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    6441 results match your criteria Vitamin A Deficiency

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    Dietary deficiency of vitamin A among rural children: A community-based survey using a food-frequency questionnaire.
    Natl Med J India 2017 Mar-Apr;30(2):61-64
    Department of Community Medicine, Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated hospitals, New Delhi, 110001, India.
    Background: Overt vitamin A deficiency has been controlled in most parts of India, but prevalence of subclinical deficiency may still be high, which may enhance susceptibility to infections, reduce growth potential and also lead to higher mortality. We aimed to: (i) assess the consumption pattern of vitamin A-rich foods in children 1-5 years of age in rural Jammu; and (ii) estimate the dietary deficiency of vitamin A leading to risk of subclinical vitamin A deficiency in cluster- villages of the study area.

    Methods: In 2011, we conducted a survey of 750 children by selecting 50 from each of the 1 5 clusters. Read More

    Burden of disease attributable to vitamin A deficiency in Iranian population aged less than five years: findings from the global burden of disease study 2010.
    J Diabetes Metab Disord 2017 9;16:32. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Hezarjerib Ave, Isfahan, Iran.
    Background: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is considered as one of the most serious public health concerns in developing countriesand the leading cause of mortality in under-five-year-old children.A large number of young children and pregnant women especially in low-income, non-industrialized communities are more susceptible to VAD. This study aims to report the burden of disease (BOD) attributable to VAD in Iranian population aged less than 5 years by using data of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2010. Read More

    Discovery and biological relevance of 3,4-didehydroretinol (vitamin A2) in small indigenous fish species and its potential as a dietary source for addressing vitamin A deficiency.
    Int J Food Sci Nutr 2017 Aug 4:1-9. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    d WorldFish , Dhaka , Bangladesh.
    Discovered in the late 1920s, 3,4-didehydroretinol (DROL, vitamin A2) plays a significant biological role in freshwater fish. The functions of this vitamin have been investigated but to a far lesser extent than those of retinol (ROL, vitamin A1). A recent study indicating all-trans DROL has 119-127% vitamin A biological activity compared to that of all-trans ROL suggests the significance of DROL for addressing vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in comparison to ROL may be currently overlooked. Read More

    Inhibition of pulmonary β-carotene 15, 15'-oxygenase expression by glucocorticoid involves PPARα.
    PLoS One 2017 21;12(7):e0181466. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Pediatrics, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, Texas, United States of America.
    β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) catalyzes the first step in the conversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A. This enzyme is expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues, suggesting that its activity may regulate local retinoid synthesis. Vitamin A and related compounds (retinoids) are critical regulators of lung epithelial development, integrity, and injury repair. Read More

    Adolescent health in rural Ghana: A cross-sectional study on the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(7):e0180436. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Department of Molecular Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuthetal, Germany.
    In sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diseases and malnutrition constitute the main health problems in children, while adolescents and adults are increasingly facing cardio-metabolic conditions. Among adolescents as the largest population group in this region, we investigated the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors (CRFs), and evaluated demographic, socio-economic and medical risk factors for these entities. In a cross-sectional study among 188 adolescents in rural Ghana, malarial infection, common infectious diseases and Body Mass Index were assessed. Read More

    Vitamin A, endocrine tissues and hormones: interplay and interactions.
    Endocr Connect 2017 Jul 18. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    J Corcuff, Nuclear Medicine, University hospital of Bordeaux, Pessac, 33604, France
    Vitamin A (retinol) is a micronutrient critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. In adults, vitamin A and metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA) play major roles in vision, immune and brain functions, and tissue remodelling and metabolism. This review presents the physiological interactions of retinoids and endocrine tissues and hormonal systems. Read More

    Nonenzymatic β-Carotene Degradation in Provitamin A-Biofortified Crop Plants.
    J Agric Food Chem 2017 Aug 28;65(31):6588-6598. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg , Schaenzlestrasse 1, D79104 Freiburg, Germany.
    Provitamin A biofortification, the provision of provitamin A carotenoids through agriculture, is regarded as an effective and sustainable intervention to defeat vitamin A deficiency, representing a global health problem. This food-based intervention has been questioned in conjunction with negative outcomes for smokers and asbestos-exposed populations of the CARET and ATBC trials in which very high doses of β-carotene were supplemented. The current notion that β-carotene cleavage products (apocarotenoids) represented the harmful agents is the basis of the here-presented research. Read More

