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    6550 results match your criteria Vitamin A Deficiency

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    Prevalence of Vitamin A deficiency among under-five children in South-Western Nigeria.
    Niger Postgrad Med J 2018 Jan-Mar;25(1):13-16
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
    Background And Aim: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) constitutes a major nutritional concern in developing countries. It contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality of under-five children and can result in impaired resistance to infection as well as increased risk of death. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of VAD among Southwestern Nigerian children. Read More

    The Potential of Integrating Provitamin A-Biofortified Maize in Smallholder Farming Systems to Reduce Malnourishment in South Africa.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Apr 19;15(4). Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Crop Science, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
    Biofortification interventions have the potential to combat malnutrition. This review explored the use of provitamin A-biofortified maize (PVABM) as a vitamin A deficiency (VAD) reduction agricultural-based strategy. Maize has been identified as one of the key staple crops for biofortification to reduce hidden hunger in Africa. Read More

    Education and micronutrient deficiencies: an ecological study exploring interactions between women's schooling and children's micronutrient status.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Apr 10;18(1):470. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA, 02111, USA.
    Background: Formal education can be a nutrition-sensitive intervention that supports the scale-up and impact of nutrition-specific actions. Maternal education has long been linked to child survival, growth, and development while adult earnings and nutrition are tied to years in school as a child. However, less is known about the relationship between maternal education and the micronutrient status of children, women and the general population. Read More

    Fat soluble vitamin levels in children with newly diagnosed celiac disease, a case control study.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 Apr 9;18(1):130. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Department of Biochemistry, Adnan Menderes University Medical Faculty, Aydın, Turkey.
    Background: In children diagnosed with celiac disease, fat soluble vitamin levels were aimed to be evaluated and it was intended to determine whether fat soluble vitamin levels were needed to be assessed routinely in these patients during diagnosis.

    Methods: Between May 2015-May 2016, diagnosis symptoms of celiac patients (CD) in newly diagnosed pediatric group were questioned, fat soluble vitamin levels simultaneous with intestinal biopsies were evaluated. Vitamin levels were compared with those of healthy control group. Read More

    Risk factors for vitamin A and D deficiencies among children under-five in the state of Palestine.
    Confl Health 2018 2;12:13. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    Ministry of Health, Ramallah, State of Palestine.
    Background: Vitamin A and D are essential for the proper growth and development of a child. Due to the complex political circumstances in the state of Palestine, research on micronutrient deficiency is scarce.

    Methods: The Palestinian Ministry of Health (MOH) and UNICEF conducted a national cross-sectional survey in 2013 after the implementation of various micronutrient supplementation and fortification programs. Read More

    Rev Paul Pediatr 2018 Mar 29. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
    Objective: To analyze the variables associated with vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in Brazilian children aged 6 to 59 months, considering a hierarchical model of determination.

    Methods: This is part of the National Survey on Demography and Health of Women and Children, held in 2006. Data analysis included 3,417 children aged from six to 59 months with retinol data. Read More

    Vitamin A Deficiency Due to Selective Eating as a Cause of Blindness in a High-Income Setting.
    Pediatrics 2018 Apr;141(Suppl 5):S439-S444
    Pediatric Emergency Unit and.
    Vitamin A is a fat-soluble micronutrient involved in the regulation of several physiologic functions, such as visual acuity, epithelial tissue integrity, immune response, and gene expression, thus playing a crucial role in childhood growth and development. Although vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in resource-limited settings is still an actual issue and represents the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness, its occurrence in high-income countries is rare, although possibly underdiagnosed because of its nonspecific early manifestations. A good awareness of VAD symptoms and risk factors could aid its early diagnosis, which is fundamental to undertake a prompt treatment and to prevent ocular complications. Read More

