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    Antitumor in situ vaccination effect of TNFα and IL-12 plasmid DNA electrotransfer in a murine melanoma model.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Experimental Oncology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Zaloska 2, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Gene electrotransfer (GET) is one of the most efficient non-viral gene therapy approaches for the localized transfer of multiple genes into tumors in vivo; therefore, it is especially promising for delivering different cytokines that are toxic if administered systemically. In this study, we used concomitant intratumoral GET of two cytokines: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), a potent cytotoxic cytokine to induce in situ vaccination, and interleukin 12 (IL-12), an immunostimulatory cytokine to boost the primed local immune response into a systemic one. After performing GET in murine melanoma tumors, both TNFα and IL-12 mRNA levels were significantly increased, which resulted in a pronounced delay in tumor growth of 27 days and a prolonged survival time of mice. Read More

    Incidence of Autoimmune and Related Disorders After Resolution of Endogenous Cushing Syndrome in Children.
    Horm Metab Res 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Glucocorticoids are widely used for immunosuppression in autoimmune diseases. After the resolution of hypercortisolemia, the immune system recovers allowing for autoimmune diseases to manifest. Here we investigated the presence of autoimmune and related diseases that developed after cure of endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) in children. Read More

    CAPN3, DCT, MLANA and TYRP1 are overexpressed in skin of vitiligo vulgaris Mexican patients.
    Exp Ther Med 2018 Mar 17;15(3):2804-2811. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León 64460, México.
    Vitiligo is a disorder causing skin depigmentation, in which several factors have been proposed for its pathogenesis: Environmental, genetic and biological aspects of melanocytes, even those of the surrounding keratinocytes. However, the lack of understanding of the mechanisms has complicated the task of predicting the development and progression. The present study used microarray analysis to characterize the transcriptional profile of skin from Vitiligo Vulgaris (VV) patients and the identified transcripts were validated using targeted high-throughput RNA sequencing in a broader set of patients. Read More

    Comparative study on some oxidative stress parameters in blood of vitiligo patients before and after combined therapy.
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Feb 14;94:234-239. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria.
    Currently accepted that oxidative stress is a triggering event in the melanocytic destruction and is probably involved in the etiopathogenesis of vitiligo disease. Despite numerous investigations, contradictory results were reported about the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers measured in the skin and blood of vitiligo patients. By Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and spectrophotometry, we have investigated and compared some oxidative stress biomarkers in the blood of vitiligo patients' before and after UVB Narrow Band 311 nm phototherapy combined with the antioxidant nutritional supplement containing - Vitamin C, Vitamin B1, L -Cysteine, Lipoic Acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Read More

    A prospective right-left comparative study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of combination of NB-UVB and topical bimatoprost 0.03% eye drops versus NB-UVB given alone in patients of vitiligo vulgaris.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India.
    The treatment of vitiligo has been a tough challenge for dermatologists. Phototherapy, apart from being first line monotherapy,has also been used in combination with topical therapies like corticosteroids, khellin, phenylalanine, calcineurin inhibitors etc, with the aim of hastening and enhancing repigmentation and reducing side-effects.Recent reports have highlighted darkening of iris, and eyelash and periocular hyperpigmentation induced by latanoprost (prostaglandin F2α analogue) used for treatment of glaucoma. Read More

    Effect of Dickkopf1 on the senescence of melanocytes: in vitro study.
    Arch Dermatol Res 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014, India.
    Fibroblasts secrete several growth factors which are important for the regulation of skin pigmentation. Dickkopf1 (DKK1) is also secreted by fibroblasts which inhibit the growth and function of melanocytes. Therefore, the study was designed to check the role of DKK1 in vitiligo pathogenesis. Read More

    Treatment outcomes of vitiligo in Asian children.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    National Skin Centre, Singapore, Singapore.
    This retrospective study aimed to identify factors that predict treatment response in a cohort of Asian children with vitiligo. Shorter duration of vitiligo was associated with better repigmentation. Patients with focal vitiligo of short duration have a good chance of achieving repigmentation with topical agents alone. Read More