    The risk of plasma vitamin A, C, E and D deficiency in patients with metabolic syndrome: a case-control study.
    Adv Clin Exp Med 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Department of Internal and Infectious Diseases, Medical University of Lodz.
    Background: The increasing incidence of metabolic diseases such as obesity or diabetes made them a major public health problem. Increasing oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species , which initiate the oxidative adverse changes in the cell, is mentioned, among other risk factors, to underlie these diseases. Vitamin A, C and E are listed among non-enzymatic mechanisms counteracting this phenomenon. Read More

    Serum Vitamin A Levels May Affect the Severity of Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease.
    Front Med (Lausanne) 2017 22;4:67. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Eye Center, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a well-established therapeutic option for a range of inherited and acquired hematological disorders. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the leading cause of non-relapse mortality in allogeneic HSCT recipients. Ocular involvement occurs in up to 80% of chronic GVHD patients. Read More

    Are Low Intakes and Deficiencies in Iron, Vitamin A, Zinc, and Iodine of Public Health Concern in Ethiopian, Kenyan, Nigerian, and South African Children and Adolescents.
    Food Nutr Bull 2017 Jan 1:379572117715818. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    1 Unilever Research and Development, Vlaardingen, the Netherlands.
    Objective: To perform a systematic review to evaluate iron, vitamin A, zinc, and iodine status and intakes in children and adolescents (0-19 years) in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa.

    Method: Both national and subnational data published from the year 2005 to 2015 were searched via MEDLINE, Scopus, and national public health websites. For each micronutrient and country, status data from relevant studies and surveys were combined into an average prevalence and weighted by sample size (WAVG). Read More

    Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Aggravates Vitamin A Deficiency in the Mother-Child Group.
    Obes Surg 2017 Jul 4. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    Center for Research on Micronutrients (NPqM), Institute of Nutrition Josué de Castro, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Objective: The objectives of this study are to compare the nutritional status of vitamin A in women who previously underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) who became pregnant or did not, in the same period after surgery, and to assess its effects on mother and child health.

    Methodology: A retrospective longitudinal study conducted with women who previously underwent RYGB, paired by age and BMI measured before surgery, divided into group 1 (G1) comprising 77 women who did not become pregnant and group 2 (G2) with 39 women in their third gestational trimester. Both groups were assessed before surgery (T0) and in the same interval after surgery: less than or equal to 1 year (T1) or over 1 year (T2), during a maximum of 2 years. Read More

    Report of an unsual case of anophthalmia and craniofacial cleft in a newborn with Toxoplasma gondii congenital infection.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Jul 3;17(1):459. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Laboratory Inmunología Experimental, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría (INP), Secretaría de Salud, Torre de Investigación, Av. Insurgentes Sur 3700-C, Col Insurgentes Cuicuilco, 04530, Ciudad de México, DF, Mexico.
    Background: We present one unusual case of anophthalmia and craniofacial cleft, probably due to congenital toxoplasmosis only.

    Case Presentation: A two-month-old male had a twin in utero who disappeared between the 7(th) and the 14(th) week of gestation. At birth, the baby presented anophthalmia and craniofacial cleft, and no sign compatible with genetic or exposition/deficiency problems, like the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome or maternal vitamin A deficiency. Read More

    Prevalence of ocular morbidity in school going children in West Uttar Pradesh.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 Jun;65(6):500-508
    Department of Ophthalmology, Subharti Medical College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Aim Of The Study: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and to make a comparison between the ocular morbidity pattern in school going children of urban and rural areas of West Uttar Pradesh.

    Materials And Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study design was adopted to examine children aged 5-15 years in randomly selected urban and rural schools of West Uttar Pradesh from June 2012 to August 2014. An optometrist did the vision and refraction, and a detailed ophthalmic examination was done by an ophthalmologist. Read More

    Micronutrient deficiencies among children and women in Bangladesh: progress and challenges.
    J Nutr Sci 2016 3;5:e46. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    UNICEF, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current situation regarding micronutrient deficiencies among children and women in Bangladesh. This review also discusses the successes and current challenges of existing intervention programmes. Data from nationally representative and selected small surveys since the 1980s that have reported on the status of at least one micronutrient in children and/or women have been examined. Read More

