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    6471 results match your criteria Vitamin A Deficiency

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    Prevnar-13 vaccine failure in a mouse model for vitamin A deficiency.
    Vaccine 2017 Oct 9. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA; Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. Electronic address:
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is responsible for serious pediatric respiratory infections, and kills close to one million children under the age of five each year. Unfortunately, the Prevnar-13 vaccine (PCV-13) that is used to protect children from the serious consequences of pneumococcus infections is not always successful. Given that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is known to affect children in both developed and developing countries, we asked if VAD could be responsible, at least in part, for PCV-13 vaccine failures. Read More

    Tackling vitamin A deficiency with biofortified sweetpotato in sub-Saharan Africa.
    Glob Food Sec 2017 Sep;14:23-30
    International Food Policy Research Institute, Kampala, Uganda.
    Orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) is a rich plant-based source of beta-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A. In sub-Saharan Africa, sweetpotato is known as a food security crop but most varieties grown are high dry matter white-fleshed types, lacking beta-carotene. In 1995, researchers recognized the potential of OFSP varieties to address widespread vitamin A deficiency in SSA using an integrated agriculture-nutrition approach. Read More

    Integrating primary eye care into global child health policies.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Oct 7. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Department of Clinical Research, International Centre of Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Globally, approximately 75% of blind children live in low-income countries (LICs). Almost half of blindness and low vision in LICs is due to avoidable causes such as corneal scarring from measles infection, vitamin A deficiency disorders, use of harmful traditional eye remedies, ophthalmia neonatorum and cataract. Read More

    Competition between ethanol clearance and retinoic acid biosynthesis in the induction of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
    Biochem Cell Biol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Hebrew University Faculty of Medicine, 54621, Developmental Biology and Cancer Research , Ein Kerem , Jerusalem, Israel , 91112102 ;
    Several models have been proposed to explain the neurodevelopmental syndrome induced by alcohol exposure of human embryos, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). One of the proposed models suggests a competition for the enzymes required for retinoic acid biosynthesis. The outcome of such competition is the development under conditions of reduced retinoic acid signaling. Read More

    Household Consumption of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato and its Associated Factors in Chipata District, Eastern Province Zambia.
    Food Nutr Bull 2017 Jan 1:379572117729979. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    2 Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: The Integrating Orange Project promotes production and consumption of orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) to address vitamin A deficiency among rural populations of Zambia since 2011.

    Objective: This study assessed household production and consumption of OFSP and identified factors associated with consumption thereof in Integrating Orange Project areas in Chipata district, Zambia.

    Methods: Respondents of 295 randomly selected households were interviewed using a structured questionnaire during the sweet potato harvest season. Read More

    Societal Costs of Micronutrient Deficiencies in 6- to 59-month-old Children in Pakistan.
    Food Nutr Bull 2017 Jan 1:379572117720012. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    3 Center of Excellence in Women and Child Health, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Background: In Pakistan, nearly half of children younger than 5 years are stunted and 1 in 3 is underweight. Micronutrient deficiencies, a less visible form of undernutrition, are also endemic. They may lead to increased morbidity and mortality as well as to impaired cognitive and physical development. Read More

    The potential contribution of yellow cassava to dietary nutrient adequacy of primary-school children in Eastern Kenya; the use of linear programming.
    Public Health Nutr 2017 Oct 2:1-12. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    1Division of Human Nutrition,Wageningen University,Wageningen,The Netherlands.
    Objective: Introduction of biofortified cassava as school lunch can increase vitamin A intake, but may increase risk of other deficiencies due to poor nutrient profile of cassava. We assessed the potential effect of introducing a yellow cassava-based school lunch combined with additional food-based recommendations (FBR) on vitamin A and overall nutrient adequacy using Optifood (linear programming tool).

