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    6529 results match your criteria Vitamin A Deficiency

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    Factors associated with nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2018 Feb 18. Epub 2018 Feb 18.
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, Davis, California.
    Bangladesh has a high prevalence of adolescent pregnancy, but little is known about the nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy or associated factors. We used the baseline data of 1552 pregnant adolescents from a longitudinal, cluster-randomized effectiveness trial conducted in northwest Bangladesh. Forty-four percent of the adolescents were short for their age, 36% had low body mass index, 28% were anemic, 10% had iron deficiency, and 32% had vitamin A deficiency. Read More

    Vitamin A intake of Brazilian mothers and retinol concentrations in maternal blood, human milk, and the umbilical cord.
    J Int Med Res 2018 Jan 1:300060518757155. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    4 Medical Department, Federal University of São Carlos - UFSCAR, São Carlos, Rua Eugenio Ferrante, Jd. Nova Alianca Sul, SP, Brazil.
    Objectives To analyse intake of vitamin A (VA) and retinol concentrations in maternal blood, breast milk (BM), and the umbilical cord (UC) of newborns, and to determine the associations among these variables. Methods We performed a cross-sectional, epidemiological study of 180 mother-newborn dyads. Maternal and UC blood samples and BM were collected. Read More

    Incorporating orange-fleshed sweet potato into the food system as a strategy for improved nutrition: The context of South Africa.
    Food Res Int 2018 Feb 9;104:77-85. Epub 2017 Sep 9.
    Africa Unit for Transdisciplinary Health Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is considered the single most successful example of biofortification of a staple crop, and presents a feasible option to address vitamin A deficiency. Though initially promoted as part of a crop-based approach focusing on production and consumption at household level, it evolved into small-scale commercial production, predominantly in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reviews OFSP initiatives in relation to the South African food environment and food supply systems, also identifying opportunities for scaling out OFSP in a situation where sweet potato is not eaten as a staple. Read More

    Vitamin A deficiency induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in pancreatic islet cells: Implications of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1-mediated oleic acid synthesis.
    Exp Cell Res 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Lipid Biochemistry Division, National Institute of Nutrition, Jamai Osmania-Post, Hyderabad 500007, India. Electronic address:
    Previously, we reported that vitamin A deficiency resulted in the reduction of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) levels, which corroborated with attenuation of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. Here, we aimed at assessing the effect of vitamin A deficiency on SCD1, MUFA levels and their impact on pancreas' structure and functions. Male weanling Wistar rats fed one of the four diets, namely control (Con), vitamin A-deficient (VAD), highfructose (HFr) and vitamin A-deficient diet with highfructose (VADHFr) for 16 weeks period. Read More

    Serum Vitamin A Levels in Patients with Chalazion.
    Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol 2017 ;6(3):63-66
    Ophthalmologist, Department of Ophthalmology, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Chalazion is a chronic, localized lipogranulomatous inflammation of the sebaceous glands of the lids. Chalazion occurs often secondary to blockage of the sebaceous gland ducts. Some studies have reported vitamin A deficiency as a risk factor for chalazion. Read More

    Case report: Ribavirin and vitamin A in a severe case of measles.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(50):e9154
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, AP-HM, URMITE, IHU Méditerranée-Infection, 19-21 Boulevard Jean Moulin, Marseille Cedex 5.
    Rationale: Despite a vaccine being widely available, measles continues to occur frequently, with sometimes lethal consequences.

    Patients Concerns: The mortality rate reaches 35% and measles represents 44% of the 1.4 million deaths which are due to preventable diseases. Read More

    Genetic Loci Controlling Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Diverse Tropical Maize Lines.
    G3 (Bethesda) 2018 Jan 29. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA).
    The discovery and use of genetic markers associated with carotenoid levels can help to more effectively exploit the genetic potential of maize for provitamin A accumulation. Provitamin A carotenoids are classes of carotenoids that are precursors of vitamin A, an essential micronutrient in humans. Vitamin A deficiency is a global public health problem affecting millions of people, especially in developing countries. Read More

    Vitamin A status in healthy women eating traditionally prepared spirulina (Dihé) in the Chad Lake area.
    PLoS One 2018 29;13(1):e0191887. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire, CHU, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Background: Chad Lake is a central place in a region with a high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency. Spirulina, a natural source of β-carotene, is traditionally produced and eaten as "Dihé" around Chad Lake. β-carotene spirulina has been found to have a high conversion factor to retinol. Read More

    Vitamin A and retinoic acid combined have a more potent effect compared to vitamin A alone on the uptake of retinol into extrahepatic tissues of neonatal rats raised under vitamin A-marginal conditions.
    Curr Dev Nutr 2017 Dec 6;1(12). Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 USA.
    Background: Vitamin A (VA, retinol) supplementation is widely used to reduce child mortality in low-income countries. However, existing research suggests that supplementation with VA alone may not be optimal for infants.

