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    All-trans-retinoic acid ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity: in vivo potential involvement of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis via caspase-3 and p53 down-expression.
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour, 22511, Egypt.
    The present study aimed to investigate the potential protective effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA, a natural derivative of vitamin A) against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced in vivo cardiac toxicity and its underlying mechanisms. Forty male albino rats were allocated into control, ATRA (0.5 mg/kg bwt, intraperitoneally daily), DOX (2. Read More

    Excess iron: considerations related to development and early growth.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA
    What effects might arise from early life exposures to high iron? This review considers the specific effects of high iron on the brain, stem cells, and the process of erythropoiesis and identifies gaps in our knowledge of what molecular damage may be incurred by oxidative stress that is imparted by high iron status in early life. Specific areas to enhance research on this topic include the following: longitudinal behavioral studies of children to test associations between iron exposures and mood, emotion, cognition, and memory; animal studies to determine epigenetic changes that reprogram brain development and metabolic changes in early life that could be followed through the life course; and the establishment of human epigenetic markers of iron exposures and oxidative stress that could be monitored for early origins of adult chronic diseases. In addition, efforts to understand how iron exposure influences stem cell biology could be enhanced by establishing platforms to collect biological specimens, including umbilical cord blood and amniotic fluid, to be made available to the research community. Read More

    Vitamin A status and its determinants in patients with cystic fibrosis.
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 2017 Jul-Sep;16(3):345-354
    Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland.
    Background: Routine administration of vitamin A, recommended in CF patients, can help to prevent its deficiency. However, high vitamin A supplementation may lead to its excessive level and possible toxicity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the status of vitamin A and the determinants of its body resources in CF patients. Read More

    Hepatic stellate cell-targeted imatinib nanomedicine versus conventional imatinib: A novel strategy with potent efficacy in experimental liver fibrosis.
    J Control Release 2017 Sep 28;266:226-237. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
    Liver fibrosis is a global health problem without approved treatment. Imatinib inhibits two key profibrotic pathways; platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and thus can be used to treat liver fibrosis. However, conventional imatinib therapy is hampered by low concentration at target tissue and increased toxicity to other tissues especially heart, lung and liver. Read More

    Retinoic acid postconsolidation therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma patients treated with autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 08 25;8:CD010685. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Children's Hospital, University of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, Cologne, Germany, 50937.
    Background: Neuroblastoma is a rare malignant disease and mainly affects infants and very young children. The tumours mainly develop in the adrenal medullary tissue, with an abdominal mass as the most common presentation. About 50% of patients have metastatic disease at diagnosis. Read More

    Malaria, Epstein-Barr virus infection and the pathogenesis of Burkitt's lymphoma.
    Int J Cancer 2017 Nov 24;141(9):1849-1855. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Chief, Division of Hematology, Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Children's National Medical Center, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC.
    A geographical and causal connection has long been recognized between malaria, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Potential clues are that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum selectively absorbs vitamin A from the host and depends on it for its biological activities; secondly, alterations in vitamin A (retinoid) metabolism have been implicated in many forms of cancer, including BL. The first author has proposed that the merozoite-stage malaria parasite, emerging from the liver, uses its absorbed vitamin A as a cell membrane destabilizer to invade the red blood cells, causing anemia and other signs and symptoms of the disease as manifestations of an endogenous form of hypervitaminosis A (Mawson AR, Path Global Health 2013;107(3):122-9). Read More

    Comparison of phenotypic and global gene expression changes in Xenopus tropicalis embryos induced by agonists of RAR and RXR.
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2017 Sep 6;330:40-47. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China. Electronic address:
    Retinoic acid functions through two classes of receptors, i.e., the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and the retinoid X receptor (RXR). Read More

    Alterations in vitamin A/retinoic acid homeostasis in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.
    Proc Nutr Soc 2017 Nov 27;76(4):597-602. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    University of Aberdeen,Institute of Medical Sciences,School of Medicine,Medical Sciences and Nutrition,Foresterhill Health Campus,Aberdeen,Scotland AB25 2ZD,UK.
    Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient for life and the phytochemical β-carotene, also known as pro-vitamin A, is an important dietary source of this vitamin. Vitamin A (retinol) is the parent compound of all bioactive retinoids but it is retinoic acid (RA) that is the active metabolite of vitamin A. The plasma concentration of retinol is maintained in a narrow range and its normal biological activities strictly regulated since excessive intake can lead to toxicity and thus also be detrimental to life. Read More