    Design: Cross-sectional study to assess dietary intakes (24 h recall) and derive model parameters (list of foods consumed, median serving sizes, food and food (sub)group frequency distributions, food cost). Read More

    Vitamin A nutritional status in high- and low-income postpartum women and its effect on colostrum and the requirements of the term newborn.
    J Pediatr (Rio J) 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Curso de Nutrição, Natal, RN, Brazil.
    Objective: To evaluate the vitamin A status in serum and colostrum of postpartum women with different socioeconomic status, comparing the colostrum retinol supply with the vitamin A requirement of the newborn.

    Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with 424 postpartum women. Vitamin A maternal dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Read More

    International Vision Care: Issues and Approaches.
    Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 Sep;3:53-68
    Allen Foster Community Eye Health Research Centre, Gullapalli Pratibha Rao International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad 500086, India.
    Globally, 32.4 million individuals are blind and 191 million have moderate or severe visual impairment (MSVI); 80% of cases of blindness and MSVI are avoidable. However, great efforts are needed to tackle blindness and MSVI, as eye care in most places is delivered in isolation from and without significant integration with general health sectors. Read More

    [Unusual case of struvite urolithiasis in a dog. A case report. Ein Fallbericht].
    Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2017 Sep 20;45(5). Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Prof. Dr. Ellen Kienzle, Lehrstuhl für Tierernährung und Diätetik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Schönleutnerstraße 8, 85764 Oberschleißheim, E-Mail:
    A dog was referred for nutrition consultation after surgical removal of struvite uroliths from the bladder. Inspection of the dog's current ration revealed a pronounced vitamin-A deficiency together with a marked deficiency of protein, phosphorus and magnesium. Therefore, a supersaturation of the urine with ammonium, magnesium and phosphate, the three constituents of struvite, as a cause of struvite calculi formation appears rather unlikely. Read More

    Ocular abnormalities associated with hypovitaminosis A in Hanwoo calves-a report of two cases.
    J Vet Med Sci 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University.
    This study reports on two Hanwoo (a native Korean breed of cattle) calves, a 3- and 6-month-old presenting with diarrhea, anorexia, and blindness. Ophthalmoscopic examination revealed bilateral papilledema in both calves. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction tests for bovine viral diarrhea virus, rotavirus, and coronavirus were all negative. Read More

    Relationship between the Nutritional Status of Vitamin A per Trimester of Pregnancy with Maternal Anthropometry and Anemia after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.
    Nutrients 2017 Sep 8;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Center for Research on Micronutrients (NPqM), Institute of Nutrition Josué de Castro of UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro 21.941-902, Brazil.
    The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional status of vitamin A per trimester of pregnancy, as well as to assess its influence on pre-pregnancy BMI, total gestational weight gain (TGWG) and presence of anemia in women who had previously undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). An analytical, longitudinal and retrospective study comprising 30 pregnant women who had previously undergone RYGB was undertaken. In all trimesters of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, stages of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), night blindness (NB), anemia and anthropometric variables were assessed. Read More

    Managing Malnourishment in Pregnancy after Bariatric Surgery.
    J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2017 Sep 1. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Department of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Advocate Christ Medical Center, Oak Lawn, IL.
    Background: Little information exists to guide monitoring and treatment of malnourishment during pregnancy after bariatric surgery. Here we present a case with severe deficiencies and recommendations for testing and treatment.

    Case: Our patient underwent a duodenal switch procedure resulting in significant weight loss and numerous deficiencies. Read More

    Carotenoids from gac fruit aril (Momordica cochinchinensis [Lour.] Spreng.) are more bioaccessible than those from carrot root and tomato fruit.
    Food Res Int 2017 Sep 2;99(Pt 2):928-935. Epub 2016 Nov 2.
    University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, Chair of Plant Foodstuff Technology and Analysis, Garbenstrasse 25, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany. Electronic address:
    Using a simulated digestion procedure in vitro, liberation and bioaccessibility of β-carotene (29.5±1.7% and 22. Read More