    Physical losses could partially explain modest carotenoid retention in dried food products from biofortified cassava.
    PLoS One 2018 21;13(3):e0194402. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    HarvestPlus Headquarters, c/o IFPRI, NW, Washington, DC, United States of America.
    Gari, a fermented and dried semolina made from cassava, is one of the most common foods in West Africa. Recently introduced biofortified yellow cassava containing provitamin A carotenoids could help tackle vitamin A deficiency prevalent in those areas. However there are concerns because of the low retention of carotenoids during gari processing compared to other processes (e. Read More

    Prevalence of fat-soluble vitamin (A, D, and E) and zinc deficiency in patients with cirrhosis being assessed for liver transplantation.
    Acta Gastroenterol Belg 2017 Apr-Jun;80(2):237-241
    Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Western University and London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada.
    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of fat-soluble vitamin (A, D, and E) and zinc deficiency in patients with cirrhosis being assessed for liver transplantation and the correlations between vitamin deficiencies, nutritional markers, and severity of liver disease.

    Methods: This is a single centre retrospective study. Serum vitamin A, D, E, and zinc levels were collected in adult patients being assessed for liver transplantation between January and July 2012. Read More

    Retin Cases Brief Rep 2018 Spring;12(2):127-130
    Department of Neuro-ophthalmology, Affiliated with Tufts University School of Medicine, New England Eye Center, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Purpose: To describe the rapid time course of visual and electroretinographic recovery from vitamin A deficiency in a patient with a history of multiple resected abdominal tumors, including ileal carcinoid and pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Methods: A 61-year-old white man with a history of resected malignant ileal carcinoid and Stage III pancreatic adenocarcinoma referred with complaints of 6 weeks of difficulty with night vision.

    Results: Initial testing showed significantly reduced scotopic rod responses in both eyes and decreased vitamin A levels and a normal cancer-associated retinopathy laboratory panel. Read More

    Risk factors for vitamin A and vitamin D deficiencies in children younger than 5 years in the occupied Palestinian territory: a cross-sectional study.
    Lancet 2018 Feb 21;391 Suppl 2:S3. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Nutrition Department, General Directorate of Primary Health Care and Public Health, Ministry of Health, Ramallah, occupied Palestinian territory.
    Background: Vitamin A and vitamin D are essential for a child's growth and development. However, research on micronutrients in the occupied Palestinian territory is scarce. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and risk factors of vitamin A and vitamin D deficiencies in children living in the occupied Palestinian territory. Read More

    Vitamin A bio-modulates apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.
    Mol Brain 2018 Mar 13;11(1):14. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Children Nutrition Research Center, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400014, China.
    Our previous studies demonstrated that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) can impair the postnatal cognitive function of rats by damaging the hippocampus. The present study examined the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on apoptosis induced by hypoxic-ischemic damage in vivo and in vitro, and investigated the possible signaling pathway involved in the neuroprotective anti-apoptotic effects of RA. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining and behavioral tests were used to evaluate the neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic effects of RA. Read More

    [Current status of vitamin A deficiency in preschool children in Dongguan, China and the effect of vitamin A on serum ferritin and red blood cell parameters].
    Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2018 Mar;20(3):195-199
    Department of Hematology, Dongguan Children's Hospital, Dongguan, Guangdong 523325, China.
    Objective: To investigate the current status of vitamin A deficiency in preschool children in Dongguan, China, as well as the effect of vitamin A on serum ferritin, red blood cell, and reticulocyte parameters.

    Methods: Cluster sampling was performed from April 2015 to December 2016 to select 2 085 preschool children (3-6 years old) without any disease in Dongguan. Routine blood test, reticulocyte count, serum ferritin measurement, hemoglobin electrophoresis, and vitamin A measurement were performed for all children. Read More

    Bitot's Spots following Bariatric Surgery: An Ocular Manifestation of a Systemic Disease.
    Case Rep Ophthalmol 2017 Sep-Dec;8(3):581-589. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Wilmer Eye Institute, Odenton, Maryland, USA.
    Background: To present a case of ocular complications from vitamin A deficiency following bariatric surgery.