    Synthesis and evaluation of novel dual BRD4/HDAC inhibitors.
    Bioorg Med Chem 2017 Jul 17;25(14):3677-3684. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Institute of Molecular and Cellular, Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan. Electronic address:
    Epigenetic regulation of gene expression via histone acetylation modulates many cellular processes, including apoptosis, the cell cycle, cell growth and differentiation, and inhibitors are promising drug candidates. We have previously developed inhibitors of BRD4, which recognizes acetylated lysine residue on histones and recruits transcription elongation factor to the transcription start site, while inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC), which catalyzes the removal of acetyl groups on histones, are already in clinical use for cancer treatment. Based on the idea that polypharmacological agents with multiple targets would have a more robust action, we set out to develop dual BRD4/HDAC inhibitors. Read More

    Retinoic acid pre-treatment down regulates V. cholerae outer membrane vesicles induced acute inflammation and enhances mucosal immunity.
    Vaccine 2017 Jun 22;35(28):3534-3547. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Division of Bacteriology, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India. Electronic address:
    Bacterial outer membrane vesicles have been extensively investigated and considered as a next generation vaccine. Recently, we have demonstrated that the cholera pentavalent outer membrane vesicles (CPMVs) immunogen induced adaptive immunity and had a strong protective efficacy against the circulating V. cholerae strains in a mouse model. Read More

    RNA-sequencing and pathway analysis reveal alteration of hepatic steroid biosynthesis and retinol metabolism by tributyltin exposure in male rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).
    Aquat Toxicol 2017 Jul 8;188:109-118. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Henan Open Laboratory of Key Subjects of Environmental and Animal Products Safety, College of Animal Science and Technology, Henan University of Science and Technology, Henan, China.
    Tributyltin (TBT) is widely spread in aquatic ecosystems. Although adverse effects of TBT on reproduction and lipogenesis are observed in fishes, the underlying mechanisms, especially in livers, are still scarce and inconclusive. Thus, RNA-sequencing runs were performed on the hepatic libraries of adult male rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) after TBT exposure for 60d. Read More

    Inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication is involved in silica nanoparticles-induced H9c2 cardiomyocytes apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway.
    Int J Nanomedicine 2017 20;12:2179-2188. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    Department of Toxicology, Shandong Academy of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences.
    Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) between cardiomyocytes is essential for synchronous heart contraction and relies on connexin-containing channels. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a major component involved in GJIC in heart tissue, and its abnormal expression is closely associated with various cardiac diseases. Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are known to induce cardiovascular toxicity. Read More

    Lower concentrations of receptor for advanced glycation end products and epiregulin in amniotic fluid correlate to chemically induced cleft palate in mice.
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Apr 28;51:45-50. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, PR China. Electronic address:
    This study investigated the correlation between differentially expressed proteins in amniotic fluid (AF) and cleft palate induced by all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mice. Seven proteins were differentially expressed at embryonic day (E) 16.5 in atRA and control groups as revealed by label-based mouse antibody array. Read More

    Serum Folate, Vitamin B-12, Vitamin A, γ-Tocopherol, α-Tocopherol, and Carotenoids Do Not Modify Associations between Cadmium Exposure and Leukocyte Telomere Length in the General US Adult Population.
    J Nutr 2017 Apr 8;147(4):538-548. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC.
    Background: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a biomarker of the aging process and is associated with the risk of chronic disease. Higher exposure to cadmium may be associated with shorter LTL, and adequate nutrient concentrations may be associated with longer LTL; however, the potential interaction between metals and nutrients on LTL has yet to be examined.Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids were associated with LTL, and whether they modified the association between blood cadmium and LTL in the US NHANES (1999-2002). Read More