    Vitamin A degradation in triglycerides varying by their saturation levels.
    Food Res Int 2016 Oct 3;88(Pt A):3-9. Epub 2016 Jun 3.
    Nestlé Research Centre, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, P.O. Box 44, CH-1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Vitamin A deficiency has a widespread occurrence globally and is considered as one of the world's most serious health risk factors. Potential solutions to address this deficiency include dietary diversification or supplementation, but food fortification is generally accepted as the most cost-effective solution. The main issue with food fortification of this vitamin is related to its high instability in food matrices. Read More

    Low plasma vitamin A concentration is associated with tuberculosis in Moroccan population: a preliminary case control study.
    BMC Res Notes 2017 Aug 23;10(1):421. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Unité Mixte de Recherche Nutrition et Alimentation, (CNESTEN-Université Ibn Tofaïl), CNESTEN BP 1382 RP, 10001, Rabat, Morocco.
    Background: Vitamin A plays numerous roles in immune system. Its deficiency alters both the innate and adaptive immunity. Previous results reported that the micronutrients deficiency, particularly vitamin A, is observed in patients with tuberculosis. Read More

    A test of the optimal iron hypothesis among breastfeeding Ariaal mothers in northern Kenya.
    Am J Phys Anthropol 2017 Aug 19. Epub 2017 Aug 19.
    Department of Anthropology, Binghamton University (SUNY), New York.
    Objective: The optimal iron hypothesis posits a trade-off in iron nutrition-iron deficiency restricts iron available to infectious agents, protecting against severe infection, but also compromises immune defense-such that mild-to-moderate iron deficiency may be more adaptive than either iron-replete or severe deficiency in environments with high infectious disease load. This hypothesis has not been tested among adults.

    Materials And Methods: A secondary analysis of data and specimens from 220 lactating mothers in northern Kenya was conducted. Read More

    Dietary deficiency of vitamin A among rural children: A community-based survey using a food-frequency questionnaire.
    Natl Med J India 2017 Mar-Apr;30(2):61-64
    Department of Community Medicine, Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated hospitals, New Delhi, 110001, India.
    Background: Overt vitamin A deficiency has been controlled in most parts of India, but prevalence of subclinical deficiency may still be high, which may enhance susceptibility to infections, reduce growth potential and also lead to higher mortality. We aimed to: (i) assess the consumption pattern of vitamin A-rich foods in children 1-5 years of age in rural Jammu; and (ii) estimate the dietary deficiency of vitamin A leading to risk of subclinical vitamin A deficiency in cluster- villages of the study area.

    Methods: In 2011, we conducted a survey of 750 children by selecting 50 from each of the 1 5 clusters. Read More

    Burden of disease attributable to vitamin A deficiency in Iranian population aged less than five years: findings from the global burden of disease study 2010.
    J Diabetes Metab Disord 2017 9;16:32. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Hezarjerib Ave, Isfahan, Iran.
    Background: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is considered as one of the most serious public health concerns in developing countriesand the leading cause of mortality in under-five-year-old children.A large number of young children and pregnant women especially in low-income, non-industrialized communities are more susceptible to VAD. This study aims to report the burden of disease (BOD) attributable to VAD in Iranian population aged less than 5 years by using data of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2010. Read More

    Discovery and biological relevance of 3,4-didehydroretinol (vitamin A2) in small indigenous fish species and its potential as a dietary source for addressing vitamin A deficiency.
    Int J Food Sci Nutr 2017 Aug 4:1-9. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    d WorldFish , Dhaka , Bangladesh.
    Discovered in the late 1920s, 3,4-didehydroretinol (DROL, vitamin A2) plays a significant biological role in freshwater fish. The functions of this vitamin have been investigated but to a far lesser extent than those of retinol (ROL, vitamin A1). A recent study indicating all-trans DROL has 119-127% vitamin A biological activity compared to that of all-trans ROL suggests the significance of DROL for addressing vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in comparison to ROL may be currently overlooked. Read More

    Inhibition of pulmonary β-carotene 15, 15'-oxygenase expression by glucocorticoid involves PPARα.
    PLoS One 2017 21;12(7):e0181466. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Pediatrics, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, Texas, United States of America.
    β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) catalyzes the first step in the conversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A. This enzyme is expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues, suggesting that its activity may regulate local retinoid synthesis. Vitamin A and related compounds (retinoids) are critical regulators of lung epithelial development, integrity, and injury repair. Read More