    Factors associated with inflammation in preschool children and women of reproductive age: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Jul 14;106(Suppl 1):348S-358S. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Nutrition Branch, CDC, Atlanta, GA;
    Background: In many settings, populations experience recurrent exposure to inflammatory agents that catalyze fluctuations in the concentrations of acute-phase proteins and certain micronutrient biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), ferritin, and retinol. Few data are available on the prevalence and predictors of inflammation in diverse settings.Objective: We aimed to assess the relation between inflammation (CRP concentration >5 mg/L or AGP concentration >1 g/L) and covariates, such as demographics, reported illness, and anthropometric status, in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y). Read More

    Predictors of anemia in women of reproductive age: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Jul 14;106(Suppl 1):416S-427S. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: Anemia in women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y) remains a public health problem globally, and reducing anemia in women by 50% by 2025 is a goal of the World Health Assembly.Objective: We assessed the associations between anemia and multiple proximal risk factors (e.g. Read More

    Methodologic approach for the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Jul 14;106(Suppl 1):333S-347S. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Nutrition Branch, CDC, Atlanta, GA; and.
    Background: The Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project is a multiagency and multicountry collaboration that was formed to improve micronutrient assessment and to better characterize anemia.Objectives: The aims of the project were to 1) identify factors associated with inflammation, 2) assess the relations between inflammation, malaria infection, and biomarkers of iron and vitamin A status and compare adjustment approaches, and 3) assess risk factors for anemia in preschool children (PSC) and women of reproductive age (WRA).Design: The BRINDA database inclusion criteria included surveys that 1) were conducted after 2004, 2) had target groups of PSC, WRA, or both, and 3) used a similar laboratory methodology for the measurement of ≥1 biomarker of iron [ferritin or soluble transferrin receptor or vitamin A status (retinol-binding protein or retinol)] and ≥1 biomarker of inflammation (α-1-acid glycoprotein or C-reactive protein). Read More

    Research, policy, and programmatic considerations from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Jul 14;106(Suppl 1):428S-434S. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Helen Keller International, New York, NY.
    The Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project sought to inform the interpretation of iron and vitamin A biomarkers (ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and retinol binding protein) in settings of prevalent inflammation as well as the prevention of and control strategies to address anemia. Our purpose is to comment on the contributions of the BRINDA to advance global knowledge with regard to iron and vitamin A status assessment in women and preschool children and to analyze the findings in terms of their rigor and usefulness for global nutrition research and programs. BRINDA investigators found that the acute-phase response is so prevalent that it must be assessed in surveys of iron and vitamin A status for valid interpretation of micronutrient biomarkers. Read More

    Adjusting retinol-binding protein concentrations for inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Jul 14;106(Suppl 1):390S-401S. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Independent Public Health Nutrition Consultant, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Background: The accurate estimation of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is important in planning and implementing interventions. Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is often used in population surveys to measure vitamin A status, but its interpretation is challenging in settings where inflammation is common because RBP concentrations decrease during the acute-phase response.Objectives: We aimed to assess the relation between RBP concentrations and inflammation and malaria in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y) and to investigate adjustment algorithms to account for these effects. Read More

    Cyp1b1 deletion and retinol deficiency coordinately suppress mouse liver lipogenic genes and hepcidin expression during post-natal development.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 Oct 2;454:50-68. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Endocrinology and Reproductive Physiology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, United States; Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, United States. Electronic address:
    Cyp1b1 deletion and gestational vitamin A deficiency (GVAD) redirect adult liver gene expression. A matched sufficient pre- and post-natal diet, which has high carbohydrate and normal iron content (LF12), increased inflammatory gene expression markers in adult livers that were suppressed by GVAD and Cyp1b1 deletion. At birth on the LF12 diet, Cyp1b1 deletion and GVAD each suppress liver expression of the iron suppressor, hepcidin (Hepc), while increasing stellate cell activation markers and suppressing post-natal increases in lipogenesis. Read More

    The change in retinoic acid receptor signaling induced by prenatal marginal vitamin A deficiency and its effects on learning and memory.
    J Nutr Biochem 2017 May 25;47:75-85. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Department of Primary Child Health Care, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, P.R. China; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing, P.R. China; China International Science and Technology Cooperation base of Child development and Critical Disorders, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, Chongqing, P.R. China. Electronic address:
    This study investigated the prenatal marginal vitamin A deficiency (mVAD)-related impairment in learning and memory and the interactions between RARα, Src and NR1. Learning and memory were assessed in adult rats that were exposed to prenatal mVAD with Morris water maze. The average escape time was longer in mVAD rats, and they passed the hidden platform fewer times during the memory retention test than normal vitamin A intake (VAN) rats. Read More