    Inorganic mercury prevents the differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells: Amyloid precursor protein, microtubule associated proteins and ROS as potential targets.
    J Trace Elem Med Biol 2017 May 6;41:119-128. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Departmento de Fisiología, Biofísica y Neurociencias, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico City, 07360, Mexico. Electronic address:
    Exposure to mercury (Hg) occurs through different pathways and forms including methylmecury (MeHg) from seafood and rice, ethylmercury (EtHg), and elemental Hg (Hg(0)) from dental amalgams and artisanal gold mining. Once in the brain all these forms are transformed to inorganic Hg (I-Hg), where it bioaccumulates and remains for long periods. Hg is a well-known neurotoxicant, with its most damaging effects reported during brain development, when cellular key events, such as cell differentiation take place. Read More

    Carotenoid glycosides from cyanobacteria are teratogenic in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo model.
    Chemosphere 2017 May 31;174:478-489. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Marine Science Program, Florida International University, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181, USA. Electronic address:
    Toxigenicity of cyanobacteria is widely associated with production of several well-described toxins that pose recognized threats to human and ecosystem health as part of both freshwater eutrophication, and episodic blooms in freshwater and coastal habitats. However, a preponderance of evidence indicates contribution of additional bioactive, and potentially toxic, metabolites. In the present study, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo was used as a model of vertebrate development to identify, and subsequently isolate and characterize, teratogenic metabolites from two representative strains of C. Read More

    Hepatic Detoxification of Bisphenol A is Retinoid-Dependent.
    Toxicol Sci 2017 05;157(1):141-155
    Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
    Bisphenol A (BPA, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane) is a widely used industrial chemical. The extensive distribution of BPA in the environment poses risks to humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying BPA toxicity as well as its effective detoxification and elimination are not well understood. Read More

    [Very Severe Differentiation Syndrome in Low Risk Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia - A Peril of Differentiating Therapy].
    Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2017 Jan 23;142(2):111-114. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, III. Medizinische Klinik, Hämatologie und internistische Onkologie, Mannheim.
    History, examinations and diagnosis A young patient consulted the hospital because of spontaneous hematomas. The combination of pancytopenia and coagulopathy in the blood and the proving cytogenetic and moleculargenetic examinations of the bone marrow lead to the diagnosis of low-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Therapy and clinical course During the combination therapy with ATRA and ATO, the patient developed a severe differentiation syndrome and hyperleukocytosis. Read More

    Excess Retinoic Acid Induces Fusion of Centra by Degenerating Intervertebral Ligament Cells in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.
    J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol 2016 Dec 18;326(8):464-473. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    Laboratory of Marine Life Science and Genetics, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.
    In marine aquaculture fish, excessive supplement of vitamin A (VA) to zooplanktons for larval culture and experimental exposure of larvae to retinoic acid (RA: active form of VA) have been known to cause vertebral deformity. However, the tissues in the developing vertebral column that are affected by RA and the progression of vertebral deformity remain undetermined. To examine these questions, we histologically traced the progress of vertebral deformity induced by RA in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Read More

    Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis in Sudanese children.
    Sudan J Paediatr 2016 ;16(2):80-85
    Sea Ports Corporation Hospital and Red Sea University , Port Sudan , Sudan.
    Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA), also called hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN-IV), is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disease. It is characterized by insensitivity to pain, inability to sweat, episodes of hyperpyrexia, and intellectual disability. These factors render the affected persons to repeatedly injure and traumatise themselves to the degree that they become disabled. Read More

    Retinoic Acid Protects and Rescues the Development of Zebrafish Embryonic Retinal Photoreceptor Cells from Exposure to Paclobutrazol.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 Jan 11;18(1). Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung City 80424, Taiwan.
    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a widely used fungicide that shows toxicity to aquatic embryos, probably through rain-wash. Here, we specifically focus on its toxic effect on eye development in zebrafish, as well as the role of retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of vitamin A that controls proliferation and differentiation of retinal photoreceptor cells, in this toxicity. Embryos were exposed to PBZ with or without RA from 2 to 72 h post-fertilization (hpf), and PBZ-treated embryos (2-72 hpf) were exposed to RA for additional hours until 120 hpf. Read More