    Objective: We compared the effect of VA vs. Read More

    Nutritional status, food insecurity, and biodiversity among the Khasi in Meghalaya, North-East India.
    Matern Child Nutr 2017 Nov;13 Suppl 3
    National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India.
    A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out with 603 children ages 5 and under and 500 of their mothers from 510 households to examine the prevalence of undernutrition and chronic diseases among the Khasis of North-East India. Anthropometric measurements including Mid-Upper Arm Circumference, height, and weight were taken. Dry blood spots to estimate haemoglobin and vitamin A were collected from children and women separately by finger prick. Read More

    Mother and child nutrition among the Chakhesang tribe in the state of Nagaland, North-East India.
    Matern Child Nutr 2017 Nov;13 Suppl 3
    Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment (CINE), McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada.
    Despite the importance of the nutritional status and food systems of Indigenous Peoples, the subject has received very little attention, especially in North-East India. Therefore, a community-based cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among Chakhesang mothers with children under 5 years of age to evaluate their nutritional status and prevalence of chronic diseases in the context of their dietary habits. From 558 households (HHs), 661 children and 540 mothers were covered using standard anthropometric measurements as well as blood collection for haemoglobin and vitamin A. Read More

    Specific Upregulation of a Cotton Phytoene Synthase Gene Produces Golden Cottonseeds with Enhanced Provitamin A.
    Sci Rep 2018 Jan 22;8(1):1348. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Biotechnology Research Center, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Application and Safety Control of Genetically Modified Crops, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, 400715, China.
    Provitamin A (PVA) bio-fortification of crops offers a sustainable strategy to prevent the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), one of the world's major public health problems. The present work aimed to enhance PVA accumulation in cottonseed, the main by-product in the production of cotton fibers and the third largest source of edible plant oil in the world. On the basis of comprehensive identification of carotenoid synthase genes and their expression levels in various cotton tissues, we selected phytoene synthase as the target for manipulating carotenoid biosynthesis in the developing cottonseeds. Read More

    Effect of vitamin A supplementation on iron status in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2018 Jan 16:1-15. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    a Postgraduate Program in Human Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences ; Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília , Distrito Federal , Brazil.
    Anemia is a worldwide public health problem that can be related to many causes, including vitamin A deficiency. The aim of this study was to assess and estimate the effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) on iron status biomarkers and anemia in humans. Six databases, including Cochrane, EMBASE, LILACS, Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science, were searched for clinical trials and cohort studies that investigated the effect of vitamin A supplementation alone on iron status and anemia, without time-restriction. Read More

    Impact of biofortified maize consumption on serum carotenoid concentrations in Zambian children.
    Eur J Clin Nutr 2018 Feb 10;72(2):301-303. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Center for Human Nutrition, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Biofortified maize, designed as an intervention strategy to prevent vitamin A deficiency, can provide upwards of 15 μg β-carotene per g dry weight. Some varieties also have elevated concentrations of other carotenoids. We conducted a cluster randomized, controlled feeding trial in rural Zambia to test the impact of daily consumption of biofortified maize over a 6-month period on vitamin A status. Read More

    Disturbed Vitamin A Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD).
    Nutrients 2017 Dec 29;10(1). Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Vitamin A is required for important physiological processes, including embryogenesis, vision, cell proliferation and differentiation, immune regulation, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Many of vitamin A's functions are executed through retinoic acids that activate transcriptional networks controlled by retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs).The liver plays a central role in vitamin A metabolism: (1) it produces bile supporting efficient intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients like vitamin A; (2) it produces retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) that distributes vitamin A, as retinol, to peripheral tissues; and (3) it harbors the largest body supply of vitamin A, mostly as retinyl esters, in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Read More

    Retinol and Betacarotene Status in Mother-Infant Dyads and Associations between Them.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Dec 21;72(1):50-56. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil.
    Background/aims: Assessing the diet and biochemical indicators of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in high-risk populations is crucial in cases where this deficiency is mainly caused by chronically inadequate intake. This study aimed to determine the retinol and betacarotene status in mother-infant dyads, and to evaluate the associations between them.