    Diet-dependent retinoid effects on liver gene expression include stellate and inflammation markers and parallel effects of the nuclear repressor Shp.
    J Nutr Biochem 2017 Apr 19;47:63-74. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Endocrinology and Reproductive Physiology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705; Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705. Electronic address:
    For mice, a maternal vitamin A (VA)-deficient diet initiated from midgestation (GVAD) produces serum retinol deficiency in mature offspring. We hypothesize that the effects of GVAD arise from preweaning developmental changes. We compare the effect of this GVAD protocol in combination with a postweaning high-fat diet (HFD) or high-carbohydrate diet (LF12). Read More

    Vitamin A Supplementation for the Prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Preterm Infants: An Update.
    Nutr Clin Pract 2017 Jun 21;32(3):346-353. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    2 Rutgers School of Health Professions, Newark, New Jersey, USA.
    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common complication of premature birth and is associated with significant morbidity. Vitamin A supplementation has been suggested as a potential preventative measure against BPD due to its role in lung maturation and because preterm infants are particularly predisposed to vitamin A deficiency. The aim of this review was to determine whether vitamin A supplementation reduces BPD risk among preterm infants. Read More

    Impact of Vitamin A and Carotenoids on the Risk of Tuberculosis Progression.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 May 20. Epub 2017 May 20.
    Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Background: Low and deficient levels of vitamin A are common in low and middle income countries where tuberculosis (TB) burden is high. We assessed the impact of baseline levels of vitamins A and carotenoids on TB disease risk.

    Methods: We conducted a case-control study nested within a longitudinal cohort of household contacts of pulmonary TB cases in Lima, Peru. Read More

    Retinoid BMS411 (4-{[(5,5-dimethyl-8-phenyl-5,6-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl) carbonyl] amino} benzoic acid), a potential inhibitor of NS5A protein of hepatitis C virus, a candidate for combined therapy of hepatitis C infection.
    Acta Virol 2017;61(2):204-211
    Hepatitis C infection is a serious health issue worldwide caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). There is an urgent need of search for new direct acting antiviral drugs due to the rapid development of drug resistance. The HCV NS5A protein is involved in creating resistance against antiviral therapy and there are also many reports that vitamin A deficiency is associated with non-responsiveness to antiviral treatment in HCV infected patients. Read More

    The effects of micronutrient deficiencies on bacterial species from the human gut microbiota.
    Sci Transl Med 2017 May;9(390)
    Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
    Vitamin and mineral (micronutrient) deficiencies afflict 2 billion people. Although the impact of these imbalances on host biology has been studied extensively, much less is known about their effects on the gut microbiota of developing or adult humans. Therefore, we established a community of cultured, sequenced human gut-derived bacterial species in gnotobiotic mice and fed the animals a defined micronutrient-sufficient diet, followed by a derivative diet devoid of vitamin A, folate, iron, or zinc, followed by return to the sufficient diet. Read More

    Mortality Benefits of Vitamin A Are Not Affected by Varying Frequency, Total Dose, or Duration of Supplementation.
    Food Nutr Bull 2017 Jun 10;38(2):260-266. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    1 Tufts Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background: Although vitamin A supplementation reduces child mortality, it remains unclear whether dosing frequency, total dose, or duration modifies effectiveness.

    Objective: Determine whether mortality effects of vitamin A vary by dosing frequency, total dose, or duration.

    Methods: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, identified by systematic review and expert opinion, utilizing relatively standard World Health Organization doses in children <5 years. Read More

    Vitamin A deficiency due to chronic malabsorption: an ophthalmic manifestation of a systemic condition.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 May 10;2017. Epub 2017 May 10.
    University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.
    A 47-year-old woman presented with a 4-week history of progressive loss of vision, first manifesting as night blindness. Additionally, the patient reported frequent severe episodes of diarrhoea over the past month. Her medical history included end-stage renal failure for which she was currently on haemodialysis after a failed renal transplant, chronic pancreatitis and autonomic diabetes mellitus. Read More