    Case Report: A 41-year-old woman presented with symptoms of dryness and diminished night vision. Examination revealed corneal punctate staining, keratinization of the conjunctiva, and multiple mid-peripheral white lesions at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium. Read More

    RIP140/PGC-1α axis involved in vitamin A-induced neural differentiation by increasing mitochondrial function.
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2018 Mar 7:1-11. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    a Department of Pediatric , Peking University People's Hospital , Beijing , China.
    Vitamin A deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction are both associated with neural differentiation-related disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down syndrome (DS). The mechanism of vitamin A-induced neural differentiation and the notion that vitamin A can regulate the morphology and function of mitochondria in its induction of neural differentiation through the RIP140/PGC-1α axis are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles and underlying mechanisms of RIP140/PGC-1α axis in vitamin A-induced neural differentiation. Read More

    Factors associated with nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2018 Feb 18. Epub 2018 Feb 18.
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, Davis, California.
    Bangladesh has a high prevalence of adolescent pregnancy, but little is known about the nutritional status and dietary practices of Bangladeshi adolescents in early pregnancy or associated factors. We used the baseline data of 1552 pregnant adolescents from a longitudinal, cluster-randomized effectiveness trial conducted in northwest Bangladesh. Forty-four percent of the adolescents were short for their age, 36% had low body mass index, 28% were anemic, 10% had iron deficiency, and 32% had vitamin A deficiency. Read More

    Vitamin A intake of Brazilian mothers and retinol concentrations in maternal blood, human milk, and the umbilical cord.
    J Int Med Res 2018 Apr 13;46(4):1555-1569. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    4 Medical Department, Federal University of São Carlos - UFSCAR, São Carlos, Rua Eugenio Ferrante, Jd. Nova Alianca Sul, SP, Brazil.
    Objectives To analyse intake of vitamin A (VA) and retinol concentrations in maternal blood, breast milk (BM), and the umbilical cord (UC) of newborns, and to determine the associations among these variables. Methods We performed a cross-sectional, epidemiological study of 180 mother-newborn dyads. Maternal and UC blood samples and BM were collected. Read More

    Incorporating orange-fleshed sweet potato into the food system as a strategy for improved nutrition: The context of South Africa.
    Food Res Int 2018 Feb 9;104:77-85. Epub 2017 Sep 9.
    Africa Unit for Transdisciplinary Health Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is considered the single most successful example of biofortification of a staple crop, and presents a feasible option to address vitamin A deficiency. Though initially promoted as part of a crop-based approach focusing on production and consumption at household level, it evolved into small-scale commercial production, predominantly in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reviews OFSP initiatives in relation to the South African food environment and food supply systems, also identifying opportunities for scaling out OFSP in a situation where sweet potato is not eaten as a staple. Read More

    Vitamin A deficiency induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in pancreatic islet cells: Implications of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1-mediated oleic acid synthesis.
    Exp Cell Res 2018 Mar 1;364(1):104-112. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Lipid Biochemistry Division, National Institute of Nutrition, Jamai Osmania-Post, Hyderabad 500007, India. Electronic address:
    Previously, we reported that vitamin A deficiency resulted in the reduction of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) levels, which corroborated with attenuation of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. Here, we aimed at assessing the effect of vitamin A deficiency on SCD1, MUFA levels and their impact on pancreas' structure and functions. Male weanling Wistar rats fed one of the four diets, namely control (Con), vitamin A-deficient (VAD), highfructose (HFr) and vitamin A-deficient diet with highfructose (VADHFr) for 16 weeks period. Read More

    Serum Vitamin A Levels in Patients with Chalazion.
    Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol 2017 ;6(3):63-66
    Ophthalmologist, Department of Ophthalmology, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Chalazion is a chronic, localized lipogranulomatous inflammation of the sebaceous glands of the lids. Chalazion occurs often secondary to blockage of the sebaceous gland ducts. Some studies have reported vitamin A deficiency as a risk factor for chalazion. Read More

    Case report: Ribavirin and vitamin A in a severe case of measles.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(50):e9154
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, AP-HM, URMITE, IHU Méditerranée-Infection, 19-21 Boulevard Jean Moulin, Marseille Cedex 5.
    Rationale: Despite a vaccine being widely available, measles continues to occur frequently, with sometimes lethal consequences.