    Methods: Umbilical cord serum, maternal serum, and colostrum were collected from 134 healthy mothers living in a risk region for VAD. Read More

    Vitamin A Deficiency Induces Autistic-Like Behaviors in Rats by Regulating the RARβ-CD38-Oxytocin Axis in the Hypothalamus.
    Mol Nutr Food Res 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Children's Nutrition Research Center, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.
    Scope: Vitamin A (VA) is an essential nutrient for the development of the brain. We previously found that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a significant rate of VA deficiency (VAD). In the current study, we aim to determine whether VAD is a risk factor for the generation of autistic-like behaviors via the transcription factor retinoic acid receptor beta (RARβ)-regulated cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38)-oxytocin (OXT) axis. Read More

    UV-Vis and CIELAB Based Chemometric Characterization of Manihot esculenta Carotenoid Contents.
    J Integr Bioinform 2017 Dec 13;14(4). Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Vitamin A deficiency is a prevalent health problem in many areas of the world, where cassava genotypes with high pro-vitamin A content have been identified as a strategy to address this issue. In this study, we found a positive correlation between the color of the root pulp and the total carotenoid contents and, importantly, showed how CIELAB color measurements can be used as a non-destructive and fast technique to quantify the amount of carotenoids in cassava root samples, as opposed to traditional methods. We trained several machine learning models using UV-visible spectrophotometry data, CIELAB data and a low-level data fusion of the two. Read More

    Vitamin A deficiency in mice alters host and gut microbial metabolism leading to altered energy homeostasis.
    J Nutr Biochem 2017 Nov 5;54:28-34. Epub 2017 Nov 5.
    Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, United States. Electronic address:
    Vitamin A deficiency (A-) is a worldwide public health problem. To better understand how vitamin A status influences gut microbiota and host metabolism, we systematically analyzed urine, cecum, serum and liver samples from vitamin A sufficient (A+) and deficient (A-) mice usingH NMR-based metabolomics, quantitative (q)PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing coupled with multivariate data analysis. The microbiota in the cecum of A- mice showed compositional as well as functional shifts compared to the microbiota from A+ mice. Read More

    Causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in students in schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia.
    BMJ Glob Health 2017 10;2(2):e000264. Epub 2017 Jun 10.
    Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Objectives: To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL) among students in schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia and to identify preventable and treatable causes.

    Method: Students attending nine schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia were examined and causes assigned using the standard WHO record form for children with blindness and low vision in May and June 2015.

    Results: 383 students were examined, 357 (93%) of whom were severely visually impaired or blind (<6/60 in their better eye). Read More

    Rapid diagnostic testing platform for iron and vitamin A deficiency.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 Dec 4;114(51):13513-13518. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853;
    Micronutrient deficiencies such as those of vitamin A and iron affect a third of the world's population with consequences such as night blindness, higher child mortality, anemia, poor pregnancy outcomes, and reduced work capacity. Many efforts to prevent or treat these deficiencies are hampered by the lack of adequate, accessible, and affordable diagnostic methods that can enable better targeting of interventions. In this work, we demonstrate a rapid diagnostic test and mobile enabled platform for simultaneously quantifying iron (ferritin), vitamin A (retinol-binding protein), and inflammation (C-reactive protein) status. Read More

    Iron, zinc, vitamin A and selenium status in a cohort of Indonesian infants after adjusting for inflammation using several different approaches.
    Br J Nutr 2017 Nov;118(10):830-839
    2Department of Human Nutrition,University of Otago,PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054,New Zealand.
    Inflammation confounds the interpretation of several micronutrient biomarkers resulting in estimates that may not reflect the true burden of deficiency. We aimed to assess and compare the micronutrient status of a cohort of Indonesian infants (n 230) at aged 6, 9 and 12 months by ignoring inflammation (unadjusted) and adjusting four micronutrient biomarkers for inflammation with C-reactive protein (CRP) and α-1-glycoprotein (AGP) using the following methods: (1) arithmetic correction factors with the use of a four-stage inflammation model; and (2) regression modelling. Prevalence of infants with any inflammation (CRP>5 mg/l and/or AGP>1 g/l) was about 25% at each age. Read More

