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    6414 results match your criteria Vitamin A Deficiency

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    Prevalence of ocular morbidity in school going children in West Uttar Pradesh.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 Jun;65(6):500-508
    Department of Ophthalmology, Subharti Medical College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Aim Of The Study: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and to make a comparison between the ocular morbidity pattern in school going children of urban and rural areas of West Uttar Pradesh.

    Materials And Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study design was adopted to examine children aged 5-15 years in randomly selected urban and rural schools of West Uttar Pradesh from June 2012 to August 2014. An optometrist did the vision and refraction, and a detailed ophthalmic examination was done by an ophthalmologist. Read More

    Micronutrient deficiencies among children and women in Bangladesh: progress and challenges.
    J Nutr Sci 2016 3;5:e46. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    UNICEF, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current situation regarding micronutrient deficiencies among children and women in Bangladesh. This review also discusses the successes and current challenges of existing intervention programmes. Data from nationally representative and selected small surveys since the 1980s that have reported on the status of at least one micronutrient in children and/or women have been examined. Read More

    Adjusting retinol-binding protein concentrations for inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Jun 14. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Independent Public Health Nutrition Consultant, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Background: The accurate estimation of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is important in planning and implementing interventions. Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is often used in population surveys to measure vitamin A status, but its interpretation is challenging in settings where inflammation is common because RBP concentrations decrease during the acute-phase response.Objectives: We aimed to assess the relation between RBP concentrations and inflammation and malaria in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y) and to investigate adjustment algorithms to account for these effects. Read More

    Cyp1b1 deletion and retinol deficiency coordinately suppress mouse liver lipogenic genes and hepcidin expression during post-natal development.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 Jun 2. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Endocrinology and Reproductive Physiology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, United States; Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, United States. Electronic address:
    Cyp1b1 deletion and gestational vitamin A deficiency (GVAD) redirect adult liver gene expression. A matched sufficient pre- and post-natal diet, which has high carbohydrate and normal iron content (LF12), increased inflammatory gene expression markers in adult livers that were suppressed by GVAD and Cyp1b1 deletion. At birth on the LF12 diet, Cyp1b1 deletion and GVAD each suppress liver expression of the iron suppressor, hepcidin (Hepc), while increasing stellate cell activation markers and suppressing post-natal increases in lipogenesis. Read More

    The change in retinoic acid receptor signaling induced by prenatal marginal vitamin A deficiency and its effects on learning and memory.
    J Nutr Biochem 2017 May 25;47:75-85. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Department of Primary Child Health Care, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, P.R. China; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing, P.R. China; China International Science and Technology Cooperation base of Child development and Critical Disorders, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, Chongqing, P.R. China. Electronic address:
    This study investigated the prenatal marginal vitamin A deficiency (mVAD)-related impairment in learning and memory and the interactions between RARα, Src and NR1. Learning and memory were assessed in adult rats that were exposed to prenatal mVAD with Morris water maze. The average escape time was longer in mVAD rats, and they passed the hidden platform fewer times during the memory retention test than normal vitamin A intake (VAN) rats. Read More

    Diet-dependent retinoid effects on liver gene expression include stellate and inflammation markers and parallel effects of the nuclear repressor Shp.
    J Nutr Biochem 2017 Apr 19;47:63-74. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Endocrinology and Reproductive Physiology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705; Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705. Electronic address:
    For mice, a maternal vitamin A (VA)-deficient diet initiated from midgestation (GVAD) produces serum retinol deficiency in mature offspring. We hypothesize that the effects of GVAD arise from preweaning developmental changes. We compare the effect of this GVAD protocol in combination with a postweaning high-fat diet (HFD) or high-carbohydrate diet (LF12). Read More

    Vitamin A Supplementation for the Prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Preterm Infants: An Update.
    Nutr Clin Pract 2017 Jun 21;32(3):346-353. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    2 Rutgers School of Health Professions, Newark, New Jersey, USA.
    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common complication of premature birth and is associated with significant morbidity. Vitamin A supplementation has been suggested as a potential preventative measure against BPD due to its role in lung maturation and because preterm infants are particularly predisposed to vitamin A deficiency. The aim of this review was to determine whether vitamin A supplementation reduces BPD risk among preterm infants. Read More

    Impact of Vitamin A and Carotenoids on the Risk of Tuberculosis Progression.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 May 20. Epub 2017 May 20.
    Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Background: Low and deficient levels of vitamin A are common in low and middle income countries where tuberculosis (TB) burden is high. We assessed the impact of baseline levels of vitamins A and carotenoids on TB disease risk.

