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    6499 results match your criteria Vitamin A Deficiency

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    Vitamin A deficiency in mice alters host and gut microbial metabolism leading to altered energy homeostasis.
    J Nutr Biochem 2017 Nov 5;54:28-34. Epub 2017 Nov 5.
    Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, United States. Electronic address:
    Vitamin A deficiency (A-) is a worldwide public health problem. To better understand how vitamin A status influences gut microbiota and host metabolism, we systematically analyzed urine, cecum, serum and liver samples from vitamin A sufficient (A+) and deficient (A-) mice using 1H NMR-based metabolomics, quantitative (q)PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing coupled with multivariate data analysis. The microbiota in the cecum of A- mice showed compositional as well as functional shifts compared to the microbiota from A+ mice. Read More

    Causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in students in schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia.
    BMJ Glob Health 2017 10;2(2):e000264. Epub 2017 Jun 10.
    Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Objectives: To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL) among students in schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia and to identify preventable and treatable causes.

    Method: Students attending nine schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia were examined and causes assigned using the standard WHO record form for children with blindness and low vision in May and June 2015.

    Results: 383 students were examined, 357 (93%) of whom were severely visually impaired or blind (<6/60 in their better eye). Read More

    Rapid diagnostic testing platform for iron and vitamin A deficiency.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853;
    Micronutrient deficiencies such as those of vitamin A and iron affect a third of the world's population with consequences such as night blindness, higher child mortality, anemia, poor pregnancy outcomes, and reduced work capacity. Many efforts to prevent or treat these deficiencies are hampered by the lack of adequate, accessible, and affordable diagnostic methods that can enable better targeting of interventions. In this work, we demonstrate a rapid diagnostic test and mobile enabled platform for simultaneously quantifying iron (ferritin), vitamin A (retinol-binding protein), and inflammation (C-reactive protein) status. Read More

    The Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in Chinese Children: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis.
    Nutrients 2017 Nov 25;9(12). Epub 2017 Nov 25.
    Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.
    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a leading cause of preventable childhood blindness, has been recognized as an important public health problem in many developing countries. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to identify all population-based studies of VAD and marginal VAD (MVAD) in Chinese children published from 1990 onwards. Hierarchical Bayesian meta-regressions were performed to examine the effects of age, sex, setting and year on the prevalence of VAD and MVAD, separately. Read More

    The Silencing of Carotenoid β-Hydroxylases by RNA Interference in Different Maize Genetic Backgrounds Increases the β-Carotene Content of the Endosperm.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 11 24;18(12). Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Plant Production and Forestry Science, University of Lleida-Agrotecnio Center, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure, 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain
    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a staple food in many parts of Africa, but the endosperm generally contains low levels of the pro-vitamin A carotenoid β-carotene, leading to vitamin A deficiency disease in populations relying on cereal-based diets. However, maize endosperm does accumulate high levels of other carotenoids, including zeaxanthin, which is derived from β-carotene via two hydroxylation reactions. Read More

    The Effect of Red Palm Oil on Vitamin A Deficiency: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
    Nutrients 2017 11 24;9(12). Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Southeast University, 87 Ding Jia Qiao Road, Nanjing 210009, China
    Red palm oil (RPO) has been investigated for preventing or alleviating vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Previous data has offered inconclusive and inconsistent results about the effects of RPO in patients with VAD. Our objective was to undertake a meta-analysis to assess the effects of RPO in preventing VAD in the population. Read More

    The Retinol Binding Protein Receptor 2 (Rbpr2) is required for Photoreceptor Outer Segment Morphogenesis and Visual Function in Zebrafish.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 24;7(1):16207. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 29425, USA.
    Vitamin A (all-trans retinol) plays critical roles in mammalian development and vision. Since vitamin A is food-derived, tissue-specific uptake and storage mechanism are needed. In the eye, uptake of RBP4-retinol is mediated by the receptor Stra6, whereas the receptor mediating RBP4 binding and retinol transport into the liver has just recently been discovered. Read More

    Retrospective data on causes of childhood vision impairment in Eritrea.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 22;17(1):209. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Berhan Aiyni National Referral Eye Hospital, Asmara, Eritrea.
    Background: Proper information on causes of childhood vision loss is essential in developing appropriate strategies and programs to address such causes. This study aimed at identifying the causes of vision loss in children attending the national referral eye hospital with the only pediatric ophthalmology service in Eritrea.