    The Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in Chinese Children: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis.
    Nutrients 2017 Nov 25;9(12). Epub 2017 Nov 25.
    Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.
    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a leading cause of preventable childhood blindness, has been recognized as an important public health problem in many developing countries. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to identify all population-based studies of VAD and marginal VAD (MVAD) in Chinese children published from 1990 onwards. Hierarchical Bayesian meta-regressions were performed to examine the effects of age, sex, setting and year on the prevalence of VAD and MVAD, separately. Read More

    The Silencing of Carotenoid β-Hydroxylases by RNA Interference in Different Maize Genetic Backgrounds Increases the β-Carotene Content of the Endosperm.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 11 24;18(12). Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Plant Production and Forestry Science, University of Lleida-Agrotecnio Center, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure, 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain
    Maize (L.) is a staple food in many parts of Africa, but the endosperm generally contains low levels of the pro-vitamin A carotenoid β-carotene, leading to vitamin A deficiency disease in populations relying on cereal-based diets. However, maize endosperm does accumulate high levels of other carotenoids, including zeaxanthin, which is derived from β-carotene via two hydroxylation reactions. Read More

    The Effect of Red Palm Oil on Vitamin A Deficiency: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
    Nutrients 2017 11 24;9(12). Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Southeast University, 87 Ding Jia Qiao Road, Nanjing 210009, China
    Red palm oil (RPO) has been investigated for preventing or alleviating vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Previous data has offered inconclusive and inconsistent results about the effects of RPO in patients with VAD. Our objective was to undertake a meta-analysis to assess the effects of RPO in preventing VAD in the population. Read More

    The Retinol Binding Protein Receptor 2 (Rbpr2) is required for Photoreceptor Outer Segment Morphogenesis and Visual Function in Zebrafish.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 24;7(1):16207. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 29425, USA.
    Vitamin A (all-trans retinol) plays critical roles in mammalian development and vision. Since vitamin A is food-derived, tissue-specific uptake and storage mechanism are needed. In the eye, uptake of RBP4-retinol is mediated by the receptor Stra6, whereas the receptor mediating RBP4 binding and retinol transport into the liver has just recently been discovered. Read More

    Retrospective data on causes of childhood vision impairment in Eritrea.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 22;17(1):209. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Berhan Aiyni National Referral Eye Hospital, Asmara, Eritrea.
    Background: Proper information on causes of childhood vision loss is essential in developing appropriate strategies and programs to address such causes. This study aimed at identifying the causes of vision loss in children attending the national referral eye hospital with the only pediatric ophthalmology service in Eritrea.

    Methods: A retrospective data review was conducted for all the children (< 16 years of age) who attended Berhan Aiyni National Referral Eye Hospital in five years period from January 2011 to December 2015. Read More

    Comparability of Inflammation-Adjusted Vitamin A Deficiency Estimates and Variance in Retinol Explained by C-Reactive Protein and α-Acid Glycoprotein during Low and High Malaria Transmission Seasons in Rural Zambian Children.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jan 1;98(1):334-343. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Inflammation-induced hyporetinolemia (IIH), a reduction in serum retinol (SR) during inflammation, may bias population estimates of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). The optimal adjustment for IIH depends on the type and extent of inflammation. In rural Zambian children (4-8 years,= 886), we compared three models for defining inflammation: α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) only (inflammation present if > 1 g/L or normal if otherwise), C-reactive protein (CRP) only (moderate inflammation, 5-15 mg/L; high inflammation, > 15 mg/L; or normal if otherwise) and a combined model using both AGP and CRP to delineate stages of infectious episode. Read More

    Hormonal contraceptive use and vitamin A deficiency among women in Tanzania.
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Athens, GA, USA.
    Objective: To examine the association between hormonal contraceptive use and vitamin A deficiency among women in Tanzania.