    Patients Concerns: The mortality rate reaches 35% and measles represents 44% of the 1.4 million deaths which are due to preventable diseases. Read More

    Genetic Loci Controlling Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Diverse Tropical Maize Lines.
    G3 (Bethesda) 2018 Mar 2;8(3):1049-1065. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria
    The discovery and use of genetic markers associated with carotenoid levels can help to exploit the genetic potential of maize for provitamin A accumulation more effectively. Provitamin A carotenoids are classes of carotenoids that are precursors of vitamin A, an essential micronutrient in humans. Vitamin A deficiency is a global public health problem affecting millions of people, especially in developing countries. Read More

    Vitamin A status in healthy women eating traditionally prepared spirulina (Dihé) in the Chad Lake area.
    PLoS One 2018 29;13(1):e0191887. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire, CHU, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Background: Chad Lake is a central place in a region with a high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency. Spirulina, a natural source of β-carotene, is traditionally produced and eaten as "Dihé" around Chad Lake. β-carotene spirulina has been found to have a high conversion factor to retinol. Read More

    Vitamin A and retinoic acid combined have a more potent effect compared to vitamin A alone on the uptake of retinol into extrahepatic tissues of neonatal rats raised under vitamin A-marginal conditions.
    Curr Dev Nutr 2017 Dec 6;1(12). Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 USA.
    Background: Vitamin A (VA, retinol) supplementation is widely used to reduce child mortality in low-income countries. However, existing research suggests that supplementation with VA alone may not be optimal for infants.

    Objective: We compared the effect of VA vs. Read More

    Nutritional status, food insecurity, and biodiversity among the Khasi in Meghalaya, North-East India.
    Matern Child Nutr 2017 Nov;13 Suppl 3
    National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India.
    A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out with 603 children ages 5 and under and 500 of their mothers from 510 households to examine the prevalence of undernutrition and chronic diseases among the Khasis of North-East India. Anthropometric measurements including Mid-Upper Arm Circumference, height, and weight were taken. Dry blood spots to estimate haemoglobin and vitamin A were collected from children and women separately by finger prick. Read More

    Mother and child nutrition among the Chakhesang tribe in the state of Nagaland, North-East India.
    Matern Child Nutr 2017 Nov;13 Suppl 3
    Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment (CINE), McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada.
    Despite the importance of the nutritional status and food systems of Indigenous Peoples, the subject has received very little attention, especially in North-East India. Therefore, a community-based cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among Chakhesang mothers with children under 5 years of age to evaluate their nutritional status and prevalence of chronic diseases in the context of their dietary habits. From 558 households (HHs), 661 children and 540 mothers were covered using standard anthropometric measurements as well as blood collection for haemoglobin and vitamin A. Read More

    Specific Upregulation of a Cotton Phytoene Synthase Gene Produces Golden Cottonseeds with Enhanced Provitamin A.
    Sci Rep 2018 Jan 22;8(1):1348. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Biotechnology Research Center, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Application and Safety Control of Genetically Modified Crops, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, 400715, China.
    Provitamin A (PVA) bio-fortification of crops offers a sustainable strategy to prevent the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), one of the world's major public health problems. The present work aimed to enhance PVA accumulation in cottonseed, the main by-product in the production of cotton fibers and the third largest source of edible plant oil in the world. On the basis of comprehensive identification of carotenoid synthase genes and their expression levels in various cotton tissues, we selected phytoene synthase as the target for manipulating carotenoid biosynthesis in the developing cottonseeds. Read More

