.
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2009 Aug;6(3):130-8
    University of Pennsylvania, Department of Dermatology, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    Dermatologic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in HIV patients manifests as both anogenital and nongenital skin disease. Anogenital HPV-related disease includes benign condyloma acuminata, the most common cutaneous manifestation of genital HPV infection; intermediate malignancy or premalignant conditions including giant condyloma acuminata (also called Buschke-Loewenstein tumor), anal intraepithelial neoplasia, penile intraepithelial neoplasia, and vaginal or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia; and frankly malignant disease including Bowen's disease and invasive anal, penile, or vulvar carcinoma. Cutaneous HPV-related disease in nongenital skin is also increased in HIV-positive patients, in the form of benign common warts, epidermodysplasia verruciformis-like skin lesions, and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Read More

    Skin disease in HIV-positive persons living in Puerto Rico.
    Adv Skin Wound Care 2007 Mar;20(3):149-50, 152-6
    University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, School of Nursing, San Juan, PR.
    Objectives: To determine the frequency of skin disease in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to validate the agreement of self-reported skin condition(s) versus objective data obtained by physical examination, and to describe the characteristics of HIV-positive persons with skin disease in Puerto Rico.

    Design: Descriptive correlational design.

    Setting And Participants: Ninety-five HIV-positive adults in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Read More

    Verruca vulgaris of the vulva in children and adults: a nonvenereal type of vulvar wart.
    Am J Surg Pathol 2007 Apr;31(4):529-35
    Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Condyloma acuminata are common lesions of the vulva in adults, and associated with infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11, which are acquired via sexual contact. The detection of an HPV 6/11 condyloma in the genital tract of a child, therefore, raises the question of sexual abuse. In this study, 29 genital warts in girls less than 5 years of age were examined for nongenital and genital tract HPVs by in situ hybridization. Read More

    Clinical inquiries. What nonpharmacological treatments are effective against common nongenital warts?
    J Fam Pract 2006 Sep;55(9):801-2
    Shenandoah Valley Family Practice Residency, Department of Family Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Front Royal, VA USA.
    Cryotherapy has similar cure rates to topical salicylate (a pharmacologic therapy) for nongenital common warts (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, based on systemic review of variable quality randomized trials). Duct tape may be equivalent to cryotherapy (SOR: B, based on a single randomized trial). CO2 laser, photodynamic therapy, pulsed dye laser (PDL), and Er:Yag laser therapies may also be effective for recalcitrant warts (SOR: C, based on observational cohort studies). Read More

    Oxidative stress in patients with nongenital warts.
    Mediators Inflamm 2005 Aug;2005(4):233-6
    Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Iman University, Turkey.
    Comparison of oxidative stress status between subjects with or without warts is absent in the literature. In this study, we evaluated 31 consecutive patients with warts (15 female, 16 male) and 36 control cases with no evidence of disease to determine the effects of oxidative stress in patients with warts. The patients were classified according to the wart type, duration, number, and location of lesions. Read More

    Cutaneous warts: an evidence-based approach to therapy.
    Am Fam Physician 2005 Aug;72(4):647-52
    Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois, USA.
    Cutaneous warts are a common presenting complaint in children and adolescents. Common, plantar, or flat warts are cutaneous manifestations of the human papillomavirus. The treatment of warts poses a therapeutic challenge for physicians. Read More

    Detection of epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus DNA in nongenital seborrhoeic keratosis.
    Br J Dermatol 2004 Nov;151(5):1060-5
    Department of Dermatology, No. 1 Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China.
    Background: DNA of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV)-associated human papillomaviruses (HPVs) has been widely detected in lesions of malignant skin tumours, benign tumours and other proliferative diseases of epithelial origin.

    Objectives: To investigate the presence of EV-associated HPV DNA in nongenital seborrhoeic keratosis (SK) and to elucidate the prevalence of distinct HPV genotypes.

    Methods: We investigated HPV DNA in 55 nongenital SK biopsies, which were compared with 48 normal skin biopsies (healthy controls) using a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using consensus primers CP65/CP70 and CP66/CP69. Read More

    What's new in pediatric dermatology: update for the pediatrician.
    Curr Opin Pediatr 2004 Aug;16(4):410-4
    Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98105, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Common pediatric skin conditions such as infantile atopic dermatitis, vitiligo, hemangiomas of infancy, warts, and molluscum contagiosum do not always respond to standard therapy. In some settings pediatricians will use "off-label" medications if the benefit-to-risk ratio is favorable. This article reviews important literature from the past year related to "off-label" immune-based treatment of skin disease, using the topical immunomodulators tacrolimus, pimecrolimus, and imiquimod, as well as intravenous Ig. Read More

    Immunophenotypic and viral (human papillomavirus) correlates of vulvar seborrheic keratosis.
    Hum Pathol 2003 Jun;34(6):559-64
    Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and the Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections of the genital mucosa classically present as warts (condylomata) and are traditionally defined by the presence of viral cytopathic effect (koilocytosis). In recent years, HPV has been detected in vulvar epithelial changes lacking koilocytosis, including squamous papillomas and lesions closely resembling seborrheic keratosis (SK). The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and type of HPV associated with vulvar SK (VSK) and to compare expression of biomarkers (p16, Mib-1, and cyclin E) in these lesions. Read More

