3,256 results match your criteria Vitamin A Toxicity

Is There an Optimal Combination of AREDS2 Antioxidants Zeaxanthin, Vitamin E and Vitamin C on Light-Induced Toxicity of Vitamin A Aldehyde to the Retina?

Antioxidants (Basel) 2022 Jun 9;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Institute of Biology, Pedagogical University, 30-084 Kraków, Poland.

Vitamins C and E and zeaxanthin are components of a supplement tested in a large clinical trial-Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2)-and it has been demonstrated that they can inhibit the progression of age-related macular degeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal combinations of these antioxidants to prevent the phototoxicity mediated by vitamin A aldehyde (ATR), which can accumulate in photoreceptor outer segments (POS) upon exposure to light. We used cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells ARPE-19 and liposomes containing unsaturated lipids and ATR as a model of POS. Read More

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One-Step, Low-Cost, Operator-Friendly, and Scalable Procedure to Synthetize Highly Pure -(4-ethoxyphenyl)-retinamide in Quantitative Yield without Purification Work-Up.

Molecules 2022 Jun 6;27(11). Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Pharmacy (DIFAR), University of Genoa, Viale Cembrano, 16148 Genoa, Italy.

It is widely reported that -(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide or fenretinide (4-HPR), which is a synthetic amide of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), inhibits in vitro several types of tumors, including cancer cell lines resistant to ATRA, at 1-10 µM concentrations. Additionally, studies in rats and mice have confirmed the potent anticancer effects of 4-HPR, without evidencing hemolytic toxicity, thus demonstrating its suitability for the development of a new chemo-preventive agent. To this end, the accurate determination of 4-HPR levels in tissues is essential for its pre-clinical training, and for the correct determination of 4-HPR and its metabolites by chromatography, -(4-ethoxyphenyl)-retinamide (4-EPR) has been suggested as an indispensable internal standard. Read More

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Vitamin Supplementation Protects against Nanomaterial-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Damages: A Meta-Analysis of In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

Nutrients 2022 May 26;14(11). Epub 2022 May 26.

College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou 215123, China.

The extensive applications of nanomaterials have increased their toxicities to human health. As a commonly recommended health care product, vitamins have been reported to exert protective roles against nanomaterial-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. However, there have been some controversial conclusions in regards to this field of research. Read More

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Oral Vitamin A for Acne Management: A Possible Substitute for Isotretinoin.

J Drugs Dermatol 2022 Jun;21(6):683-686

Background: Recent changes to the iPLEDGE platform left providers without the ability to prescribe isotretinoin to their patients. A potential substitute for isotretinoin could be beneficial when the drug is unavailable. Prior to the FDA approval of isotretinoin, a vitamin A derivative, vitamin A was studied for its use in acne management. Read More

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A small-molecule self-assembled nanodrug for combination therapy of photothermal-differentiation-chemotherapy of breast cancer stem cells.

Biomaterials 2022 Jul 24;286:121598. Epub 2022 May 24.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The First Affiliated Hospital (Shenzhen People's Hospital), Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518055, PR China. Electronic address:

The combination therapy with different treatment modalities has been widely applied in the clinical applications of cancer treatment. However, it stills a considerable challenge to achieve co-delivery of different drugs because of distinct drug encapsulation mechanisms, low drug loading, and high excipient-related toxicity. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are closely related to tumor metastasis and recurrence due to high chemoresistance. Read More

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Lower-Than-Expected Vitamin A Concentrations in a Commercial Diet Associated with Uroliths and Pyelonephritis in Rats.

Animals (Basel) 2022 May 18;12(10). Epub 2022 May 18.

Invetus NZ, Ltd., Palmerston North 4410, New Zealand.

Five of 95 rats in an oral safety study developed uroliths, with two of these rats also developing pyelonephritis. Histology of the urinary tract revealed squamous metaplasia suggestive of vitamin A deficiency. Analysis of the diet showed around half the expected concentration of vitamin A, although the concentrations were close to the published nutritional requirements for rats. Read More

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Pesticides Inhibit Retinoic Acid Catabolism in PLHC-1 and ZFL Fish Hepatic Cell Lines.

Chem Res Toxicol 2022 Jun 24;35(6):1045-1058. Epub 2022 May 24.

Département des sciences biologiques, Groupe TOXEN, Université du Québec à Montréal, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada.

The population of yellow perch () in lake Saint-Pierre (QC, Canada) has been dramatically declining since 1995 without any sign of recovery. Previous studies have shown disrupted retinoid (vitamin A) metabolic pathways in these fish, possibly due to the influence of pesticides. Our study aimed to evaluate the impact of some herbicides and neonicotinoids on retinoic acid catabolism in the fish hepatic cell lines PLHC-1 and ZFL. Read More

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eEF1A2 knockdown impairs neuronal proliferation and inhibits neurite outgrowth of differentiating neurons.