    Adolescent health in rural Ghana: A cross-sectional study on the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(7):e0180436. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Department of Molecular Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuthetal, Germany.
    In sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diseases and malnutrition constitute the main health problems in children, while adolescents and adults are increasingly facing cardio-metabolic conditions. Among adolescents as the largest population group in this region, we investigated the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors (CRFs), and evaluated demographic, socio-economic and medical risk factors for these entities. In a cross-sectional study among 188 adolescents in rural Ghana, malarial infection, common infectious diseases and Body Mass Index were assessed. Read More

    Vitamin A, endocrine tissues and hormones: interplay and interactions.
    Endocr Connect 2017 Jul 18. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    J Corcuff, Nuclear Medicine, University hospital of Bordeaux, Pessac, 33604, France
    Vitamin A (retinol) is a micronutrient critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. In adults, vitamin A and metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA) play major roles in vision, immune and brain functions, and tissue remodelling and metabolism. This review presents the physiological interactions of retinoids and endocrine tissues and hormonal systems. Read More

    Nonenzymatic β-Carotene Degradation in Provitamin A-Biofortified Crop Plants.
    J Agric Food Chem 2017 Aug 28;65(31):6588-6598. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg , Schaenzlestrasse 1, D79104 Freiburg, Germany.
    Provitamin A biofortification, the provision of provitamin A carotenoids through agriculture, is regarded as an effective and sustainable intervention to defeat vitamin A deficiency, representing a global health problem. This food-based intervention has been questioned in conjunction with negative outcomes for smokers and asbestos-exposed populations of the CARET and ATBC trials in which very high doses of β-carotene were supplemented. The current notion that β-carotene cleavage products (apocarotenoids) represented the harmful agents is the basis of the here-presented research. Read More

    The risk of plasma vitamin A, C, E and D deficiency in patients with metabolic syndrome: a case-control study.
    Adv Clin Exp Med 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Department of Internal and Infectious Diseases, Medical University of Lodz.
    Background: The increasing incidence of metabolic diseases such as obesity or diabetes made them a major public health problem. Increasing oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species , which initiate the oxidative adverse changes in the cell, is mentioned, among other risk factors, to underlie these diseases. Vitamin A, C and E are listed among non-enzymatic mechanisms counteracting this phenomenon. Read More

    Serum Vitamin A Levels May Affect the Severity of Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease.
    Front Med (Lausanne) 2017 22;4:67. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Eye Center, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a well-established therapeutic option for a range of inherited and acquired hematological disorders. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the leading cause of non-relapse mortality in allogeneic HSCT recipients. Ocular involvement occurs in up to 80% of chronic GVHD patients. Read More

    Are Low Intakes and Deficiencies in Iron, Vitamin A, Zinc, and Iodine of Public Health Concern in Ethiopian, Kenyan, Nigerian, and South African Children and Adolescents?
    Food Nutr Bull 2017 Sep 6;38(3):405-427. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    1 Unilever Research and Development, Vlaardingen, the Netherlands.
    Objective: To perform a systematic review to evaluate iron, vitamin A, zinc, and iodine status and intakes in children and adolescents (0-19 years) in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa.

    Method: Both national and subnational data published from the year 2005 to 2015 were searched via MEDLINE, Scopus, and national public health websites. For each micronutrient and country, status data from relevant studies and surveys were combined into an average prevalence and weighted by sample size (WAVG). Read More

    Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Aggravates Vitamin A Deficiency in the Mother-Child Group.
    Obes Surg 2017 Jul 4. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    Center for Research on Micronutrients (NPqM), Institute of Nutrition Josué de Castro, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Objective: The objectives of this study are to compare the nutritional status of vitamin A in women who previously underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) who became pregnant or did not, in the same period after surgery, and to assess its effects on mother and child health.