    Hyperbaric Oxygen Prevents Cognitive Impairments in Mice Induced by D-Galactose by Improving Cholinergic and Anti-apoptotic Functions.
    Neurochem Res 2017 Apr 11;42(4):1240-1253. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Department of Cardiology, The People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, 6 Taoyuan Road, Nanning, 530021, Guangxi, People's Republic of China.
    Our previous study demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) improved cognitive impairments mainly by regulating oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and aging-related gene expression. However, a method for preventing cognitive dysfunction has yet to be developed. In the present study, we explored the protective effects of HBO on the cholinergic system and apoptosis in D-galactose (D-gal)-treated mice. Read More

    Modulation of Benzo[a]Pyrene Induced Anxiolytic-Like Behavior by Retinoic Acid in Zebrafish: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense System.
    Neurotox Res 2017 May 6;31(4):493-504. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Ravenshaw University, College Square, Cuttack, Odisha, 753003, India.
    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is commonly associated with oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity. Retinoic acid (RA) has been shown to exhibit neuroprotection in brain, and disruption of RA signaling via excess or deficient RA can lead to oxidative stress. B[a]P contamination in aquatic environment has been shown to lower the internal RA level. Read More

    Role of vitamin A metabolism in IIH: Results from the idiopathic intracranial hypertension treatment trial.
    J Neurol Sci 2017 Jan 10;372:78-84. Epub 2016 Nov 10.
    Neurology, University of Iowa School of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, United States.
    Introduction: Vitamin A and its metabolites (called retinoids) have been thought to play a role in the development of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). The IIH Treatment Trial (IIHTT) showed the efficacy of acetazolamide (ACZ) in improving visual field function, papilledema grade, quality of life and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. We postulated that IIH patients would demonstrate elevated measures of vitamin A metabolites in the serum and CSF. Read More

    Different doses of dexmedetomidine reduce plasma cytokine production, brain oxidative injury, PARP and caspase expression levels but increase liver oxidative toxicity in cerebral ischemia-induced rats.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Apr 19;130:1-9. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Unit of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey.
    Cerebral ischemia-induced progression of brain, liver, and erythrocyte oxidative injuries might be modulated by dexmedetomidine (DEX) as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug. The present study was conducted to explore whether two different doses of DEX protect against plasma cytokine and brain, liver and erythrocyte oxidative toxicity and apoptosis in cerebral ischemia-induced rats. Forty-two rats were equally divided into 7 groups. Read More

    Retinoid-like compounds produced by phytoplankton affect embryonic development of Xenopus laevis.
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2017 Apr 22;138:32-38. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    RECETOX - Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Teratogenic effects, which were remarkably similar to those induced by retinoic acids, have been seen in wild frogs indicating possible source of retinoids in the environment. Recent studies indicate that some cyanobacterial species can contain teratogenic retinoic acids (RAs) and their analogues. Retinoids are known to regulate important processes such as differentiation, development, and embryogenesis. Read More

    Effectiveness and safety of nutritional supplements in the treatment of hereditary retinal dystrophies: a systematic review.
    Eye (Lond) 2017 Feb 9;31(2):273-285. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    Red de Investigación en Servicios de Salud en Enfermedades Crónicas (REDISSEC), Madrid, Spain.
    The hereditary retinal dystrophies (HRDs) are a group of genetically determined disorders that result in loss of the visual function. There is a lack of standard pharmacological treatments or widely accepted nutritional recommendations. The objective of this review is to summarise the scientific evidence on the effectiveness and safety of nutritional supplements for the treatment of HRDs. Read More

    Inhibition of IKKβ by celastrol and its analogues - an in silico and in vitro approach.
    Pharm Biol 2017 Dec;55(1):368-373
    a Department of Biochemistry , VRR Institute of Biomedical Science (Affiliated to University of Madras) , Chennai , Tamilnadu , India.
    Context: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting the aged population and neuroinflammation is one of the most observed AD pathologies. NF-κB is the central regulator of inflammation and inhibitor κB kinase (IKK) is the converging point in NF-κB activation. Celastrol is a natural triterpene used as a treatment for inflammatory conditions. Read More

    Vitamin A and Vision.
    Subcell Biochem 2016 ;81:231-259
    Departments of Ophthalmology and Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Washington, 98195, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Visual systems detect light by monitoring the effect of photoisomerization of a chromophore on the release of a neurotransmitter from sensory neurons, known as rod and cone photoreceptor cells in vertebrate retina. In all known visual systems, the chromophore is 11-cis-retinal complexed with a protein, called opsin, and photoisomerization produces all-trans-retinal. In mammals, regeneration of 11-cis-retinal following photoisomerization occurs by a thermally driven isomerization reaction. Read More