    Methods: We conducted a case-control study nested within a longitudinal cohort of household contacts of pulmonary TB cases in Lima, Peru. Read More

    Retinoid BMS411 (4-{[(5,5-dimethyl-8-phenyl-5,6-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl) carbonyl] amino} benzoic acid), a potential inhibitor of NS5A protein of hepatitis C virus, a candidate for combined therapy of hepatitis C infection.
    Acta Virol 2017 ;61(2):204-211
    Hepatitis C infection is a serious health issue worldwide caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). There is an urgent need of search for new direct acting antiviral drugs due to the rapid development of drug resistance. The HCV NS5A protein is involved in creating resistance against antiviral therapy and there are also many reports that vitamin A deficiency is associated with non-responsiveness to antiviral treatment in HCV infected patients. Read More

    The effects of micronutrient deficiencies on bacterial species from the human gut microbiota.
    Sci Transl Med 2017 May;9(390)
    Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
    Vitamin and mineral (micronutrient) deficiencies afflict 2 billion people. Although the impact of these imbalances on host biology has been studied extensively, much less is known about their effects on the gut microbiota of developing or adult humans. Therefore, we established a community of cultured, sequenced human gut-derived bacterial species in gnotobiotic mice and fed the animals a defined micronutrient-sufficient diet, followed by a derivative diet devoid of vitamin A, folate, iron, or zinc, followed by return to the sufficient diet. Read More

    Mortality Benefits of Vitamin A Are Not Affected by Varying Frequency, Total Dose, or Duration of Supplementation.
    Food Nutr Bull 2017 Jun 10;38(2):260-266. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    1 Tufts Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background: Although vitamin A supplementation reduces child mortality, it remains unclear whether dosing frequency, total dose, or duration modifies effectiveness.

    Objective: Determine whether mortality effects of vitamin A vary by dosing frequency, total dose, or duration.

    Methods: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, identified by systematic review and expert opinion, utilizing relatively standard World Health Organization doses in children <5 years. Read More

    Vitamin A deficiency due to chronic malabsorption: an ophthalmic manifestation of a systemic condition.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 May 10;2017. Epub 2017 May 10.
    University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.
    A 47-year-old woman presented with a 4-week history of progressive loss of vision, first manifesting as night blindness. Additionally, the patient reported frequent severe episodes of diarrhoea over the past month. Her medical history included end-stage renal failure for which she was currently on haemodialysis after a failed renal transplant, chronic pancreatitis and autonomic diabetes mellitus. Read More

    [Double burden malnutrition during growth: is becoming a reality in Colombia?]
    Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) 2016 Aug;18(4):656-669
    Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia,
    Several reports have described in the last decade the coexistence of accelerated increase of obesity with micronutrient deficiencies in developed countries, and is becoming evident in developing nations. This condition may be especially deleterious in children and adolescents with consequences in metabolic risk and growth since early in life. This review describes the evidence of double burden malnutrition during growth period focused on six nutrients (iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin A, sodium, folic acid and vitamin B12) and its biological mechanisms associated with non-communicable disease through span life. Read More

    Assessment of individual carotenoid and vitamin A dietary intake in overweight and obese Dominican subjects.
    Nutr Hosp 2017 Mar 30;34(2):407-415. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    .
    Introduction: Carotenoids are plant pigment with important biological activities in humans, such as provitamin-A among others. At present, there are no individual carotenoid intake data in the Dominican population, which is at risk of vitamin A deficiency and has an important percentage of overweight and obese individuals .

    Objective: To assess the individual components of vitamin A intake (retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin) and that of other relevant dietary carotenoids like lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene of Dominican daily food intake. Read More

    Vitamin A deficiency in chronic cholestatic liver disease -is vitamin A therapy beneficial ?
    Liver Int 2017 Mar 29. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Department of Internal Medicine IV, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Chronic cholestatic diseases are progressive diseases of the biliary tract that cause hepatic fibrosis and ultimately lead to liver failure. Liver transplantation is the sole curative option currently available, and because of high morbidity and mortality rates of these diseases, new therapeutic approaches are needed. Vitamin A is a nutrient essential for health as it regulates many processes, including epithelial growth and immunological processes. Read More