    Granulomatous/sarcoid-like lesions associated with checkpoint inhibitors: a marker of therapy response in a subset of melanoma patients.
    J Immunother Cancer 2018 Feb 12;6(1):14. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Pathology, Section of Dermatopathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Background: Immune checkpoint therapy has dramatically changed the landscape of cancer therapy, providing an efficacious and durable therapeutic option for patients with advanced-stage disease. However, dermatologic toxicities are a well-recognized side effect in patients receiving this therapy. A spectrum of immune related adverse events (irAEs) involving the skin can occur and include immunobullous disorders, lichenoid dermatitis, and vitiligo. Read More

    Pigmentation Disorders: Diagnosis and Management.
    Am Fam Physician 2017 Dec;96(12):797-804
    Norton Audobon Hospital, Louisville, KY, USA.
    Pigmentation disorders are commonly diagnosed, evaluated, and treated in primary care practices. Typical hyperpigmentation disorders include postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigines, ephelides (freckles), and café au lait macules. These conditions are generally benign but can be distressing to patients. Read More

    Dissecting Wnt signaling for melanocyte regulation during wound healing.
    J Invest Dermatol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology; Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address:
    Abnormal pigmentation is commonly seen in the wound scar. Despite advancements in the research of wound healing, little is known about the repopulation of melanocytes in the healed skin. Previous studies have demonstrated the capacity of melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) in the hair follicle to contribute skin epidermal melanocytes following injury in mice and humans. Read More

    Glycoproteins in circulating immune complexes are biomarkers of patients with Indian PKDL: A study from endemic districts of West Bengal, India.
    PLoS One 2018 8;13(2):e0192302. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Tropical Medicine, West Bengal, India.
    Background: Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) occurs as dermal consequence of previous Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) infection and serves as an important reservoir for transmission of VL. Diagnosis of PKDL is often challenging for its symptomatic resemblance to other co-endemic diseases like Leprosy or Vitiligo. Parasitological examination by slit-skin smear and culture are the standard methods but lack high sensitivity. Read More

    Once weekly targeted excimer light produced modest re-pigmentation of vitiligo over a 20-week period.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Department of Dermatology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, S10 2JF, U.K.
    Vitiligo is an acquired disorder of depigmentation resulting from the loss of functional epidermal melanocytes. It has a worldwide prevalence of 0.5-2%. Read More

    Efficacy of oral cholecalciferol on rhododendrol-induced vitiligo: A blinded randomized clinical trial.
    J Dermatol 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Dermatology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.
    Rhododendrol (RD), 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol, inhibits melanin synthesis and has been used for skin-whitening cosmetic products. RD has been very effective in lightening skin pigmentation, but some persons have developed so-called RD vitiligo, in which vitiligo starts on the face, neck and hands where topical RD has been applied and even extended over skin areas where RD has not been applied. RD vitiligo lesions in some patients have lasted for years and have been resistant to conventional vitiligo treatments. Read More

    Association of elevated homocysteine levels and Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 1298 A > C polymorphism with Vitiligo susceptibility in Gujarat.
    J Dermatol Sci 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, 390002, Gujarat, India. Electronic address:
    Background: Several studies have reported hyperhomocysteinemia in vitiligo patients, suggesting the potential role of elevated homocysteine levels in precipitating vitiligo.

    Objectives: We aimed to estimate homocysteine and vitamin Blevels, and to investigate the role of MTHFR 677 C > T and 1298 A > C polymorphisms in vitiligo susceptibility in Gujarat population.

    Methods: Homocysteine and vitamin Blevels were estimated in plasma of 55 vitiligo patients and 60 controls by Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Read More

    Combination of Follicular and Epidermal Cell Suspension as a Novel Surgical Approach in Difficult-to-Treat Vitiligo: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
    JAMA Dermatol 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Importance: Epidermal cell suspension (ECS) and follicular cell suspension (FCS) are successful surgical modalities for the treatment of stable vitiligo. However, repigmentation in generalized and acrofacial vitiligo and over acral or bony sites (eg, elbows, knees, iliac crests, and malleoli), which are difficult to treat, is challenging.