    Functions of Intracellular Retinoid Binding-Proteins.
    Subcell Biochem 2016;81:21-76
    Graduate Program in Metabolic Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, 119 Morgan Hall, 94720, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Multiple binding and transport proteins facilitate many aspects of retinoid biology through effects on retinoid transport, cellular uptake, metabolism, and nuclear delivery. These include the serum retinol binding protein sRBP (aka Rbp4), the plasma membrane sRBP receptor Stra6, and the intracellular retinoid binding-proteins such as cellular retinol-binding proteins (CRBP) and cellular retinoic acid binding-proteins (CRABP). sRBP transports the highly lipophilic retinol through an aqueous medium. Read More

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation, amyloidogenesis and memory impairment in aged rats.
    J Neuroimmunol 2016 Nov 8;300:21-29. Epub 2016 Oct 8.
    University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Faculty of Biological Sciences, Cellular and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Cytokines and NO Synthases, Immunity and Pathogeny Team, Algiers, Algeria. Electronic address:
    We aimed to investigate preventive effects of All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced aged neuroinflammation model. We analyzed behavior, systemic nitric oxide (NO) production, cerebral NO synthase (NOS2) and β-amyloid (Aβ) 1-42 expression and tissue integrity in the neuroinflammation model pretreated with ATRA (150μg/ml/rat/day) for 30days. Our results showed that LPS treatment (500μg/kg/day) for 7days disturbed memory, enhanced systemic NO production, NOS2 and Aβ 1-42 cerebral expression and generated an Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neuronal degeneration. Read More

    Mixtures of herbicides and metals affect the redox system of honey bees.
    Chemosphere 2017 Feb 22;168:163-170. Epub 2016 Oct 22.
    Département des Sciences Biologiques, Centre TOXEN, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
    The increasing loss of bee colonies in many countries has prompted a surge of studies on the factors affecting bee health. In North America, main crops such as maize and soybean are cultivated with extensive use of pesticides that may affect non-target organisms such as bees. Also, biosolids, used as a soil amendment, represent additional sources of metals in agroecosystems; however, there is no information about how these metals could affect the bees. Read More

    All-trans retinoic acid shifts rosiglitazone-induced adipogenic differentiation to osteogenic differentiation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.
    Int J Mol Med 2016 Dec 19;38(6):1693-1702. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, Sichuan 400016, P.R. China.
    Rosiglitazone (RSG) is a potent drug used in the treatment of insulin resistance; however, it is associated with marked skeletal toxicity. RSG-induced osteoporosis may contribute to the promotion of adipogenic differentiation at the expense of osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow stromal cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RSG-induced bone toxicity can be reversed by combined treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Read More

    Negative effects of retinoic acid on stem cell niche of mouse incisor.
    Stem Cell Res 2016 Nov 29;17(3):489-497. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Science, 185 Donghu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430071, China. Electronic address:
    The continuous growth of mouse incisors depends on epithelial stem cells (SCs) residing in the SC niche, called labial cervical loop (LaCL). The homeostasis of the SCs is subtly regulated by complex signaling networks. In this study, we focus on retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of Vitamin A and a known pivotal signaling molecule in controlling the functions of stem cells (SCs). Read More

    Medial Ganglionic Eminence Cells Freshly Obtained or Expanded as Neurospheres Show Distinct Cellular and Molecular Properties in Reducing Epileptic Seizures.
    CNS Neurosci Ther 2017 Feb 21;23(2):127-134. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo-UNIFESP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Aims: Medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) progenitors give rise to inhibitory interneurons and may serve as an alternative cell source for large-scale cell transplantation for epilepsy after in vitro expansion. We investigated whether modifications in the culture medium of MGE neurospheres affect neuronal differentiation and expression of MGE-specific genes. In vivo, we compared anticonvulsant effects and cell differentiation pattern among neurospheres grown in different culture media and compared them with freshly harvested MGE cells. Read More