    Methods: A retrospective data review was conducted for all the children (< 16 years of age) who attended Berhan Aiyni National Referral Eye Hospital in five years period from January 2011 to December 2015. Read More

    Comparability of Inflammation-Adjusted Vitamin A Deficiency Estimates and Variance in Retinol Explained by C-Reactive Protein and α1-Acid Glycoprotein during Low and High Malaria Transmission Seasons in Rural Zambian Children.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Inflammation-induced hyporetinolemia (IIH), a reduction in serum retinol (SR) during inflammation, may bias population estimates of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). The optimal adjustment for IIH depends on the type and extent of inflammation. In rural Zambian children (4-8 years, N = 886), we compared three models for defining inflammation: α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) only (inflammation present if > 1 g/L or normal if otherwise), C-reactive protein (CRP) only (moderate inflammation, 5-15 mg/L; high inflammation, > 15 mg/L; or normal if otherwise) and a combined model using both AGP and CRP to delineate stages of infectious episode. Read More

    Hormonal contraceptive use and vitamin A deficiency among women in Tanzania.
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Athens, USA.
    Objective: To examine the association between hormonal contraceptive use and vitamin A deficiency among women in Tanzania.

    Methods: Secondary analysis of data from 8231 women who participated in the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed. Read More

    The impact of sociodemography, diet, and body size on serum retinol in women 16-35 years of age: SANHANES-1.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Population Health, Health Systems and Innovation, Human Sciences Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.
    To determine the current vitamin A status of a nationally representative sample of women aged 16-35 years, compare it with previous national data, and determine the impact of sociodemography, diet, and body size on vitamin A status, we performed secondary analysis of data on South African women who participated in the first South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1). Vitamin A status was assessed by serum retinol, and the findings are reported as means and prevalences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Overall, the age-standardized vitamin A deficiency prevalence was 11. Read More

    Multiple Nutritional Deficiencies in Cerebral Palsy Compounding Physical and Functional Impairments.
    Indian J Palliat Care 2017 Oct-Dec;23(4):387-392
    Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
    Introduction: Cerebral palsy (CP) refers to a spectrum of disorders causing physical and intellectual morbidity. Macro and micro nutrient deficiencies often contribute to the subnormal physical and mental capabilities of them.

    Objectives: To assess the growth, nutritional status, physical and functional ability and quality of life in cerebral palsy children and to determine any relation with their gross motor and functional capabilities. Read More

    Vitamin A improves the symptoms of autism spectrum disorders and decreases 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT): A pilot study.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Nov 6;137:35-40. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Children Nutrition Research Center, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400014, China; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China; China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Translational Medical Research in Cognitive Development and Learning and Memory Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China. Electronic address:
    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complicated neurodevelopmental disorders. Many studies have demonstrated that children with autism have multiple nutritional deficiencies and increased serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels. In our previous study, 77. Read More

    Endogenous retinoid X receptor ligands in mouse hematopoietic cells.
    Sci Signal 2017 Oct 31;10(503). Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
    The retinoid X receptor α (RXRA) has been implicated in diverse hematological processes. To identify natural ligands of RXRA that are present in hematopoietic cells, we adapted an upstream activation sequence-green fluorescent protein (UAS-GFP) reporter mouse to detect natural RXRA ligands in vivo. We observed reporter activity in diverse types of hematopoietic cells in vivo. Read More