    Objective: To study the efficacy of transplanting a combination of autologous, noncultured ECS and FCS (ECS + FCS) compared with ECS alone in stable vitiligo. Read More

    The pathogenesis of iodide mumps: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Nov;96(47):e8881
    Relation: Iodide mumps is an uncommon condition, induced by iodide-containing contrast, and is characterized by a rapid, painless enlargement of the bilateral or unilateral salivary gland. At present, the pathogenesis of iodide mumps is not yet clear. It may be related to an idiosyncratic reaction, a toxic accumulation of iodine in the gland duct, or renal function damage leading to an iodine excretion disorder. Read More

    Impact of climate change on dermatological conditions related to flooding: update from the International Society of Dermatology Climate Change Committee.
    Int J Dermatol 2018 Jan 29. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
    Climate change contributes to the increase in severity and frequency of flooding, which is the most frequent and deadly disaster worldwide. Flood-related damage can be very severe and include health effects. Among those health impacts, dermatological diseases are one of the most frequently encountered. Read More

    PD-L1 reverses depigmentation in Pmel-1 vitiligo mice by increasing the abundance of Tregs in the skin.
    Sci Rep 2018 Jan 25;8(1):1605. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Department of Dermatology, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 200437, China.
    Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a ligand of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) that functions as an immune checkpoint by down-regulating immune responses. To determine whether PD-L1 is a therapy target in vitiligo treatment, Pmel-1 vitiligo mice were treated with a PD-L1 fusion protein. Treatment with this fusion protein significantly reversed/suppressed depigmentation development in adult Pmel-1 mice. Read More

    Optimizing suction blister epidermal graft technique in the surgical treatment of vitiligo.
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 Nov-Dec;92(6):888-890
    Department of Dermatology at Hospital Santa Casa de Curitiba - Curitiba (PR), Brazil.
    Surgical management of vitiligo is considered an excellent terapeutic option for recalcitrant cases, provided the disease is stable and there is absence of Koebner phenomenom. Among surgical modalities, Suction Blister Epidermal Graft is a low cost and effective option (65 to 100% repigmentation can be achieved in up to 80% of patients). We describe how it can be optimized by using an alternative suction equipment, by customization of graft format and by application of an anesthetic technique that substantially reduces procedure time. Read More

    Prepubertal and postpubertal vitiligo: a multivariate comparative study in 375 patients.
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 Nov-Dec;92(6):811-815
    Dermatology Department, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Background: The onset of vitiligo during childhood is common. Limited data exist that compare the clinical associations of prepubertal and postpubertal vitiligo in Arabs.

    Objective: To compare the clinical profile of pre and postpubertal onset vitiligo. Read More

    Predictive Model for Response Rate to Narrowband Ultraviolet B Phototherapy in Vitiligo: A Retrospective Cohort Study of 579 Patients.
    Acta Derm Venereol 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Dermatology, Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Universidad del Desarrollo, Av. Manquehue Norte 1410, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile.
    Vitiligo is an acquired depigmenting disorder. To date, there is no predictive model for its response rate to narrowband ultraviolet B (NBUVB) phototherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the different types of response of patients with non-segmental vitiligo undergoing NBUVB 3 times a week. Read More

    Fine-mapping analysis of the MHC region for vitiligo based on a new Han-MHC reference panel.
    Gene 2018 Mar 2;648:76-81. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Institute of Dermatology and Department of Dermatology of the First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China; Key Laboratory of Dermatology, Anhui Medical University, Ministry of Education, Hefei 230032, China. Electronic address:
    Vitiligo is an immune-related disease with patchy depigmentation of skin and hair caused by selective destruction of melanocytes. In recent decades, many studies have shown the association between vitiligo and HLA genes; however, the results of Han Chinese are scarce. In this study, we performed a fine-mapping analysis of the MHC region in 2818 Han Chinese subjects through a widely used HLA imputation method with a newly built large-scale Han-MHC reference panel. Read More