    [Double burden malnutrition during growth: is becoming a reality in Colombia?]
    Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) 2016 Aug;18(4):656-669
    Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia,
    Several reports have described in the last decade the coexistence of accelerated increase of obesity with micronutrient deficiencies in developed countries, and is becoming evident in developing nations. This condition may be especially deleterious in children and adolescents with consequences in metabolic risk and growth since early in life. This review describes the evidence of double burden malnutrition during growth period focused on six nutrients (iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin A, sodium, folic acid and vitamin B12) and its biological mechanisms associated with non-communicable disease through span life. Read More

    Comparison of administrative and survey data for estimating vitamin A supplementation and deworming coverage of children under five years of age in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Trop Med Int Health 2017 Jul 26;22(7):822-829. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Helen Keller International, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Objective: To compare administrative coverage data with results from household coverage surveys for vitamin A supplementation (VAS) and deworming campaigns conducted during 2010-2015 in 12 African countries.

    Methods: Paired t-tests examined differences between administrative and survey coverage for 52 VAS and 34 deworming dyads. Independent t-tests measured VAS and deworming coverage differences between data sources for door-to-door and fixed-site delivery strategies and VAS coverage differences between 6- to 11-month and 12- to 59-month age group. Read More

    Vitamin A mediates conversion of monocyte-derived macrophages into tissue-resident macrophages during alternative activation.
    Nat Immunol 2017 Jun 24;18(6):642-653. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.
    It remains unclear whether activated inflammatory macrophages can adopt features of tissue-resident macrophages, or what mechanisms might mediate such a phenotypic conversion. Here we show that vitamin A is required for the phenotypic conversion of interleukin 4 (IL-4)-activated monocyte-derived F4/80(int)CD206(+)PD-L2(+)MHCII(+) macrophages into macrophages with a tissue-resident F4/80(hi)CD206(-)PD-L2(-)MHCII(-)UCP1(+) phenotype in the peritoneal cavity of mice and during the formation of liver granulomas in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The phenotypic conversion of F4/80(int)CD206(+) macrophages into F4/80(hi)CD206(-) macrophages was associated with almost complete remodeling of the chromatin landscape, as well as alteration of the transcriptional profiles. Read More

    An Animal-Source Food Supplement Increases Micronutrient Intakes and Iron Status among Reproductive-Age Women in Rural Vietnam.
    J Nutr 2017 Jun 19;147(6):1200-1207. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Program in International and Community Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA; and
    Background: Few studies have examined the impact of local animal-source foods (ASFs) on the nutritional status of reproductive-age women in developing countries.Objective: We hypothesized that a midmorning snack of local ASF for 6 mo would reduce dietary micronutrient deficiencies [usual intake less than the estimated average requirement (EAR)] and improve blood biomarkers of iron, zinc, and vitamins A and B-12 status among nonpregnant, reproductive-age women in rural Vietnam.Methods: One hundred seventeen women, 18-30 y old, were randomly assigned to receive either an ASF (mean: 144 kcal, 8. Read More

    Assessment of individual carotenoid and vitamin A dietary intake in overweight and obese Dominican subjects.
    Nutr Hosp 2017 Mar 30;34(2):407-415. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Introduction: Carotenoids are plant pigment with important biological activities in humans, such as provitamin-A among others. At present, there are no individual carotenoid intake data in the Dominican population, which is at risk of vitamin A deficiency and has an important percentage of overweight and obese individuals .

    Objective: To assess the individual components of vitamin A intake (retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin) and that of other relevant dietary carotenoids like lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene of Dominican daily food intake. Read More

    Promotion of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Increased Vitamin A Intakes and Reduced the Odds of Low Retinol-Binding Protein among Postpartum Kenyan Women.
    J Nutr 2017 May 12;147(5):955-963. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    International Potato Center, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Background: Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) improves vitamin A (VA) status of young children; research with pregnant and lactating women is limited.Objective: We examined the effectiveness of the Mama SASHA (Sweetpotato Action for Security and Health in Africa) program to improve nutrition knowledge, diets, and nutritional status of pregnant and lactating women (PLW) in Western Kenya.Methods: Eight health facilities were allocated to the Mama SASHA intervention or comparison arms. Read More