    Vitamin A status and its determinants in patients with cystic fibrosis.
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 2017 Jul-Sep;16(3):345-354
    Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland.
    Background: Routine administration of vitamin A, recommended in CF patients, can help to prevent its deficiency. However, high vitamin A supplementation may lead to its excessive level and possible toxicity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the status of vitamin A and the determinants of its body resources in CF patients. Read More

    Causes of Childhood Vision Impairment in the School for the Blind in Eritrea.
    Optom Vis Sci 2017 Dec;94(12):1138-1144
    Discipline of Optometry, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban South Africa
    Significance: Our study provides the much-needed evidence on causes of childhood blindness in Eritrea. This will assist authorities to plan appropriate strategies and implement preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services to address these causes of vision loss in children in this resource-limited country.

    Purpose: This study aims to identify the causes of severe vision impairment and blindness in children attending the only school for the blind in Eritrea. Read More

    Prevnar-13 vaccine failure in a mouse model for vitamin A deficiency.
    Vaccine 2017 Nov 9;35(46):6264-6268. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA; Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. Electronic address:
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is responsible for serious pediatric respiratory infections, and kills close to one million children under the age of five each year. Unfortunately, the Prevnar-13 vaccine (PCV-13) that is used to protect children from the serious consequences of pneumococcus infections is not always successful. Given that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is known to affect children in both developed and developing countries, we asked if VAD could be responsible, at least in part, for PCV-13 vaccine failures. Read More

    Tackling vitamin A deficiency with biofortified sweetpotato in sub-Saharan Africa.
    Glob Food Sec 2017 Sep;14:23-30
    International Food Policy Research Institute, Kampala, Uganda.
    Orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) is a rich plant-based source of beta-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A. In sub-Saharan Africa, sweetpotato is known as a food security crop but most varieties grown are high dry matter white-fleshed types, lacking beta-carotene. In 1995, researchers recognized the potential of OFSP varieties to address widespread vitamin A deficiency in SSA using an integrated agriculture-nutrition approach. Read More

    Integrating primary eye care into global child health policies.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Oct 7. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Department of Clinical Research, International Centre of Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Globally, approximately 75% of blind children live in low-income countries (LICs). Almost half of blindness and low vision in LICs is due to avoidable causes such as corneal scarring from measles infection, vitamin A deficiency disorders, use of harmful traditional eye remedies, ophthalmia neonatorum and cataract. Read More

    Competition between ethanol clearance and retinoic acid biosynthesis in the induction of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
    Biochem Cell Biol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Hebrew University Faculty of Medicine, 54621, Developmental Biology and Cancer Research , Ein Kerem , Jerusalem, Israel , 91112102 ;
    Several models have been proposed to explain the neurodevelopmental syndrome induced by alcohol exposure of human embryos, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). One of the proposed models suggests a competition for the enzymes required for retinoic acid biosynthesis. The outcome of such competition is the development under conditions of reduced retinoic acid signaling. Read More

    Household Consumption of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato and its Associated Factors in Chipata District, Eastern Province Zambia.
    Food Nutr Bull 2017 Jan 1:379572117729979. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    2 Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: The Integrating Orange Project promotes production and consumption of orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) to address vitamin A deficiency among rural populations of Zambia since 2011.

    Objective: This study assessed household production and consumption of OFSP and identified factors associated with consumption thereof in Integrating Orange Project areas in Chipata district, Zambia.