    A Case of Immune Thrombocytopenia as a Rare Side Effect of an Immunotherapy with PD1-Blocking Agents for Metastatic Melanoma.
    Transfus Med Hemother 2017 Nov 14;44(6):426-428. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Dermatology, Saarland University Medical School, Homburg/Saar, Germany.
    Background: Checkpoint blocking agents such as pembrolizumab or nivolumab may induce a diversity of mostly autoimmune-mediated side effects. These autoimmune phenomena mainly affect ductless glands such as the pituitary gland (hypophysitis), the thyroid gland (thyreoiditis), the skin (vitiligo and rash), the colon (colitis), and the lung (pneumonitis). Furthermore, many other organs or organ systems may be affected. Read More

    Critical appraisal of the oxidative stress pathway in vitiligo: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Department of Dermatology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
    Background: The pathogenesis of vitiligo remains a topic of extensive debate. This is partly due to the moderate efficacy of current treatments. The role of oxidative stress pathway in vitiligo is a popular although controversial research topic. Read More

    Epidermal melanocytes of segmental vitiligo show altered expression of E-cadherin, but not P-cadherin.
    Br J Dermatol 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Institut Curie, PSL Research University, INSERM U1021, Normal and Pathological Development of Melanocytes, Orsay, France.
    Vitiligo is the most common pigmentation disorder, with a worldwide prevalence of 1%. The loss of melanocytes from the skin is the main clinical feature of patients with vitiligo, resulting in depigmentation macules. Vitiligo has been classified into two major forms: non-segmental vitiligo (NSV) and segmental vitiligo (SV). Read More

    Safety and efficacy of anti-programmed death 1 antibodies in patients with cancer and pre-existing autoimmune or inflammatory disease.
    Eur J Cancer 2018 Mar 10;91:21-29. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Service de Médecine Interne et Immunologie Clinique, F-94275, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; INSERM U1184, Immunology of Viral Infections and Autoimmune Diseases, F-94276, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; Université Paris Sud, UMR 1184, F-94276, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; CEA, DSV/iMETI, IDMIT, F-92265, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France. Electronic address:
    Objective: Patients with autoimmune or inflammatory disease (AID) are susceptible to immune-related adverse events (irAEs) when treated with immune check-point inhibitors (ICIs). We decided to analyse the safety and effectiveness of anti-PD-1 antibodies in AID patients and look for an association between the presence of pre-existing AID and the clinical outcome.

    Methods: In a prospective study of the REISAMIC registry of grade ≥2 irAEs occurring in ICI-treated patients, we studied the associations between pre-existing AID on one hand and irAE-free survival, overall survival and best objective response rate on the other. Read More

    Views and experiences of seeking information and help for vitiligo: a qualitative study of written accounts.
    BMJ Open 2018 01 11;8(1):e018652. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Primary Care and Population Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Objectives: Vitiligo is a relatively common autoimmune condition causing loss of skin pigment. Around 1 in 100 people in the UK develop vitiligo. It can have a significant impact on quality of life for many of those affected. Read More

    [ELEMENTAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH VARIOUS FORMS OF VITILIGO].
    Georgian Med News 2017 Dec(273):64-68
    Tbilisi State Medical University, Department of Dermatology and Venerology; "Georgigian Assotiation of Vitiligo", Center of Medical Elementology "Laboretory Bioelement", Tbilisi, Georgia.
    Vitiligo is a multifactorial disease in which, in each specific case of its manifestation, different mechanisms of its pathogenesis and different levels of melanin formation in the skin can be involved. Skin is one of the most metabolically active organs. Carrying out a number of vital functions (barrier, protective, respiratory, excretory, metabolic, immune, etc. Read More

    Preclinical evaluation of melanocyte transplantation by chitosan-based melanocyte spheroid patch to skin prepared by controlled sunburn blistering.
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Transplantation of autologous cultured melanocytes as cell suspension has been used for the treatment of vitiligo. The recipient site is often prepared by laser-mediated dermabrasion. Such procedures encounter disadvantages including prolonged transplantation duration, unsecured cell adherence to lesional skin and potential scarring. Read More