    Effect of vitamin A supplementation on iron status in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2018 Jan 16:1-15. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    a Postgraduate Program in Human Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences ; Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília , Distrito Federal , Brazil.
    Anemia is a worldwide public health problem that can be related to many causes, including vitamin A deficiency. The aim of this study was to assess and estimate the effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) on iron status biomarkers and anemia in humans. Six databases, including Cochrane, EMBASE, LILACS, Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science, were searched for clinical trials and cohort studies that investigated the effect of vitamin A supplementation alone on iron status and anemia, without time-restriction. Read More

    Impact of biofortified maize consumption on serum carotenoid concentrations in Zambian children.
    Eur J Clin Nutr 2018 Feb 10;72(2):301-303. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Center for Human Nutrition, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Biofortified maize, designed as an intervention strategy to prevent vitamin A deficiency, can provide upwards of 15 μg β-carotene per g dry weight. Some varieties also have elevated concentrations of other carotenoids. We conducted a cluster randomized, controlled feeding trial in rural Zambia to test the impact of daily consumption of biofortified maize over a 6-month period on vitamin A status. Read More

    Disturbed Vitamin A Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD).
    Nutrients 2017 Dec 29;10(1). Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Vitamin A is required for important physiological processes, including embryogenesis, vision, cell proliferation and differentiation, immune regulation, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Many of vitamin A's functions are executed through retinoic acids that activate transcriptional networks controlled by retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs).The liver plays a central role in vitamin A metabolism: (1) it produces bile supporting efficient intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients like vitamin A; (2) it produces retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) that distributes vitamin A, as retinol, to peripheral tissues; and (3) it harbors the largest body supply of vitamin A, mostly as retinyl esters, in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Read More

    Retinol and Betacarotene Status in Mother-Infant Dyads and Associations between Them.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2018 21;72(1):50-56. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil.
    Background/aims: Assessing the diet and biochemical indicators of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in high-risk populations is crucial in cases where this deficiency is mainly caused by chronically inadequate intake. This study aimed to determine the retinol and betacarotene status in mother-infant dyads, and to evaluate the associations between them.

    Methods: Umbilical cord serum, maternal serum, and colostrum were collected from 134 healthy mothers living in a risk region for VAD. Read More

    Vitamin A Deficiency Induces Autistic-Like Behaviors in Rats by Regulating the RARβ-CD38-Oxytocin Axis in the Hypothalamus.
    Mol Nutr Food Res 2018 Mar 19;62(5). Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Children's Nutrition Research Center, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.
    Scope: Vitamin A (VA) is an essential nutrient for the development of the brain. We previously found that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a significant rate of VA deficiency (VAD). In the current study, we aim to determine whether VAD is a risk factor for the generation of autistic-like behaviors via the transcription factor retinoic acid receptor beta (RARβ)-regulated cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38)-oxytocin (OXT) axis. Read More

    UV-Vis and CIELAB Based Chemometric Characterization of Manihot esculenta Carotenoid Contents.
    J Integr Bioinform 2017 Dec 13;14(4). Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Vitamin A deficiency is a prevalent health problem in many areas of the world, where cassava genotypes with high pro-vitamin A content have been identified as a strategy to address this issue. In this study, we found a positive correlation between the color of the root pulp and the total carotenoid contents and, importantly, showed how CIELAB color measurements can be used as a non-destructive and fast technique to quantify the amount of carotenoids in cassava root samples, as opposed to traditional methods. We trained several machine learning models using UV-visible spectrophotometry data, CIELAB data and a low-level data fusion of the two. Read More

    Vitamin A deficiency in mice alters host and gut microbial metabolism leading to altered energy homeostasis.
    J Nutr Biochem 2018 Apr 5;54:28-34. Epub 2017 Nov 5.
    Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, United States. Electronic address:
    Vitamin A deficiency (A-) is a worldwide public health problem. To better understand how vitamin A status influences gut microbiota and host metabolism, we systematically analyzed urine, cecum, serum and liver samples from vitamin A sufficient (A+) and deficient (A-) mice using H NMR-based metabolomics, quantitative (q)PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing coupled with multivariate data analysis. The microbiota in the cecum of A- mice showed compositional as well as functional shifts compared to the microbiota from A+ mice. Read More

    Causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in students in schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia.
    BMJ Glob Health 2017 10;2(2):e000264. Epub 2017 Jun 10.
    Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Objectives: To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL) among students in schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia and to identify preventable and treatable causes.