Neuroreport 2022 05 20;33(8):336-344. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok.

Objectives: The translation elongation factor-1, alpha-2 (eEF1A2) plays an important role in protein synthesis. Mutations in this gene have been described in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we silenced the expression of eEFA2 in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and observed its roles in neuronal proliferation and differentiation upon induction with retinoic acid. Read More

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An analysis of nutrient facts labels of pediatric multi-vitamin and mineral supplements: Is there a risk of overexposure?

Nutr Health 2022 May 11:2601060221100926. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Health Sciences, 2008Lehman College of the City University of New York, Bronx, NY, USA.

Background: Voluntary and mandatory fortification of pediatric foods, along with widespread consumption of dietary supplements have resulted in an increased proportion of children with excessive micronutrient intake.

Aim: This study aimed to analyze the proportion of pediatric dietary supplements that exceed the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and Tolerable Upper Limit for the individual micronutrients. We further identified the proportion of supplements with large amounts of micronutrients that were marketed through child-friendly and parent-geared promotional language and graphics on the packaging. Read More

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Retinoids as anti-cancer agents and their mechanisms of action.

Am J Cancer Res 2022 15;12(3):938-960. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

School of Biosciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor's University (Lakeside Campus) Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

Retinoids (vitamin A) have been reported extensively for anti-cancer properties due to their high receptor-binding affinities and gene regulation abilities. However, the anti-cancer potential of retinoids has not been reviewed in recent years. Thus, this review focused on the anti-cancer effects of retinoids and their synergistic effects with other drugs, together with their mechanisms of action in different types of cancers reported in the past five years. Read More

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Teratogenicity of retinoids detected in surface waters in zebrafish embryos and its predictability by in vitro assays.

Aquat Toxicol 2022 May 27;246:106151. Epub 2022 Mar 27.

RECETOX, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, Kamenice, Brno 62500 , Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Retinoids are newly detected compounds in aquatic ecosystems associated with cyanobacterial water blooms. Their potential health risks are only scarcely described despite numerous detections of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and its derivatives in the environment. Besides the known teratogen ATRA there is only little or no information about their potency and namely their effects in vivo. Read More

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ESPEN micronutrient guideline.

Clin Nutr 2022 06 26;41(6):1357-1424. Epub 2022 Feb 26.

Departamento de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Nutrition Unit, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Trace elements and vitamins, named together micronutrients (MNs), are essential for human metabolism. Recent research has shown the importance of MNs in common pathologies, with significant deficiencies impacting the outcome.

Objective: This guideline aims to provide information for daily clinical nutrition practice regarding assessment of MN status, monitoring, and prescription. Read More

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Concentration-response of six marine species to all-trans-retinoic acid and its ecological risk to the marine environment.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Apr 28;235:113455. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Pollution and Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Being a class of vitamin A's main derivatives, retinoic acids (RAs) are important to animals' growth and development. Previous studies demonstrated that exposure of excessive amounts of RAs would lead to malformation and abnormal development in aquatic animals such as amphibians and fishes. Currently, there are only limited toxicity data of RAs available for freshwater species, while those for marine species are seriously lacking. Read More

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Mechanisms of Feedback Regulation of Vitamin A Metabolism.

Nutrients 2022 Mar 21;14(6). Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Medical Sciences Division, Northern Ontario School of Medicine, 317-MSE Bldg., 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, ON P3E 2C6, Canada.

Vitamin A is an essential nutrient required throughout life. Through its various metabolites, vitamin A sustains fetal development, immunity, vision, and the maintenance, regulation, and repair of adult tissues. Abnormal tissue levels of the vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid, can result in detrimental effects which can include congenital defects, immune deficiencies, proliferative defects, and toxicity. Read More

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Micronutrient Improvement of Epithelial Barrier Function in Various Disease States: A Case for Adjuvant Therapy.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Mar 10;23(6). Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, 100 Lancaster Avenue, Wynnewood, PA 19096, USA.

The published literature makes a very strong case that a wide range of disease morbidity associates with and may in part be due to epithelial barrier leak. An equally large body of published literature substantiates that a diverse group of micronutrients can reduce barrier leak across a wide array of epithelial tissue types, stemming from both cell culture as well as animal and human tissue models. Conversely, micronutrient deficiencies can exacerbate both barrier leak and morbidity. Read More

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Neuroprotective Effect of Luteolin-7-O-Glucoside against 6-OHDA-Induced Damage in Undifferentiated and RA-Differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Mar 8;23(6). Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Cell Culture Laboratory, Graduate Program in Biotechnology, University of Vale do Taquari (Univates), Lajeado 95914-014, RS, Brazil.