    Immunotherapy for recalcitrant warts in children using intralesional mumps or Candida antigens.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2003 May-Jun;20(3):268-71
    University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Dermatology, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205-7101, USA.
    Intralesional injection of mumps and Candida skin test antigens has been shown to be effective in the treatment of warts. Warts are generally difficult to treat in children. To determine the efficacy of intralesional skin test antigen injection for the treatment of resistant warts in children, we treated 47 pediatric patients with one or more warts with intralesional injection of mumps or Candida skin test antigen into one wart. Read More

    Molluscum contagiosum and warts.
    Am Fam Physician 2003 Mar;67(6):1233-40
    Utah Valley Family Practice Residency, Provo, Utah 84604, USA.
    Molluscum contagiosum and warts are benign epidermal eruptions resulting from viral infections of the skin. Molluscum contagiosum eruptions are usually self-limited and without sequelae, although they can be more extensive in immunocompromised persons. Spontaneous disappearance of lesions is the norm, but treatment by local destruction (curettage, cryotherapy, or trichloroacetic acid) or immunologic modulation can shorten the disease course, possibly reducing autoinoculation and transmission. Read More

    Evidence-based review of management of nongenital cutaneous warts.
    Cutis 2003 Mar;71(3):213-22
    Department of Dermatology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock 72205, USA.
    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced tumors of the skin are often varied in clinical presentation, ranging from benign warts to malignant neoplasms. This article reviews the natural history and recommended treatment of some of the common HPV-induced tumors, as well as reviews many of the clinical trials for future wart therapies. This review is not meant to serve as a guideline or to be all-inclusive. Read More

    Imiquimod: a review.
    J Cutan Med Surg 2002 Nov-Dec;6(6):554-60. Epub 2002 Oct 9.
    Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Science Center (Sunnybrook site) and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Background And Objective: Imiquimod (Aldara) is an immune response modifier used primarily to treat anogenital warts. Imiquimod induces cytokines and enhances cell-mediated cytolytic antiviral activity in vivo. It exhibits antiviral and antitumor effects; however, it does not exhibit direct antiviral effects in vitro. Read More

    Human papillomavirus: a review.
    Dermatol Clin 2002 Apr;20(2):315-31
    Departments of Dermatology, Microbiology/Immunology, and Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch-Galveston, Galveston, TX, USA.
    Human papillomavirus infection remains a great source of morbidity and mortality. Progress in understanding the structure of HPV and its pathogenesis has led to a wide variety of possible new treatment modalities to combat HPV-related disease. Most HPV infections (whether high risk or low risk) resolve without any medical intervention. Read More

    Imiquimod for plantar and periungual warts.
    Cutis 2001 Dec;68(6):397-9
    Department of Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA.
    Plantar and periungual warts are notoriously difficult to eradicate. Two cases of nongenital warts in teenage girls are presented. Imiquimod was used in combination with cryotherapy for the periungual warts and with occlusion for the plantar warts. Read More

    Intralesional injection of mumps or Candida skin test antigens: a novel immunotherapy for warts.
    Arch Dermatol 2001 Apr;137(4):451-5
    Department of Dermatology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W Markham, SLOT 576, Child Study Center Room 124a, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA.
    Background: Warts are common and induce physical and emotional discomfort. Numerous therapies exist, yet none is optimal. Despite theoretical advantages, immunotherapeutic modalities are often neglected as first-line wart therapies. Read More

    Nongenital human papillomavirus infections.
    Clin Lab Med 2000 Jun;20(2):423-30
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, USA.
    Although genital HPV types produce a broad spectrum of disease, the nongenital types are a bit more predictive. Particularly in the immunocompromised patient, it appears as though when they become symptomatic they cause warts. These warts can be a particular problem with immunocompromised patients where the malignant potential can also be expressed. Read More

    Imiquimod in clinical practice.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2000 Jul;43(1 Pt 2):S12-7
    Southeast Vulvar Clinic, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA.
    Numerous clinical trials have shown topical imiquimod (Aldara) to be effective and safe for the treatment of anogenital warts. In addition, the recurrence rate appears to be lower than those reported for many standard therapies of genital warts. Clinical experience with this medication since its availability 2 years ago has shown that it is important in the therapy of this disease. Read More

    Treatment of viral warts with cimetidine: an open-label study.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2000 May;25(3):183-5
    Department of Dermatology, Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, UK.
    The immunomodulatory actions of cimetidine, an H2-receptor antagonist, and its use in the treatment of viral warts has been described previously but its effectiveness is still debated. We report the results in 47 patients with multiple, nongenital viral warts who were treated with oral cimetidine in a 3-month open-label study. The drug was generally well tolerated and 87% of children and 68% of adults improved with treatment. Read More

    Nongenital dermatologic disease in HIV-infected women.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 1999 Jun;40(6 Pt 1):938-48
    St Vincent's Hospital and Medical Center, Dermatology Section, New York, New York, USA.
    Background: Dermatologic disease in HIV-infected women has not been adequately characterized.