    Methodology: A retrospective longitudinal study conducted with women who previously underwent RYGB, paired by age and BMI measured before surgery, divided into group 1 (G1) comprising 77 women who did not become pregnant and group 2 (G2) with 39 women in their third gestational trimester. Both groups were assessed before surgery (T0) and in the same interval after surgery: less than or equal to 1 year (T1) or over 1 year (T2), during a maximum of 2 years. Read More

    Coffee polyphenols extracted from green coffee beans improve skin properties and microcirculatory function.
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2017 Sep 4;81(9):1814-1822. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    a Biological Science Laboratories , Kao Corporation , Tochigi , Japan.
    Coffee polyphenols (CPPs), including chlorogenic acid, exert various physiological activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CPPs on skin properties and microcirculatory function in humans. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 49 female subjects with mildly xerotic skin received either a test beverage containing CPPs (270 mg/100 mL/day) or a placebo beverage for 8 weeks. Read More

    Report of an unsual case of anophthalmia and craniofacial cleft in a newborn with Toxoplasma gondii congenital infection.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Jul 3;17(1):459. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Laboratory Inmunología Experimental, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría (INP), Secretaría de Salud, Torre de Investigación, Av. Insurgentes Sur 3700-C, Col Insurgentes Cuicuilco, 04530, Ciudad de México, DF, Mexico.
    Background: We present one unusual case of anophthalmia and craniofacial cleft, probably due to congenital toxoplasmosis only.

    Case Presentation: A two-month-old male had a twin in utero who disappeared between the 7(th) and the 14(th) week of gestation. At birth, the baby presented anophthalmia and craniofacial cleft, and no sign compatible with genetic or exposition/deficiency problems, like the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome or maternal vitamin A deficiency. Read More

    Prevalence of ocular morbidity in school going children in West Uttar Pradesh.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 Jun;65(6):500-508
    Department of Ophthalmology, Subharti Medical College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Aim Of The Study: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and to make a comparison between the ocular morbidity pattern in school going children of urban and rural areas of West Uttar Pradesh.

    Materials And Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study design was adopted to examine children aged 5-15 years in randomly selected urban and rural schools of West Uttar Pradesh from June 2012 to August 2014. An optometrist did the vision and refraction, and a detailed ophthalmic examination was done by an ophthalmologist. Read More

    Micronutrient deficiencies among children and women in Bangladesh: progress and challenges.
    J Nutr Sci 2016 3;5:e46. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    UNICEF, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current situation regarding micronutrient deficiencies among children and women in Bangladesh. This review also discusses the successes and current challenges of existing intervention programmes. Data from nationally representative and selected small surveys since the 1980s that have reported on the status of at least one micronutrient in children and/or women have been examined. Read More

    Factors associated with inflammation in preschool children and women of reproductive age: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Jul 14;106(Suppl 1):348S-358S. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Nutrition Branch, CDC, Atlanta, GA;
    Background: In many settings, populations experience recurrent exposure to inflammatory agents that catalyze fluctuations in the concentrations of acute-phase proteins and certain micronutrient biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), ferritin, and retinol. Few data are available on the prevalence and predictors of inflammation in diverse settings.Objective: We aimed to assess the relation between inflammation (CRP concentration >5 mg/L or AGP concentration >1 g/L) and covariates, such as demographics, reported illness, and anthropometric status, in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y). Read More

    Predictors of anemia in women of reproductive age: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Jul 14;106(Suppl 1):416S-427S. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: Anemia in women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y) remains a public health problem globally, and reducing anemia in women by 50% by 2025 is a goal of the World Health Assembly.Objective: We assessed the associations between anemia and multiple proximal risk factors (e.g. Read More