Luteolin is one of the most common flavonoids present in edible plants and its potential benefits to the central nervous system include decrease of microglia activation, neuronal damage and high antioxidant properties. The aim of this research was to evaluate the neuroprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of luteolin-7-O-glucoside (Lut7). Undifferentiated and retinoic acid (RA)-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with Lut7 and incubated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Read More

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Proteomic Analysis of Protective Effects of Flavonoids against Ethanol-Induced Toxicity in Retinoic Acid-Treated SH-SY5Y Cells.

Molecules 2022 Feb 2;27(3). Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.

Alcohol (ethanol) is one of the most common addictive psychoactive substances in the world, and alcoholism may result in harmful effects on human health, especially on the nervous system. Flavonoids are regarded as the main active constituent in , which has been used to cure some nervous system diseases such as amnesia for over 1000 years. Here, the protective effects of flavonoids against ethanol-induced toxicity in retinoic acid (RA)-treated SH-SY5Y cells were investigated. Read More

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February 2022

Rexinoids Modulate Effector T Cell Expression of Mucosal Homing Markers CCR9 and α4β7 Integrin and Direct Their Migration .

Front Immunol 2022 27;13:746484. Epub 2022 Jan 27.

Biodesign Center for Immunotherapy, Vaccines, and Virotherapy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.

Altering T cell trafficking to mucosal regions can enhance immune responses towards pathogenic infections and cancers at these sites, leading to better outcomes. All--retinoic acid (ATRA) promotes T cell migration to mucosal surfaces by inducing transcription of the mucosal-homing receptors CCR9 and α4β7 binding to retinoic acid receptors (RARs), which heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) to function. However, the unstable nature and toxicity of ATRA limit its use as a widespread treatment modality for mucosal diseases. Read More

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Co-delivery of doxorubicin and siRNA by all-trans retinoic acid conjugated chitosan-based nanocarriers for multiple synergistic antitumor efficacy.

Carbohydr Polym 2022 May 7;283:119097. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China.

To achieve the co-delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting B-cell lymphoma 2 (siBcl-2), lactose acid (LA) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) double grafted N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles (GTA NPs) were developed. The relative viability of QGY-7703 cells was decreased to 81.3% when the concentration of GTA NPs was 0. Read More

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Coastal degradation impacts on green turtle's (Chelonia mydas) diet in southeastern Brazil: Nutritional richness and health.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 2;823:153593. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Laboratório de Biologia Marinha e Conservação, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-900 Maceió, AL, Brazil.

This study evaluated the influence of environmental degradation on the nutritional value of the main marine macrophytes consumed by green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) in areas with different degrees of urbanization. Macrophyte assemblages in the highly urbanized area (HUa) showed lower richness compared to the lightly urbanized area (LUa) (Mann-Whitney U test: 10.0 ± 3. Read More

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Hypercalcemia and vitamin A: A vitamin to keep in mind.

Cleve Clin J Med 2022 02 1;89(2):99-105. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Director, East Region, Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Cleveland Clinic; Assistant Professor of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH

Vitamin A, like many things in life, should be consumed in appropriate amounts. Excessive intake of preformed vitamin A, such as that found in supplements and animal sources (animal liver, fish liver oil, dairy, and eggs), is associated with multisystem effects that can include bone resorption and hypercalcemia. Hence, vitamin A toxicity should be explored in unexplained cases of parathyroid hormone-independent hypercalcemia. Read More

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February 2022

Crocetin alleviates the caerulein-induced apoptosis and inflammation in AR42J cells by activating SIRT1 via NF-κB.

Lin Zhu Chuan He

J Nat Med 2022 Mar 30;76(2):410-418. Epub 2022 Jan 30.

Hematology Department, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, No. 37 Huangmenhou Street, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

The anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties of crocetin have been widely demonstrated in numerous diseases. However, the exact role and mechanism of crocetin in acute pancreatitis have not been elucidated. Thus, this paper aims at exploring whether crocetin could be used to alleviate acute pancreatitis and further demonstrating the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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[Expression of retinoic acid signaling pathway in uterus injury induced by procymidone in adolescent mice].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 Nov;50(6):1000-1005

Department of Preventive Medicine, Medical School, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410013, China.

Objective: To investigate the expression of key genes and proteins of retinoic acid signaling pathway in procymidone-induced uterine injury in adolescent mice, and analyze the relationship between the signaling pathway and female reproductive damage.

Methods: The 3-week age ICR mice were randomly divided into low, medium, and high-dose groups and one control group with 8 mice in each group by weight. The low, medium and high dose groups were respectively given 50, 100 and 200 mg/(kg·d) procymidone orally for 21 days continuously, while the control group was given equal volume of soybean oil. Read More

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November 2021

Microfluidic synthesis of retinoic acid-loaded nanoparticles for neural differentiation of trabecular meshwork mesenchymal stem cell.