    Single High-Dose Vitamin A Supplementation to Neonatal Piglets Results in a Transient Dose Response in Extrahepatic Organs and Sustained Increases in Liver Stores.
    J Nutr 2017 May 5;147(5):798-806. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Interdepartmental Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
    Background: Neonatal vitamin A (VA) supplementation is being evaluated as a public health policy for preventing infant mortality, but inconsistencies in mortality trials demand mechanistic work to determine biological plausibility.Objectives: We investigated the absorption, distribution, and storage of single large oral VA doses administered shortly after birth.Methods: Fifty pregnant sows (Sus scrofas domesticas) were fed a VA-free diet. Read More

    Vitamin A deficiency in chronic cholestatic liver disease -is vitamin A therapy beneficial ?
    Liver Int 2017 Mar 29. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Department of Internal Medicine IV, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Chronic cholestatic diseases are progressive diseases of the biliary tract that cause hepatic fibrosis and ultimately lead to liver failure. Liver transplantation is the sole curative option currently available, and because of high morbidity and mortality rates of these diseases, new therapeutic approaches are needed. Vitamin A is a nutrient essential for health as it regulates many processes, including epithelial growth and immunological processes. Read More

    A retrospective analysis of a societal experiment among the Danish population suggests that exposure to extra doses of vitamin A during fetal development may lower type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk later in life.
    Br J Nutr 2017 Mar 27;117(5):731-736. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    1Research Unit for Dietary Studies,The Parker Institute and Department of Clinical Epidemiology (formerly 'Institute of Preventive Medicine'),Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg University Hospitals - the Capital Region,Nordre Fasanvej 57, Hovedvejen, entrance 5, ground floor, 2000 Frederiksberg,Denmark.
    Vitamin A deficiency has been associated with impaired fetal pancreatic development and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 1962, mandatory margarine fortification with vitamin A was increased by 25 % in Denmark. We aimed to determine whether offspring of mothers who had been exposed to the extra vitamin A from fortification during pregnancy had a lower risk of developing T2DM in adult life, compared with offspring of mothers exposed to less vitamin A. Read More

    Stability of β-carotene during baking of orange-fleshed sweet potato-wheat composite bread and estimated contribution to vitamin A requirements.
    Food Chem 2017 Aug 30;228:85-90. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Department of Food Science, Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield, Pretoria 0028, South Africa.
    Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is known to be a rich source of β-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A and a potential tool for fighting vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in developing countries. OFSP flour was incorporated into wheat flour at 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) substitution levels. The stability of β-carotene during baking and the contribution of OFSP-wheat composite breads to vitamin A requirements were evaluated. Read More

    Vitamin A supplementation redirects the flow of retinyl esters from peripheral to central organs of neonatal rats raised under vitamin A-marginal conditions.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 May 15;105(5):1110-1121. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
    Background: Vitamin A (VA; retinol) supplementation is used to reduce child mortality in countries with high rates of malnutrition. Existing research suggests that neonates (<1 mo old) may have a limited capacity to store VA in organs other than the liver; however, knowledge about VA distribution and kinetics in individual, nonhepatic organs is limited.Objective: We examined retinol uptake and turnover in nonhepatic organs, including skin, brain, and adipose tissue, in neonatal rats without and after VA supplementation. Read More

    We Need Studies of the Mortality Effect of Vitamin A Supplementation, Not Surveys of Vitamin A Deficiency.
    Nutrients 2017 Mar 15;9(3). Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Research Center for Vitamins and Vaccines, Bandim Health Project, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark.
    It is usually acknowledged that high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) provides no sustained improvement in vitamin A status, and that the effect of VAS on mortality is more likely linked to its immunomodulating effects. Nonetheless, it is widely assumed that we can deduce something about the need for continuing or stopping VAS programs based on studies of the biochemical prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). This is no longer a tenable assumption. Read More

    Genetic Variations Associated with Vitamin A Status and Vitamin A Bioavailability.
    Nutrients 2017 Mar 8;9(3). Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    NORT, Aix-Marseille Université, INRA, INSERM, 13005 Marseille, France.
    Blood concentration of vitamin A (VA), which is present as different molecules, i.e., mainly retinol and provitamin A carotenoids, plus retinyl esters in the postprandial period after a VA-containing meal, is affected by numerous factors: dietary VA intake, VA absorption efficiency, efficiency of provitamin A carotenoid conversion to VA, VA tissue uptake, etc. Read More