    Efficacy and safety of noncultured melanocyte-keratinocyte transplant procedure for vitiligo and other leukodermas: a critical analysis of the evidence.
    Int J Dermatol 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Hospital & SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.
    Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin of depigmentation occurring secondary to melanocyte destruction. Vitiligo and other leukodermas have a profound impact on quality of life. Current therapies include medical options, such as phototherapy, topical and systemic corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, immunomodulators, and antioxidiants, and surgical options. Read More

    The early repigmentation pattern of vitiligo is related to the source of melanocytes and by the choice of therapy: a retrospective cohort study.
    Int J Dermatol 2018 Mar 10;57(3):324-331. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Background: Patients with vitiligo present with different repigmentation patterns in the early recovery stage.

    Objectives: To analyze the relationships between early repigmentation patterns in vitiliginous patches, their clinical characteristics, and therapeutic choices.

    Methods: Patients with vitiligo seen in the Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from 2010 to 2015, were included, and their clinical records, especially photographs and medical treatments, were reviewed. Read More

    Identification of a Pyranocoumarin Photosensitizer that is a Potent Inhibitor of Keratinocyte Growth.
    Photochem Photobiol 2018 Jan 6. Epub 2018 Jan 6.
    Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, 18015, USA.
    Photosensitizers are used in the treatment of epidermal proliferation and differentiation disorders such as psoriasis and vitiligo. In the present studies, a ring-expanded carbon homologue of the linear psoralen (furo[3,2-g]benzopyran-7-one) class of photosensitizers, 4,10-dimethyl-2H,8H-benzo[1,2-b:5,4-b']dipyran-2-one (NDH2476), was synthesized and analyzed for biological activity. Following activation by ultraviolet light (UVA, 320-400 nm), NDH2476 was found to be a potent inhibitor of keratinocyte growth (IC= 9 nM). Read More

    Autoimmunity and autoimmune co-morbidities in psoriasis.
    Immunology 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Dermatology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Psoriasis is characterized by widespread scaly erythematous plaques that cause significant physical and psychological burdens for the affected individuals. Accelerated inflammation driven by the tumour necrosis factor-α/interleukin-23/interleukin-17 axis is now known to be the major mechanism in the development of psoriasis. In addition, psoriasis has an autoimmune nature that manifests as autoreactive T cells and is co-morbid with other autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune bullous diseases, vitiligo, alopecia and thyroiditis. Read More

    Speckled lentiginous nevus: understanding the process of development and regression.
    Br J Dermatol 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Dermatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi, Japan.
    Speckled lentiginous nevus (SLN) is characterized by a brownish macule studded with blackish, multiple melanocytic nevi, although the cutaneous manifestations may vary by cases, and change by age. Therefore, there has been disagreement as to whether SLN is a congenital or acquired disease 1, 2). In rare cases of SLN, halo phenomenon may occur around the pre-existing lesion, associated with the coexistence of distant vitiligo 3). Read More

    Vitiligoid variant of lichen sclerosus in young girls with darker skin types.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Section of Dermatology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Background/objectives: Vitiligo and lichen sclerosus are autoimmune disorders characterized by white discoloration, and both frequently affect the anogenital region. Vitiligoid lichen sclerosus refers to a superficial variant of lichen sclerosus in which the lesion appears clinically to be vitiligo based on the predominant presentation of depigmentation and minimal inflammation and sclerosis but histologically is consistent with lichen sclerosus. A limited number of reports have described vitiligoid lichen sclerosus, and from these reports, it appears to primarily affect darker-skinned people. Read More

    What's new in atopic eczema? An analysis of systematic reviews published in 2015. Part 1: epidemiology and methodology.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    This review forms part of a series of annual updates that summarize the evidence base for atopic eczema (AE), providing a succinct guide for clinicians and patients. It provides a summary of key findings from 15 systematic reviews that were published during 2015, and focuses on the epidemiology and methodology issues of AE. For systematic reviews on the prevention and treatment of AE, see Part 2 of this update. Read More

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