    Methods: Secondary analysis of data from 8231 women who participated in the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed. Read More

    The impact of sociodemography, diet, and body size on serum retinol in women 16-35 years of age: SANHANES-1.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Population Health, Health Systems and Innovation, Human Sciences Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.
    To determine the current vitamin A status of a nationally representative sample of women aged 16-35 years, compare it with previous national data, and determine the impact of sociodemography, diet, and body size on vitamin A status, we performed secondary analysis of data on South African women who participated in the first South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1). Vitamin A status was assessed by serum retinol, and the findings are reported as means and prevalences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Overall, the age-standardized vitamin A deficiency prevalence was 11. Read More

    Multiple Nutritional Deficiencies in Cerebral Palsy Compounding Physical and Functional Impairments.
    Indian J Palliat Care 2017 Oct-Dec;23(4):387-392
    Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
    Introduction: Cerebral palsy (CP) refers to a spectrum of disorders causing physical and intellectual morbidity. Macro and micro nutrient deficiencies often contribute to the subnormal physical and mental capabilities of them.

    Objectives: To assess the growth, nutritional status, physical and functional ability and quality of life in cerebral palsy children and to determine any relation with their gross motor and functional capabilities. Read More

    Vitamin A improves the symptoms of autism spectrum disorders and decreases 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT): A pilot study.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Nov 6;137:35-40. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Children Nutrition Research Center, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400014, China; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China; China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Translational Medical Research in Cognitive Development and Learning and Memory Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China. Electronic address:
    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complicated neurodevelopmental disorders. Many studies have demonstrated that children with autism have multiple nutritional deficiencies and increased serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels. In our previous study, 77. Read More

    Endogenous retinoid X receptor ligands in mouse hematopoietic cells.
    Sci Signal 2017 Oct 31;10(503). Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
    The retinoid X receptor α (RXRA) has been implicated in diverse hematological processes. To identify natural ligands of RXRA that are present in hematopoietic cells, we adapted an upstream activation sequence-green fluorescent protein (UAS-GFP) reporter mouse to detect natural RXRA ligands in vivo. We observed reporter activity in diverse types of hematopoietic cells in vivo. Read More

    Vitamin A status and its determinants in patients with cystic fibrosis.
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 2017 Jul-Sep;16(3):345-354
    Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland.
    Background: Routine administration of vitamin A, recommended in CF patients, can help to prevent its deficiency. However, high vitamin A supplementation may lead to its excessive level and possible toxicity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the status of vitamin A and the determinants of its body resources in CF patients. Read More

    Causes of Childhood Vision Impairment in the School for the Blind in Eritrea.
    Optom Vis Sci 2017 Dec;94(12):1138-1144
    Discipline of Optometry, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban South Africa
    Significance: Our study provides the much-needed evidence on causes of childhood blindness in Eritrea. This will assist authorities to plan appropriate strategies and implement preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services to address these causes of vision loss in children in this resource-limited country.

    Purpose: This study aims to identify the causes of severe vision impairment and blindness in children attending the only school for the blind in Eritrea. Read More

    Mechanism underlying the suppressor activity of retinoic acid on IL4-induced IgE synthesis and its physiological implication.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Dec 3;322:49-55. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Molecular Bioscience, School of Biomedical Science and Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    The present study extends an earlier report that retinoic acid (RA) down-regulates IgE Ab synthesis in vitro. Here, we show the suppressive activity of RA on IgE production in vivo and its underlying mechanisms. We found that RA down-regulated IgE class switching recombination (CSR) mainly through RA receptor α (RARα). Read More

    Prevnar-13 vaccine failure in a mouse model for vitamin A deficiency.
    Vaccine 2017 Nov 9;35(46):6264-6268. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA; Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. Electronic address:
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is responsible for serious pediatric respiratory infections, and kills close to one million children under the age of five each year. Unfortunately, the Prevnar-13 vaccine (PCV-13) that is used to protect children from the serious consequences of pneumococcus infections is not always successful. Given that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is known to affect children in both developed and developing countries, we asked if VAD could be responsible, at least in part, for PCV-13 vaccine failures. Read More

    Tackling vitamin A deficiency with biofortified sweetpotato in sub-Saharan Africa.
    Glob Food Sec 2017 Sep;14:23-30
    International Food Policy Research Institute, Kampala, Uganda.
    Orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) is a rich plant-based source of beta-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A. In sub-Saharan Africa, sweetpotato is known as a food security crop but most varieties grown are high dry matter white-fleshed types, lacking beta-carotene. In 1995, researchers recognized the potential of OFSP varieties to address widespread vitamin A deficiency in SSA using an integrated agriculture-nutrition approach. Read More