    Methods: Respondents of 295 randomly selected households were interviewed using a structured questionnaire during the sweet potato harvest season. Read More

    Societal Costs of Micronutrient Deficiencies in 6- to 59-month-old Children in Pakistan.
    Food Nutr Bull 2017 Dec 2;38(4):485-500. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    3 Center of Excellence in Women and Child Health, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Background: In Pakistan, nearly half of children younger than 5 years are stunted, and 1 in 3 is underweight. Micronutrient deficiencies, a less visible form of undernutrition, are also endemic. They may lead to increased morbidity and mortality as well as to impaired cognitive and physical development. Read More

    The potential contribution of yellow cassava to dietary nutrient adequacy of primary-school children in Eastern Kenya; the use of linear programming.
    Public Health Nutr 2017 Oct 2:1-12. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    1Division of Human Nutrition,Wageningen University,Wageningen,The Netherlands.
    Objective: Introduction of biofortified cassava as school lunch can increase vitamin A intake, but may increase risk of other deficiencies due to poor nutrient profile of cassava. We assessed the potential effect of introducing a yellow cassava-based school lunch combined with additional food-based recommendations (FBR) on vitamin A and overall nutrient adequacy using Optifood (linear programming tool).

    Design: Cross-sectional study to assess dietary intakes (24 h recall) and derive model parameters (list of foods consumed, median serving sizes, food and food (sub)group frequency distributions, food cost). Read More

    Vitamin A nutritional status in high- and low-income postpartum women and its effect on colostrum and the requirements of the term newborn.
    J Pediatr (Rio J) 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Curso de Nutrição, Natal, RN, Brazil.
    Objective: To evaluate the vitamin A status in serum and colostrum of postpartum women with different socioeconomic status, comparing the colostrum retinol supply with the vitamin A requirement of the newborn.

    Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with 424 postpartum women. Vitamin A maternal dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Read More

    International Vision Care: Issues and Approaches.
    Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 Sep;3:53-68
    Allen Foster Community Eye Health Research Centre, Gullapalli Pratibha Rao International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad 500086, India.
    Globally, 32.4 million individuals are blind and 191 million have moderate or severe visual impairment (MSVI); 80% of cases of blindness and MSVI are avoidable. However, great efforts are needed to tackle blindness and MSVI, as eye care in most places is delivered in isolation from and without significant integration with general health sectors. Read More

    [Unusual case of struvite urolithiasis in a dog. A case report. Ein Fallbericht].
    Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2017 Oct 20;45(5):344-351. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Prof. Dr. Ellen Kienzle, Lehrstuhl für Tierernährung und Diätetik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Schönleutnerstraße 8, 85764 Oberschleißheim, E-Mail:
    A dog was referred for nutrition consultation after surgical removal of struvite uroliths from the bladder. Inspection of the dog's current ration revealed a pronounced vitamin-A deficiency together with a marked deficiency of protein, phosphorus and magnesium. Therefore, a supersaturation of the urine with ammonium, magnesium and phosphate, the three constituents of struvite, as a cause of struvite calculi formation appears rather unlikely. Read More

    Use of a "Super-child" Approach to Assess the Vitamin A Equivalence of Moringa oleifera Leaves, Develop a Compartmental Model for Vitamin A Kinetics, and Estimate Vitamin A Total Body Stores in Young Mexican Children.
    J Nutr 2017 Dec 20;147(12):2356-2363. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Nutrition, Research Center for Food and Development, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico; and
    Background: Worldwide, an estimated 250 million children <5 y old are vitamin A (VA) deficient. In Mexico, despite ongoing efforts to reduce VA deficiency, it remains an important public health problem; thus, food-based interventions that increase the availability and consumption of provitamin A-rich foods should be considered.Objective: The objectives were to assess the VA equivalence of 2H-labeled Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves and to estimate both total body stores (TBS) of VA and plasma retinol kinetics in young Mexican children. Read More

    Estimating Lives Saved by Achieving Dietary Micronutrient Adequacy, with a Focus on Vitamin A Intervention Programs in Cameroon.
    J Nutr 2017 Nov 13;147(11):2194S-2203S. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Departments of Nutrition and.
    Background: We previously compared the potential effects of different intervention strategies for achieving dietary vitamin A (VA) adequacy. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) permits estimates of lives saved through VA interventions but currently only considers periodic VA supplements (VASs).Objective: We aimed to adapt the LiST method for estimating the mortality impact of VASs to estimate the impact of other VA interventions (e. Read More