    Methodologic approach for the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Jul 14;106(Suppl 1):333S-347S. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Nutrition Branch, CDC, Atlanta, GA; and.
    Background: The Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project is a multiagency and multicountry collaboration that was formed to improve micronutrient assessment and to better characterize anemia.Objectives: The aims of the project were to 1) identify factors associated with inflammation, 2) assess the relations between inflammation, malaria infection, and biomarkers of iron and vitamin A status and compare adjustment approaches, and 3) assess risk factors for anemia in preschool children (PSC) and women of reproductive age (WRA).Design: The BRINDA database inclusion criteria included surveys that 1) were conducted after 2004, 2) had target groups of PSC, WRA, or both, and 3) used a similar laboratory methodology for the measurement of ≥1 biomarker of iron [ferritin or soluble transferrin receptor or vitamin A status (retinol-binding protein or retinol)] and ≥1 biomarker of inflammation (α-1-acid glycoprotein or C-reactive protein). Read More

    Research, policy, and programmatic considerations from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Jul 14;106(Suppl 1):428S-434S. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Helen Keller International, New York, NY.
    The Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project sought to inform the interpretation of iron and vitamin A biomarkers (ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and retinol binding protein) in settings of prevalent inflammation as well as the prevention of and control strategies to address anemia. Our purpose is to comment on the contributions of the BRINDA to advance global knowledge with regard to iron and vitamin A status assessment in women and preschool children and to analyze the findings in terms of their rigor and usefulness for global nutrition research and programs. BRINDA investigators found that the acute-phase response is so prevalent that it must be assessed in surveys of iron and vitamin A status for valid interpretation of micronutrient biomarkers. Read More

    Adjusting retinol-binding protein concentrations for inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Jul 14;106(Suppl 1):390S-401S. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Independent Public Health Nutrition Consultant, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Background: The accurate estimation of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is important in planning and implementing interventions. Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is often used in population surveys to measure vitamin A status, but its interpretation is challenging in settings where inflammation is common because RBP concentrations decrease during the acute-phase response.Objectives: We aimed to assess the relation between RBP concentrations and inflammation and malaria in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y) and to investigate adjustment algorithms to account for these effects. Read More

    Cyp1b1 deletion and retinol deficiency coordinately suppress mouse liver lipogenic genes and hepcidin expression during post-natal development.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 Oct 2;454:50-68. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Endocrinology and Reproductive Physiology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, United States; Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, United States. Electronic address:
    Cyp1b1 deletion and gestational vitamin A deficiency (GVAD) redirect adult liver gene expression. A matched sufficient pre- and post-natal diet, which has high carbohydrate and normal iron content (LF12), increased inflammatory gene expression markers in adult livers that were suppressed by GVAD and Cyp1b1 deletion. At birth on the LF12 diet, Cyp1b1 deletion and GVAD each suppress liver expression of the iron suppressor, hepcidin (Hepc), while increasing stellate cell activation markers and suppressing post-natal increases in lipogenesis. Read More

    The change in retinoic acid receptor signaling induced by prenatal marginal vitamin A deficiency and its effects on learning and memory.
    J Nutr Biochem 2017 Sep 25;47:75-85. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Department of Primary Child Health Care, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, P.R. China; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing, P.R. China; China International Science and Technology Cooperation base of Child development and Critical Disorders, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, Chongqing, P.R. China. Electronic address:
    This study investigated the prenatal marginal vitamin A deficiency (mVAD)-related impairment in learning and memory and the interactions between RARα, Src and NR1. Learning and memory were assessed in adult rats that were exposed to prenatal mVAD with Morris water maze. The average escape time was longer in mVAD rats, and they passed the hidden platform fewer times during the memory retention test than normal vitamin A intake (VAN) rats. Read More

    Diet-dependent retinoid effects on liver gene expression include stellate and inflammation markers and parallel effects of the nuclear repressor Shp.
    J Nutr Biochem 2017 Sep 19;47:63-74. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Endocrinology and Reproductive Physiology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705; Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705. Electronic address:
    For mice, a maternal vitamin A (VA)-deficient diet initiated from midgestation (GVAD) produces serum retinol deficiency in mature offspring. We hypothesize that the effects of GVAD arise from preweaning developmental changes. We compare the effect of this GVAD protocol in combination with a postweaning high-fat diet (HFD) or high-carbohydrate diet (LF12). Read More