    Integrating primary eye care into global child health policies.
    Arch Dis Child 2018 Feb 7;103(2):176-180. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Department of Clinical Research, International Centre of Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Globally, approximately 75% of blind children live in low-income countries (LICs). Almost half of blindness and low vision in LICs is due to avoidable causes such as corneal scarring from measles infection, vitamin A deficiency disorders, use of harmful traditional eye remedies, ophthalmia neonatorum and cataract. Read More

    Competition between ethanol clearance and retinoic acid biosynthesis in the induction of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
    Biochem Cell Biol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Hebrew University Faculty of Medicine, 54621, Developmental Biology and Cancer Research , Ein Kerem , Jerusalem, Israel , 91112102 ;
    Several models have been proposed to explain the neurodevelopmental syndrome induced by alcohol exposure of human embryos, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). One of the proposed models suggests a competition for the enzymes required for retinoic acid biosynthesis. The outcome of such competition is the development under conditions of reduced retinoic acid signaling. Read More

    Household Consumption of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato and its Associated Factors in Chipata District, Eastern Province Zambia.
    Food Nutr Bull 2018 Mar 2;39(1):127-136. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    2 Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: The Integrating Orange Project promotes production and consumption of orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) to address vitamin A deficiency among rural populations of Zambia since 2011.

    Objective: This study assessed household production and consumption of OFSP and identified factors associated with consumption thereof in Integrating Orange Project areas in Chipata district, Zambia.

    Methods: Respondents of 295 randomly selected households were interviewed using a structured questionnaire during the sweet potato harvest season. Read More

    Societal Costs of Micronutrient Deficiencies in 6- to 59-month-old Children in Pakistan.
    Food Nutr Bull 2017 Dec 2;38(4):485-500. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    3 Center of Excellence in Women and Child Health, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Background: In Pakistan, nearly half of children younger than 5 years are stunted, and 1 in 3 is underweight. Micronutrient deficiencies, a less visible form of undernutrition, are also endemic. They may lead to increased morbidity and mortality as well as to impaired cognitive and physical development. Read More

    The potential contribution of yellow cassava to dietary nutrient adequacy of primary-school children in Eastern Kenya; the use of linear programming.
    Public Health Nutr 2018 Feb 2;21(2):365-376. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    1Division of Human Nutrition,Wageningen University,Wageningen,The Netherlands.
    Objective: Introduction of biofortified cassava as school lunch can increase vitamin A intake, but may increase risk of other deficiencies due to poor nutrient profile of cassava. We assessed the potential effect of introducing a yellow cassava-based school lunch combined with additional food-based recommendations (FBR) on vitamin A and overall nutrient adequacy using Optifood (linear programming tool).

    Design: Cross-sectional study to assess dietary intakes (24 h recall) and derive model parameters (list of foods consumed, median serving sizes, food and food (sub)group frequency distributions, food cost). Read More

    Vitamin A nutritional status in high- and low-income postpartum women and its effect on colostrum and the requirements of the term newborn.
    J Pediatr (Rio J) 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Curso de Nutrição, Natal, RN, Brazil.
    Objective: To evaluate the vitamin A status in serum and colostrum of postpartum women with different socioeconomic status, comparing the colostrum retinol supply with the vitamin A requirement of the newborn.

    Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with 424 postpartum women. Vitamin A maternal dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Read More

    International Vision Care: Issues and Approaches.
    Annu Rev Vis Sci 2017 Sep;3:53-68
    Allen Foster Community Eye Health Research Centre, Gullapalli Pratibha Rao International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad 500086, India.
    Globally, 32.4 million individuals are blind and 191 million have moderate or severe visual impairment (MSVI); 80% of cases of blindness and MSVI are avoidable. However, great efforts are needed to tackle blindness and MSVI, as eye care in most places is delivered in isolation from and without significant integration with general health sectors. Read More

    [Unusual case of struvite urolithiasis in a dog. A case report. Ein Fallbericht].
    Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2017 Oct 20;45(5):344-351. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Prof. Dr. Ellen Kienzle, Lehrstuhl für Tierernährung und Diätetik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Schönleutnerstraße 8, 85764 Oberschleißheim, E-Mail:
    A dog was referred for nutrition consultation after surgical removal of struvite uroliths from the bladder. Inspection of the dog's current ration revealed a pronounced vitamin-A deficiency together with a marked deficiency of protein, phosphorus and magnesium. Therefore, a supersaturation of the urine with ammonium, magnesium and phosphate, the three constituents of struvite, as a cause of struvite calculi formation appears rather unlikely. Read More

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