    Ocular abnormalities associated with hypovitaminosis A in Hanwoo calves: a report of two cases.
    J Vet Med Sci 2017 Oct 8;79(10):1753-1756. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.
    This study reports on two Hanwoo (a native Korean breed of cattle) calves, a 3- and 6-month-old presenting with diarrhea, anorexia and blindness. Ophthalmoscopic examination revealed bilateral papilledema in both calves. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction tests for bovine viral diarrhea virus, rotavirus and coronavirus were all negative. Read More

    Relationship between the Nutritional Status of Vitamin A per Trimester of Pregnancy with Maternal Anthropometry and Anemia after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.
    Nutrients 2017 Sep 8;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Center for Research on Micronutrients (NPqM), Institute of Nutrition Josué de Castro of UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro 21.941-902, Brazil.
    The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional status of vitamin A per trimester of pregnancy, as well as to assess its influence on pre-pregnancy BMI, total gestational weight gain (TGWG) and presence of anemia in women who had previously undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). An analytical, longitudinal and retrospective study comprising 30 pregnant women who had previously undergone RYGB was undertaken. In all trimesters of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, stages of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), night blindness (NB), anemia and anthropometric variables were assessed. Read More

    Vitamin A supplements for reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 09 7;9:CD003648. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Cochrane South Africa, South African Medical Research Council, Francie van Zijl Drive, Parow Valley, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa, 7505.
    Background: Strategies to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) include lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-positive women, exclusive breastfeeding from birth for six weeks plus nevirapine or replacement feeding plus nevirapine from birth for four to six weeks, elective Caesarean section delivery, and avoiding giving children chewed food. In some settings, these interventions may not be practical, feasible, or affordable. Simple, inexpensive, and effective interventions (that could potentially be implemented even in the absence of prenatal HIV testing programmes) would be valuable. Read More

    Managing Malnourishment in Pregnancy after Bariatric Surgery.
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2017 Sep 1. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Department of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Advocate Christ Medical Center, Oak Lawn, IL.
    Background: Little information exists to guide monitoring and treatment of malnourishment during pregnancy after bariatric surgery. Here we present a case with severe deficiencies and recommendations for testing and treatment.

    Case: Our patient underwent a duodenal switch procedure resulting in significant weight loss and numerous deficiencies. Read More

    Carotenoids from gac fruit aril (Momordica cochinchinensis [Lour.] Spreng.) are more bioaccessible than those from carrot root and tomato fruit.
    Food Res Int 2017 Sep 2;99(Pt 2):928-935. Epub 2016 Nov 2.
    University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, Chair of Plant Foodstuff Technology and Analysis, Garbenstrasse 25, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany. Electronic address:
    Using a simulated digestion procedure in vitro, liberation and bioaccessibility of β-carotene (29.5±1.7% and 22. Read More

    Vitamin A degradation in triglycerides varying by their saturation levels.
    Food Res Int 2016 Oct 3;88(Pt A):3-9. Epub 2016 Jun 3.
    Nestlé Research Centre, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, P.O. Box 44, CH-1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Vitamin A deficiency has a widespread occurrence globally and is considered as one of the world's most serious health risk factors. Potential solutions to address this deficiency include dietary diversification or supplementation, but food fortification is generally accepted as the most cost-effective solution. The main issue with food fortification of this vitamin is related to its high instability in food matrices. Read More

    Low plasma vitamin A concentration is associated with tuberculosis in Moroccan population: a preliminary case control study.
    BMC Res Notes 2017 Aug 23;10(1):421. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Unité Mixte de Recherche Nutrition et Alimentation, (CNESTEN-Université Ibn Tofaïl), CNESTEN BP 1382 RP, 10001, Rabat, Morocco.
    Background: Vitamin A plays numerous roles in immune system. Its deficiency alters both the innate and adaptive immunity. Previous results reported that the micronutrients deficiency, particularly vitamin A, is observed in patients with tuberculosis. Read More