    Insulin on activation of autophagy with integrins and syndecans against MPP(+)-induced α-synuclein neurotoxicity.
    Neurosci Lett 2016 10 16;633:94-100. Epub 2016 Sep 16.
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Metabolic Diseases Research Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly caused by dopaminergic neuronal cell death. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells differentiated by retinoic acid have been used to study the in vitro PD model induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP(+)). In this study, pretreatment of insulin inhibited MPP(+)-induced cell membrane damages, which also inhibited the Cox-2 and α-synuclein levels. Read More

    Are topical retinoids teratogenic?
    G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2016 Dec 6;151(6):700-705. Epub 2016 Sep 6.
    Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, I.R.C.C.S. Foundation, Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy -
    Retinoic acid is a physiological compound of human blood. Blood levels range from 1000 to 7000 pg/mL (usually 1500-5000 pg/mL). Results of studies on absorption of topical retinoic acid in laboratory animals, although rather conflicting, demonstrate that it induces plasma concentrations which are well below concentrations caused by non-teratogenic oral doses. Read More

    Protective and therapeutic effects of fucoxanthin against sunburn caused by UV irradiation.
    J Pharmacol Sci 2016 Sep 12;132(1):55-64. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
    Molecular Toxicology Lab., Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan. Electronic address:
    Mild exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is also harmful and hazardous to the skin and often causes a photosensitivity disorder accompanied by sunburn. To understand the action of UV on the skin we performed a microarray analysis to isolate UV-sensitive genes. We show here that UV irradiation promoted sunburn and downregulated filaggrin (Flg); fucoxanthin (FX) exerted a protective effect. Read More

    Comparison between the protective effects of vitamin K and vitamin A on the modulation of hypervitaminosis D3 short-term toxicity in adult albino rats.
    Turk J Med Sci 2016 Feb 17;46(2):524-38. Epub 2016 Feb 17.
    Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.
    Background/aim: Vitamin D3 has increased risk of toxicity due to its common use in multivitamin preparations. Vitamin K and vitamin A play an important role in vitamin D action. The goal of the current study was to compare the protective effects of vitamin K and vitamin A on the modulation of hypervitaminosis D3 toxicity in rats by assessing serum calcium, renal function tests, cardiac enzymes, and related histopathological changes. Read More

    Nuclear retinoid receptors and pregnancy: placental transfer, functions, and pharmacological aspects.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2016 Oct 9;73(20):3823-37. Epub 2016 Aug 9.
    EA7281, Retinoids, Reproduction Developmental Diseases, School of Medicine, Clermont Université, Université d'Auvergne, 63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Animal models of vitamin A (retinol) deficiency have highlighted its crucial role in reproduction and placentation, whereas an excess of retinoids (structurally or functionally related entities) can cause toxic and teratogenic effects in the embryo and foetus, especially in the first trimester of human pregnancy. Knock-out experimental strategies-targeting retinoid nuclear receptors RARs and RXRs have confirmed that the effects of vitamin A are mediated by retinoic acid (especially all-trans retinoic acid) and that this vitamin is essential for the developmental process. All these data show that the vitamin A pathway and metabolism are as important for the well-being of the foetus, as they are for that of the adult. Read More

    Exploring an animal model of amodiaquine-induced liver injury in rats and mice.
    J Immunotoxicol 2016 Sep 14;13(5):694-712. Epub 2016 Jul 14.
    a Faculty of Pharmacy , University of Toronto , Toronto , Ontario , Canada ;
    Amodiaquine (AQ) is associated with a relatively high incidence of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) and agranulocytosis. A previous study reported that a combination of high dose AQ and glutathione (GSH) depletion led to liver injury. However, the characteristics of this toxicity were very different from AQ-induced liver injury in humans. Read More

    Liver toxicity related to herbs and dietary supplements: Online table of case reports. Part 2 of 5 series.
    Food Chem Toxicol 2017 Sep 8;107(Pt A):472-501. Epub 2016 Jul 8.
    Department of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine, 651 Ilalo Street, MEB 223, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, 96813, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: No online current list of potentially life-threatening, hepatotoxic herbs and dietary supplements based on PubMed case reports exists in a summarized tabular form.