    Vitamin A Supplementation for the Prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Preterm Infants: An Update.
    Nutr Clin Pract 2017 Jun 21;32(3):346-353. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    2 Rutgers School of Health Professions, Newark, New Jersey, USA.
    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common complication of premature birth and is associated with significant morbidity. Vitamin A supplementation has been suggested as a potential preventative measure against BPD due to its role in lung maturation and because preterm infants are particularly predisposed to vitamin A deficiency. The aim of this review was to determine whether vitamin A supplementation reduces BPD risk among preterm infants. Read More

    Impact of Vitamin A and Carotenoids on the Risk of Tuberculosis Progression.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Sep;65(6):900-909
    Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School.
    Background: Low and deficient levels of vitamin A are common in low- and middle-income countries where tuberculosis burden is high. We assessed the impact of baseline levels of vitamin A and carotenoids on tuberculosis disease risk.

    Methods: We conducted a case-control study nested within a longitudinal cohort of household contacts (HHCs) of pulmonary tuberculosis case patients in Lima, Peru. Read More

    Retinoid BMS411 (4-{[(5,5-dimethyl-8-phenyl-5,6-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl) carbonyl] amino} benzoic acid), a potential inhibitor of NS5A protein of hepatitis C virus, a candidate for combined therapy of hepatitis C infection.
    Acta Virol 2017;61(2):204-211
    Hepatitis C infection is a serious health issue worldwide caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). There is an urgent need of search for new direct acting antiviral drugs due to the rapid development of drug resistance. The HCV NS5A protein is involved in creating resistance against antiviral therapy and there are also many reports that vitamin A deficiency is associated with non-responsiveness to antiviral treatment in HCV infected patients. Read More

    The effects of micronutrient deficiencies on bacterial species from the human gut microbiota.
    Sci Transl Med 2017 May;9(390)
    Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
    Vitamin and mineral (micronutrient) deficiencies afflict 2 billion people. Although the impact of these imbalances on host biology has been studied extensively, much less is known about their effects on the gut microbiota of developing or adult humans. Therefore, we established a community of cultured, sequenced human gut-derived bacterial species in gnotobiotic mice and fed the animals a defined micronutrient-sufficient diet, followed by a derivative diet devoid of vitamin A, folate, iron, or zinc, followed by return to the sufficient diet. Read More

    Mortality Benefits of Vitamin A Are Not Affected by Varying Frequency, Total Dose, or Duration of Supplementation.
    Food Nutr Bull 2017 Jun 10;38(2):260-266. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    1 Tufts Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background: Although vitamin A supplementation reduces child mortality, it remains unclear whether dosing frequency, total dose, or duration modifies effectiveness.

    Objective: Determine whether mortality effects of vitamin A vary by dosing frequency, total dose, or duration.

    Methods: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, identified by systematic review and expert opinion, utilizing relatively standard World Health Organization doses in children <5 years. Read More

    Vitamin A deficiency due to chronic malabsorption: an ophthalmic manifestation of a systemic condition.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 May 10;2017. Epub 2017 May 10.
    University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.
    A 47-year-old woman presented with a 4-week history of progressive loss of vision, first manifesting as night blindness. Additionally, the patient reported frequent severe episodes of diarrhoea over the past month. Her medical history included end-stage renal failure for which she was currently on haemodialysis after a failed renal transplant, chronic pancreatitis and autonomic diabetes mellitus. Read More

    [Double burden malnutrition during growth: is becoming a reality in Colombia?]
    Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) 2016 Aug;18(4):656-669
    Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia,
    Several reports have described in the last decade the coexistence of accelerated increase of obesity with micronutrient deficiencies in developed countries, and is becoming evident in developing nations. This condition may be especially deleterious in children and adolescents with consequences in metabolic risk and growth since early in life. This review describes the evidence of double burden malnutrition during growth period focused on six nutrients (iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin A, sodium, folic acid and vitamin B12) and its biological mechanisms associated with non-communicable disease through span life. Read More

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