    Method: Students attending nine schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia were examined and causes assigned using the standard WHO record form for children with blindness and low vision in May and June 2015.

    Results: 383 students were examined, 357 (93%) of whom were severely visually impaired or blind (<6/60 in their better eye). Read More

    Rapid diagnostic testing platform for iron and vitamin A deficiency.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 Dec 4;114(51):13513-13518. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853;
    Micronutrient deficiencies such as those of vitamin A and iron affect a third of the world's population with consequences such as night blindness, higher child mortality, anemia, poor pregnancy outcomes, and reduced work capacity. Many efforts to prevent or treat these deficiencies are hampered by the lack of adequate, accessible, and affordable diagnostic methods that can enable better targeting of interventions. In this work, we demonstrate a rapid diagnostic test and mobile enabled platform for simultaneously quantifying iron (ferritin), vitamin A (retinol-binding protein), and inflammation (C-reactive protein) status. Read More

    Iron, zinc, vitamin A and selenium status in a cohort of Indonesian infants after adjusting for inflammation using several different approaches.
    Br J Nutr 2017 Nov;118(10):830-839
    2Department of Human Nutrition,University of Otago,PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054,New Zealand.
    Inflammation confounds the interpretation of several micronutrient biomarkers resulting in estimates that may not reflect the true burden of deficiency. We aimed to assess and compare the micronutrient status of a cohort of Indonesian infants (n 230) at aged 6, 9 and 12 months by ignoring inflammation (unadjusted) and adjusting four micronutrient biomarkers for inflammation with C-reactive protein (CRP) and α-1-glycoprotein (AGP) using the following methods: (1) arithmetic correction factors with the use of a four-stage inflammation model; and (2) regression modelling. Prevalence of infants with any inflammation (CRP>5 mg/l and/or AGP>1 g/l) was about 25% at each age. Read More

    The Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in Chinese Children: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis.
    Nutrients 2017 Nov 25;9(12). Epub 2017 Nov 25.
    Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.
    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a leading cause of preventable childhood blindness, has been recognized as an important public health problem in many developing countries. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to identify all population-based studies of VAD and marginal VAD (MVAD) in Chinese children published from 1990 onwards. Hierarchical Bayesian meta-regressions were performed to examine the effects of age, sex, setting and year on the prevalence of VAD and MVAD, separately. Read More

    The Silencing of Carotenoid β-Hydroxylases by RNA Interference in Different Maize Genetic Backgrounds Increases the β-Carotene Content of the Endosperm.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 11 24;18(12). Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Plant Production and Forestry Science, University of Lleida-Agrotecnio Center, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure, 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain
    Maize ( L.) is a staple food in many parts of Africa, but the endosperm generally contains low levels of the pro-vitamin A carotenoid β-carotene, leading to vitamin A deficiency disease in populations relying on cereal-based diets. However, maize endosperm does accumulate high levels of other carotenoids, including zeaxanthin, which is derived from β-carotene via two hydroxylation reactions. Read More

    The Effect of Red Palm Oil on Vitamin A Deficiency: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
    Nutrients 2017 11 24;9(12). Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Southeast University, 87 Ding Jia Qiao Road, Nanjing 210009, China
    Red palm oil (RPO) has been investigated for preventing or alleviating vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Previous data has offered inconclusive and inconsistent results about the effects of RPO in patients with VAD. Our objective was to undertake a meta-analysis to assess the effects of RPO in preventing VAD in the population. Read More