    Methods: Documented case reports of herbs or dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) appearing to contribute to liver injury were used to create an online "DS Toxic Table" of potentially hepatotoxic herbs and dietary supplements (PubMed, 1966 to June, 2016, and cross-referencing). The spectrum of DS induced liver injuries (DSILI) included elevated liver enzymes, hepatitis, steatosis, cholestasis, hepatic necrosis, hepatic fibrosis, hepatic cirrhosis, veno-occlusive disease, acute liver failure requiring a liver transplant, and death. Read More

    Involvement of the histamine H4 receptor in clozapine-induced hematopoietic toxicity: Vulnerability under granulocytic differentiation of HL-60 cells.
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2016 Sep 28;306:8-16. Epub 2016 Jun 28.
    Division of Clinical Sciences and Neuropsychopharmacology, Faculty and Graduate School of Pharmacy, Meijo University, 150 Yagotoyama, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8503, Japan. Electronic address:
    Clozapine is an effective antipsychotic for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but can cause fatal hematopoietic toxicity as agranulocytosis. To elucidate the mechanism of hematopoietic toxicity induced by clozapine, we developed an in vitro assay system using HL-60 cells, and investigated the effect on hematopoiesis. HL-60 cells were differentiated by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) into three states according to the following hematopoietic process: undifferentiated HL-60 cells, those undergoing granulocytic ATRA-differentiation, and ATRA-differentiated granulocytic cells. Read More

    Activation of Notch1 inhibits medial edge epithelium apoptosis in all-trans retinoic acid-induced cleft palate in mice.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2016 Aug 23;477(3):322-8. Epub 2016 Jun 23.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510055, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510055, China. Electronic address:
    Administration of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on E12.0 (embryonic day 12.0) leads to failure of medial edge epithelium (MEE) disappearance and cleft palate. Read More

    LncRNA H19-mediated mouse cleft palate induced by all-trans retinoic acid.
    Hum Exp Toxicol 2017 Apr 14;36(4):395-401. Epub 2016 Jun 14.
    1 School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical College, Xinxiang, Henan, People's Republic of China.
    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the new class of transcripts and pervasively transcribed in the genome, which have been found to play important functional roles in many tissues and organs. LncRNAs can interact with target gene to exert their functions. However, the function and mechanism of lncRNA in cleft palate (CP) development remain elusive. Read More

    Myeloid cell leukaemia 1 has a vital role in retinoic acid-mediated protection of Toll-like receptor 9-stimulated B cells from spontaneous and DNA damage-induced apoptosis.
    Immunology 2016 Sep 25;149(1):62-73. Epub 2016 Jul 25.
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Science, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Vitamin A is an essential anti-infective agent with pleiotropic effects on cells of the immune system. The goal of the present study was to unravel the impact of the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) on B-cell survival related both to normal B-cell homeostasis and to the detrimental effects imposed by DNA-damaging agents. By combining RA with Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) ligands, we show that RA prevents spontaneous, irradiation- and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis of human B cells in an RA receptor-dependent manner. Read More

    Vitamin A toxicity presenting as bone pain.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Jun 6;102(6):556-558. Epub 2016 Jun 6.
    Department of Pediatrics, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry, India.
    A 4-year-old boy presented with severe bone pains, refusal to walk, diffuse bony swelling of forelimbs, skin changes and abdominal pain, with symptoms evolving over 6 weeks. Blood screening tests were normal except for raised aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Radiographs revealed thickened periosteum, widening of the diaphyses of long bones and lifted periosteum in mid-shaft of ulnae and right femur. Read More

    Vitamins A and E content of commercial infant foods in the UK: A cause for concern?
    Food Chem 2016 Nov 11;210:56-62. Epub 2016 Apr 11.
    Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Greenwich, Medway Campus, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK. Electronic address:
    According to the European Food Safety Authority, currently, there are no reliable data or robust guidelines available in relation to the micronutrient composition of infant foods. This study evaluated the intake of vitamins A and E of infants from 'ready-to-feed' foods and formulas. Normal phase high performance liquid chromatography was employed for simultaneous quantification of retinyl acetate, retinyl palmitate, α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography for the quantification of β-carotene, and UV spectrophotometry for the quantification of carotenoids from selected infant food samples. Read More

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