    Vitamin A supplementation for preventing morbidity and mortality in children from six months to five years of age.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 03 11;3:CD008524. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5G A04.
    Background: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a major public health problem in low- and middle-income countries, affecting 190 million children under five years of age and leading to many adverse health consequences, including death. Based on prior evidence and a previous version of this review, the World Health Organization has continued to recommend vitamin A supplementation for children aged 6 to 59 months. There are new data available from recently published randomised trials since the previous publication of this review in 2010, and this update incorporates this information and reviews the evidence. Read More

    Lower levels of vitamin A are associated with increased gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease in children.
    Blood 2017 May 9;129(20):2801-2807. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Division of Bone Marrow Transplant and Immune Deficiency.
    Vitamin A promotes development of mucosal tolerance and enhances differentiation of regulatory T cells. Vitamin A deficiency impairs epithelial integrity, increasing intestinal permeability. We hypothesized that higher vitamin A levels would reduce the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) through reduced gastrointestinal (GI) permeability, reduced mucosal injury, and reduced lymphocyte homing to the gut. Read More

    Provitamin A biofortification of crop plants: a gold rush with many miners.
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 2017 Apr 3;44:169-180. Epub 2017 Mar 3.
    Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Casaccia Research Center, Via Anguillarese 301, Roma 00123, Italy. Electronic address:
    Carotenoids are synthesized de novo by plants, where they play fundamental physiological roles as photosynthetic pigments and precursors for signaling molecules. They are also essential components of a healthy diet, as dietary antioxidants and vitamin A precursors. Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in developing countries, which has prompted a series of efforts toward the biofortification of plant-derived foods with provitamin A carotenoids (mainly β-carotene), giving rise to 'golden' crops. Read More

    Gut-Specific Delivery of T-Helper 17 Cells Reduces Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Mice.
    Gastroenterology 2017 Jun 27;152(8):1998-2010. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    Academy of Immunology and Microbiology, Institute for Basic Science, Pohang, Republic of Korea; World Premier International Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, Japan. Electronic address:
    Background & Aims: Obesity and metabolic syndrome have been associated with alterations to the intestinal microbiota. However, few studies examined the effects of obesity on the intestinal immune system. We investigated changes in subsets of intestinal CD4(+) T-helper (TH) cells with obesity and the effects of gut-tropic TH17 cells in mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Read More

    Vitamin A Supplementation Programs and Country-Level Evidence of Vitamin A Deficiency.
    Nutrients 2017 Feb 24;9(3). Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    GroundWork, 7306 Fläsch, Switzerland.
    Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) programs targeted at children aged 6-59 months are implemented in many countries. By improving immune function, vitamin A (VA) reduces mortality associated with measles, diarrhea, and other illnesses. There is currently a debate regarding the relevance of VAS, but amidst the debate, researchers acknowledge that the majority of nationally-representative data on VA status is outdated. Read More

    Childhood corneal blindness: a retrospective study in a tertiary eye hospital of eastern region of Nepal.
    Nepal J Ophthalmol 2016 Jan;8(15):18-22
    Introduction: Studies from Nepal show that most of the cases of unilateral childhood blindness are due to corneal causes. It was also observed that these corneal causes were mostly preventable or treatable.

    Objective: to study the patterns of corneal diseases in a pediatric out-patient department of a hospital in the eastern region of Nepal. Read More

    Anaemia in hospitalised preschool children from a rural area in Mozambique: a case control study in search for aetiological agents.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Feb 28;17(1):63. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    ISGlobal, Barcelona Ctr. Int. Health Res. (CRESIB), Hospital Clínic - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: Young children bear the world's highest prevalence of anaemia, the majority of which is of multifactorial aetiology, which in turn hampers its successful prevention. Even moderate degrees of anaemia are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Despite this evidence, there is a lack of effective preventive programs and absence of consensus in the safety of iron supplementation in malaria areas, which reflects the poor understanding of the contribution of different aetiologies to anaemia. Read More

    Hypovitaminosis A in extensively grazed beef cattle.
    Aust Vet J 2017 Mar;95(3):80-84
    College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia.
    Case Report: Vitamin A deficiency was diagnosed in a herd of 97 19-month-old Braford heifers in the Mitchell Grass Downs (Astrebla spp.) bioregion of Hughenden in north-western Queensland during November 2015. Two heifers died after a 48-h history of sternal recumbency and of the 19 that had neurological signs, 7 were blind. Read More

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