    A test of the optimal iron hypothesis among breastfeeding Ariaal mothers in northern Kenya.
    Am J Phys Anthropol 2017 Nov 19;164(3):586-597. Epub 2017 Aug 19.
    Department of Anthropology, Binghamton University (SUNY), New York.
    Objective: The optimal iron hypothesis posits a trade-off in iron nutrition-iron deficiency restricts iron available to infectious agents, protecting against severe infection, but also compromises immune defense-such that mild-to-moderate iron deficiency may be more adaptive than either iron-replete or severe deficiency in environments with high infectious disease load. This hypothesis has not been tested among adults.

    Materials And Methods: A secondary analysis of data and specimens from 220 lactating mothers in northern Kenya was conducted. Read More

    Dietary deficiency of vitamin A among rural children: A community-based survey using a food-frequency questionnaire.
    Natl Med J India 2017 Mar-Apr;30(2):61-64
    Department of Community Medicine, Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated hospitals, New Delhi, 110001, India.
    Background: Overt vitamin A deficiency has been controlled in most parts of India, but prevalence of subclinical deficiency may still be high, which may enhance susceptibility to infections, reduce growth potential and also lead to higher mortality. We aimed to: (i) assess the consumption pattern of vitamin A-rich foods in children 1-5 years of age in rural Jammu; and (ii) estimate the dietary deficiency of vitamin A leading to risk of subclinical vitamin A deficiency in cluster- villages of the study area.

    Methods: In 2011, we conducted a survey of 750 children by selecting 50 from each of the 1 5 clusters. Read More

    Burden of disease attributable to vitamin A deficiency in Iranian population aged less than five years: findings from the global burden of disease study 2010.
    J Diabetes Metab Disord 2017 9;16:32. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Hezarjerib Ave, Isfahan, Iran.
    Background: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is considered as one of the most serious public health concerns in developing countriesand the leading cause of mortality in under-five-year-old children.A large number of young children and pregnant women especially in low-income, non-industrialized communities are more susceptible to VAD. This study aims to report the burden of disease (BOD) attributable to VAD in Iranian population aged less than 5 years by using data of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2010. Read More

    Discovery and biological relevance of 3,4-didehydroretinol (vitamin A2) in small indigenous fish species and its potential as a dietary source for addressing vitamin A deficiency.
    Int J Food Sci Nutr 2017 Aug 4:1-9. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    d WorldFish , Dhaka , Bangladesh.
    Discovered in the late 1920s, 3,4-didehydroretinol (DROL, vitamin A2) plays a significant biological role in freshwater fish. The functions of this vitamin have been investigated but to a far lesser extent than those of retinol (ROL, vitamin A1). A recent study indicating all-trans DROL has 119-127% vitamin A biological activity compared to that of all-trans ROL suggests the significance of DROL for addressing vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in comparison to ROL may be currently overlooked. Read More

    Inhibition of pulmonary β-carotene 15, 15'-oxygenase expression by glucocorticoid involves PPARα.
    PLoS One 2017 21;12(7):e0181466. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Pediatrics, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, Texas, United States of America.
    β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) catalyzes the first step in the conversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A. This enzyme is expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues, suggesting that its activity may regulate local retinoid synthesis. Vitamin A and related compounds (retinoids) are critical regulators of lung epithelial development, integrity, and injury repair. Read More

    Adolescent health in rural Ghana: A cross-sectional study on the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(7):e0180436. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Department of Molecular Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuthetal, Germany.
    In sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diseases and malnutrition constitute the main health problems in children, while adolescents and adults are increasingly facing cardio-metabolic conditions. Among adolescents as the largest population group in this region, we investigated the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors (CRFs), and evaluated demographic, socio-economic and medical risk factors for these entities. In a cross-sectional study among 188 adolescents in rural Ghana, malarial infection, common infectious diseases and Body Mass Index were assessed. Read More