Bratisl Lek Listy 2021 ;122(12):884-891

Objectives: This study aimed to fabricate the PCL-nanoparticles (NPs) loaded retinoic acid (RA) using the microfluidic system for successful cellular uptake and induction of neuronal differentiation of trabecular meshwork mesenchymal stem cells (TMMSCs).

Methods: A microfluidic system used to synthesize RA-loaded NPs, DLS, FTIR, TEM, and UV-spectroscopy was recruited to characterize and study the release of RA. Also, the toxicity, cellular uptake, and neuronal differential of TMMSCs have been assessed. Read More

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December 2021

Topical Gel of Vitamin A Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: A Hopeful Promise as a Dermal Delivery System.

Adv Pharm Bull 2021 Sep 3;11(4):663-674. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

The Objective of the present investigation was to enhance the skin delivery of vitamin A (Vit A) via producing solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) through ultrasonication technique. For achieving optimal skin delivery, impacts of two surfactants ratio of Tween80:Span80 on nanoparticles (NPs) features and the respective functions were examined. Powder X-ray diffractometer (PXRD), photon correlation spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were applied for characterizing the solid state of Vit A in the SLN. Read More

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September 2021

Vitamin A cycle byproducts explain retinal damage and molecular changes thought to initiate retinal degeneration.

Biol Open 2021 11 29;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Columbia University Medical Center, Ophthalmology, New York, NY 10032, USA.

In the most prevalent retinal diseases, including Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), byproducts of vitamin A form in the retina abnormally during the vitamin A cycle. Despite evidence of their toxicity, whether these vitamin A cycle byproducts contribute to retinal disease, are symptoms, beneficial, or benign has been debated. We delivered a representative vitamin A byproduct, A2E, to the rat's retina and monitored electrophysiological, histological, proteomic, and transcriptomic changes. Read More

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November 2021

Aluminum inhibits non-amyloid pathways via retinoic acid receptor.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2022 Jan 18;69:126902. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, China; Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Xuzhou Medical University, China; Key Lab of Environmental Hazard and Health of Shanxi Province, Shanxi Medical University, China. Electronic address:

Background: Aluminium neurotoxicity has been widely confirmed and mainly manifests as cognitive impairment. Al can inhibit the expression of ADAM10, a key enzyme of the nonamyloid pathway, but its mechanism of toxicity has not been fully elucidated. Studies have shown that RARs can regulate ADAM10 expression. Read More

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January 2022

Hydrosoluble and Liposoluble Vitamins: New Perspectives through ADMET Analysis.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Nov 4;57(11). Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Victor Babeș University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 2nd Eftimie Murgu Square, 300041 Timișoara, Romania.

: The present study demonstrates that apart from the well-known toxicity of liposoluble vitamins, some hydrosoluble vitamins may also exert toxicity; thus, routine supplementation with vitamins or ingestion of fortified foods should not be considered harmless. The study addresses the possible correlations between the physico-chemical properties and the side effects of vitamins when taken in high doses or for a too long a period. : The FAFDrugs4. Read More

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November 2021

Retinaldehyde Dehydrogenase Inhibition-Related Adverse Outcome Pathway: Potential Risk of Retinoic Acid Synthesis Inhibition during Embryogenesis.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 10 20;13(11). Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Environmental Safety Group, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Europe, Campus E 7.1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany.

Retinoic acid (RA) is one of the factors crucial for cell growth, differentiation, and embryogenesis; it interacts with the retinoic acid receptor and retinoic acid X receptor to eventually regulate target gene expression in chordates. RA is transformed from retinaldehyde via oxidization by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH), which belongs to the family of oxidoreductases. Several chemicals, including disulphiram, diethylaminobenzaldehyde, and SB-210661, can effectively inhibit RALDH activity, potentially causing reproductive and developmental toxicity. Read More

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October 2021

Crocetin attenuating Urinary tract Infection and adherence of uropathogenic E. coli in NRK-52E cells via an inflammatory pathway.

J Food Biochem 2021 12 18;45(12):e13998. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Nephrology, Xijing Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Background And Objective: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are commonly treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, but treatment has limitation due to causes of nephrotoxicity in uroepithelial cells. Recently, the researcher focuses their research on alternative therapy for the treatment of UTI. This study evaluated the anti-infectious effect of crocetin against adherence of pathogenic [2- C]-acetate labeled Escherichia coli (MTCC-729) to rat proximal renal tubular cells (NRK-52E cells) and explores the possible mechanism of action. Read More

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December 2021