    Objective: The main purposes of this study were to characterize nongenital dermatologic disease in HIV-infected women and correlate these diagnoses with CD4 lymphocyte count to compare these findings with those in published reports of men.

    Methods: This study was a retrospective chart review of female patients with dermatologic diagnoses followed up at an HIV clinic in New York City, seen by either a dermatologist (49 patients) and/or a primary care practitioner (114 patients). Read More

    Recalcitrant viral warts: results of treatment with the KTP laser.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 1999 Mar;24(2):60-3
    Department of Dermatology, Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, UK.
    We report the use of a potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) continuous wave laser in an open study to treat 25 patients with multiple nongenital warts that had failed to respond to conventional therapies. All patients were treated monthly using the 532 nm KTP continuous wave laser and robotic scanner. Twenty patients (80%) responded to treatment with warts: in 12 patients there was complete clearing. Read More

    Low risk of perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus: results from a prospective cohort study.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998 Feb;178(2):365-73
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195-6460, USA.
    Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate the risk of perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus.

    Study Design: Pregnant women were evaluated at <20 weeks' and between 34 and 36 weeks' gestation for genital human papillomavirus by clinical and colposcopic examination and by polymerase chain reaction. Their 151 infants were evaluated at birth, 6 weeks, and 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age for detection of human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid by polymerase chain reaction on samples from the mouth, external genitalia, and anus. Read More

    Phylogenetic analysis of the human papillomavirus type 2 (HPV-2), HPV-27, and HPV-57 group, which is associated with common warts.
    Virology 1997 Dec;239(2):296-302
    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, National University of Singapore, Republic of Singapore.
    Human papillomavirus types 2 (HPV-2), HPV-27, and HPV-57, are three closely related viruses within the phylogenetic supergroup formed by the remotely related genital papillomaviruses. In contrast to this phylogenetic association, these three viruses are most often found in common warts at nongenital sites, but also occasionally in genital warts and mucosal lesions of the nasopharyngeal cavity. We studied the genomic diversity of HPV sequences in skin warts presumably caused by these viruses. Read More

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. A study of epidemiologic risk factors, human papillomavirus, and p53 expression.
    Arch Dermatol 1997 May;133(5):577-83
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, USA.
    Objective: To examine risk factors for the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in a group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, including evaluation and detection of epidemiologic risk factors of human papillomavirus (HPV) and p53 expression.

    Design: Case-control study during a 3-year period.

    Setting: Dermatologic referral center. Read More

    Primary care treatment approach to nongenital verruca.
    Nurse Pract 1996 Oct;21(10):29-33, 36
    Clinica Campesina, Denver, Colo., USA.
    Nongenital verruca is a common ailment frequently encountered in the primary care setting. Although greater than half of verruca resolve spontaneously within a 2-year period, many have a propensity to spread and cause considerable discomfort if untreated. This characteristic makes it vital for the clinician to become competent in assessment and treatment of verruca. Read More

    Nongenital warts: when is treatment warranted?
    Postgrad Med 1996 Mar;99(3):245-9
    University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, USA.
    Patients often request laser therapy or other dramatic measures for treatment of nongenital warts. Because some popular interventions may be painful and costly and lead to scarring, it is wise to make sure a procedure's merits outweigh its side effects before commencing. Read More

    Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in nongenital seborrhoeic keratoses.
    Arch Dermatol Res 1995 ;287(6):612-5
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Greece.
    The histological similarities of seborrhoeic keratoses and common warts led to the investigation of the possible occurrence of human papillomavirus DNA (HPV-DNA) in a large number of nongenital seborrhoeic keratoses using the in situ hybridization technique. All specimens derived from normal skin (n = 173) were negative for the applied HPV-DNA probe, whereas the HPV genome was detected in 34 of 173 seborrhoeic keratosis specimens (19.65%). Read More

    Absence of human papillomavirus in squamous cell carcinomas of nongenital skin from immunocompromised renal transplant patients.
    Arch Dermatol 1993 Dec;129(12):1585-8
    Department of Dermatology, Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC.
    Background And Design: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is accepted as a factor in the pathogenesis of genital squamous cell carcinomas. The incidences of both HPV infection and squamous cell carcinoma are increased in immunocompromised renal transplantation patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if HPV DNA is present in squamous cell carcinomas of nongenital skin in immunosuppressed patients. Read More

    Human papillomavirus type 6 infection involving cutaneous nongenital sites.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 1992 Nov;27(5 Pt 2):876-9
    Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33101.
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 6 is classically considered a mucosatropic virus. Interestingly, clinical manifestations of HPV 6 infection that involve nonmucosal or nongenital sites have rarely been described. The reasons for this site specific infectivity of HPV 6 are unknown. Read More

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