    Vitamin A, endocrine tissues and hormones: interplay and interactions.
    Endocr Connect 2017 Jul 18. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    J Corcuff, Nuclear Medicine, University hospital of Bordeaux, Pessac, 33604, France
    Vitamin A (retinol) is a micronutrient critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. In adults, vitamin A and metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA) play major roles in vision, immune and brain functions, and tissue remodelling and metabolism. This review presents the physiological interactions of retinoids and endocrine tissues and hormonal systems. Read More

    Nonenzymatic β-Carotene Degradation in Provitamin A-Biofortified Crop Plants.
    J Agric Food Chem 2017 Aug 28;65(31):6588-6598. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg , Schaenzlestrasse 1, D79104 Freiburg, Germany.
    Provitamin A biofortification, the provision of provitamin A carotenoids through agriculture, is regarded as an effective and sustainable intervention to defeat vitamin A deficiency, representing a global health problem. This food-based intervention has been questioned in conjunction with negative outcomes for smokers and asbestos-exposed populations of the CARET and ATBC trials in which very high doses of β-carotene were supplemented. The current notion that β-carotene cleavage products (apocarotenoids) represented the harmful agents is the basis of the here-presented research. Read More

    The risk of plasma vitamin A, C, E and D deficiency in patients with metabolic syndrome: A case-control study.
    Adv Clin Exp Med 2017 Jul;26(4):581-586
    Department of Internal and Infectious Diseases, Medical University of Łódz, Poland.
    Background: The increasing incidence of metabolic diseases such as obesity or diabetes have made them a major public health problem. Increasing oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species, which initiate the oxidative adverse changes in the cell, is mentioned, among other risk factors, to underlie these diseases. Vitamin A, C and E are listed among the non-enzymatic mechanisms counteracting this phenomenon. Read More

    Serum Vitamin A Levels May Affect the Severity of Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease.
    Front Med (Lausanne) 2017 22;4:67. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Eye Center, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a well-established therapeutic option for a range of inherited and acquired hematological disorders. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the leading cause of non-relapse mortality in allogeneic HSCT recipients. Ocular involvement occurs in up to 80% of chronic GVHD patients. Read More

    Are Low Intakes and Deficiencies in Iron, Vitamin A, Zinc, and Iodine of Public Health Concern in Ethiopian, Kenyan, Nigerian, and South African Children and Adolescents?
    Food Nutr Bull 2017 Sep 6;38(3):405-427. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    1 Unilever Research and Development, Vlaardingen, the Netherlands.
    Objective: To perform a systematic review to evaluate iron, vitamin A, zinc, and iodine status and intakes in children and adolescents (0-19 years) in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa.

    Method: Both national and subnational data published from the year 2005 to 2015 were searched via MEDLINE, Scopus, and national public health websites. For each micronutrient and country, status data from relevant studies and surveys were combined into an average prevalence and weighted by sample size (WAVG). Read More

    Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Aggravates Vitamin A Deficiency in the Mother-Child Group.
    Obes Surg 2017 Jul 4. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    Center for Research on Micronutrients (NPqM), Institute of Nutrition Josué de Castro, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Objective: The objectives of this study are to compare the nutritional status of vitamin A in women who previously underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) who became pregnant or did not, in the same period after surgery, and to assess its effects on mother and child health.

    Methodology: A retrospective longitudinal study conducted with women who previously underwent RYGB, paired by age and BMI measured before surgery, divided into group 1 (G1) comprising 77 women who did not become pregnant and group 2 (G2) with 39 women in their third gestational trimester. Both groups were assessed before surgery (T0) and in the same interval after surgery: less than or equal to 1 year (T1) or over 1 year (T2), during a maximum of 2 years. Read More

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