    The Retinol Binding Protein Receptor 2 (Rbpr2) is required for Photoreceptor Outer Segment Morphogenesis and Visual Function in Zebrafish.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 24;7(1):16207. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 29425, USA.
    Vitamin A (all-trans retinol) plays critical roles in mammalian development and vision. Since vitamin A is food-derived, tissue-specific uptake and storage mechanism are needed. In the eye, uptake of RBP4-retinol is mediated by the receptor Stra6, whereas the receptor mediating RBP4 binding and retinol transport into the liver has just recently been discovered. Read More

    Retrospective data on causes of childhood vision impairment in Eritrea.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 22;17(1):209. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Berhan Aiyni National Referral Eye Hospital, Asmara, Eritrea.
    Background: Proper information on causes of childhood vision loss is essential in developing appropriate strategies and programs to address such causes. This study aimed at identifying the causes of vision loss in children attending the national referral eye hospital with the only pediatric ophthalmology service in Eritrea.

    Methods: A retrospective data review was conducted for all the children (< 16 years of age) who attended Berhan Aiyni National Referral Eye Hospital in five years period from January 2011 to December 2015. Read More

    Comparability of Inflammation-Adjusted Vitamin A Deficiency Estimates and Variance in Retinol Explained by C-Reactive Protein and α-Acid Glycoprotein during Low and High Malaria Transmission Seasons in Rural Zambian Children.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jan 1;98(1):334-343. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Inflammation-induced hyporetinolemia (IIH), a reduction in serum retinol (SR) during inflammation, may bias population estimates of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). The optimal adjustment for IIH depends on the type and extent of inflammation. In rural Zambian children (4-8 years, = 886), we compared three models for defining inflammation: α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) only (inflammation present if > 1 g/L or normal if otherwise), C-reactive protein (CRP) only (moderate inflammation, 5-15 mg/L; high inflammation, > 15 mg/L; or normal if otherwise) and a combined model using both AGP and CRP to delineate stages of infectious episode. Read More

    Hormonal contraceptive use and vitamin A deficiency among women in Tanzania.
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2018 Apr 15;141(1):20-25. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Athens, GA, USA.
    Objective: To examine the association between hormonal contraceptive use and vitamin A deficiency among women in Tanzania.

    Methods: Secondary analysis of data from 8231 women who participated in the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed. Read More

    The impact of sociodemography, diet, and body size on serum retinol in women 16-35 years of age: SANHANES-1.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Population Health, Health Systems and Innovation, Human Sciences Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.
    To determine the current vitamin A status of a nationally representative sample of women aged 16-35 years, compare it with previous national data, and determine the impact of sociodemography, diet, and body size on vitamin A status, we performed secondary analysis of data on South African women who participated in the first South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1). Vitamin A status was assessed by serum retinol, and the findings are reported as means and prevalences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Overall, the age-standardized vitamin A deficiency prevalence was 11. Read More

    Multiple Nutritional Deficiencies in Cerebral Palsy Compounding Physical and Functional Impairments.
    Indian J Palliat Care 2017 Oct-Dec;23(4):387-392
    Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
    Introduction: Cerebral palsy (CP) refers to a spectrum of disorders causing physical and intellectual morbidity. Macro and micro nutrient deficiencies often contribute to the subnormal physical and mental capabilities of them.

    Objectives: To assess the growth, nutritional status, physical and functional ability and quality of life in cerebral palsy children and to determine any relation with their gross motor and functional capabilities. Read More

    Vitamin A improves the symptoms of autism spectrum disorders and decreases 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT): A pilot study.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 03 6;137:35-40. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Children Nutrition Research Center, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400014, China; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China; China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Translational Medical Research in Cognitive Development and Learning and Memory Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China. Electronic address:
    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complicated neurodevelopmental disorders. Many studies have demonstrated that children with autism have multiple nutritional deficiencies and increased serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels. In our previous study, 77. Read More

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