    A retrospective analysis of a societal experiment among the Danish population suggests that exposure to extra doses of vitamin A during fetal development may lower type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk later in life.
    Br J Nutr 2017 Mar 27;117(5):731-736. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    1Research Unit for Dietary Studies,The Parker Institute and Department of Clinical Epidemiology (formerly 'Institute of Preventive Medicine'),Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg University Hospitals - the Capital Region,Nordre Fasanvej 57, Hovedvejen, entrance 5, ground floor, 2000 Frederiksberg,Denmark.
    Vitamin A deficiency has been associated with impaired fetal pancreatic development and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 1962, mandatory margarine fortification with vitamin A was increased by 25 % in Denmark. We aimed to determine whether offspring of mothers who had been exposed to the extra vitamin A from fortification during pregnancy had a lower risk of developing T2DM in adult life, compared with offspring of mothers exposed to less vitamin A. Read More

    Stability of β-carotene during baking of orange-fleshed sweet potato-wheat composite bread and estimated contribution to vitamin A requirements.
    Food Chem 2017 Aug 30;228:85-90. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Department of Food Science, Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield, Pretoria 0028, South Africa.
    Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is known to be a rich source of β-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A and a potential tool for fighting vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in developing countries. OFSP flour was incorporated into wheat flour at 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) substitution levels. The stability of β-carotene during baking and the contribution of OFSP-wheat composite breads to vitamin A requirements were evaluated. Read More

    Vitamin A supplementation redirects the flow of retinyl esters from peripheral to central organs of neonatal rats raised under vitamin A-marginal conditions.
    Am J Clin Nutr 2017 May 15;105(5):1110-1121. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
    Background: Vitamin A (VA; retinol) supplementation is used to reduce child mortality in countries with high rates of malnutrition. Existing research suggests that neonates (<1 mo old) may have a limited capacity to store VA in organs other than the liver; however, knowledge about VA distribution and kinetics in individual, nonhepatic organs is limited.Objective: We examined retinol uptake and turnover in nonhepatic organs, including skin, brain, and adipose tissue, in neonatal rats without and after VA supplementation. Read More

    We Need Studies of the Mortality Effect of Vitamin A Supplementation, Not Surveys of Vitamin A Deficiency.
    Nutrients 2017 Mar 15;9(3). Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Research Center for Vitamins and Vaccines, Bandim Health Project, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark.
    It is usually acknowledged that high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) provides no sustained improvement in vitamin A status, and that the effect of VAS on mortality is more likely linked to its immunomodulating effects. Nonetheless, it is widely assumed that we can deduce something about the need for continuing or stopping VAS programs based on studies of the biochemical prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). This is no longer a tenable assumption. Read More

    Vitamin A supplementation for preventing morbidity and mortality in children from six months to five years of age.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 03 11;3:CD008524. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5G A04.
    Background: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a major public health problem in low- and middle-income countries, affecting 190 million children under five years of age and leading to many adverse health consequences, including death. Based on prior evidence and a previous version of this review, the World Health Organization has continued to recommend vitamin A supplementation for children aged 6 to 59 months. There are new data available from recently published randomised trials since the previous publication of this review in 2010, and this update incorporates this information and reviews the evidence. Read More

    Lower levels of vitamin A are associated with increased gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease in children.
    Blood 2017 May 9;129(20):2801-2807. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Division of Bone Marrow Transplant and Immune Deficiency.
    Vitamin A promotes development of mucosal tolerance and enhances differentiation of regulatory T cells. Vitamin A deficiency impairs epithelial integrity, increasing intestinal permeability. We hypothesized that higher vitamin A levels would reduce the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) through reduced gastrointestinal (GI) permeability, reduced mucosal injury, and reduced lymphocyte homing to the gut. Read More

    Provitamin A biofortification of crop plants: a gold rush with many miners.
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 2017 Apr 3;44:169-180. Epub 2017 Mar 3.
    Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Casaccia Research Center, Via Anguillarese 301, Roma 00123, Italy. Electronic address:
    Carotenoids are synthesized de novo by plants, where they play fundamental physiological roles as photosynthetic pigments and precursors for signaling molecules. They are also essential components of a healthy diet, as dietary antioxidants and vitamin A precursors. Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in developing countries, which has prompted a series of efforts toward the biofortification of plant-derived foods with provitamin A carotenoids (mainly β-carotene), giving rise to 'golden' crops. Read More

    Vitamin A Supplementation Programs and Country-Level Evidence of Vitamin A Deficiency.
    Nutrients 2017 Feb 24;9(3). Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    GroundWork, 7306 Fläsch, Switzerland.
    Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) programs targeted at children aged 6-59 months are implemented in many countries. By improving immune function, vitamin A (VA) reduces mortality associated with measles, diarrhea, and other illnesses. There is currently a debate regarding the relevance of VAS, but amidst the debate, researchers acknowledge that the majority of nationally-representative data on VA status is outdated. Read More

    Childhood corneal blindness: a retrospective study in a tertiary eye hospital of eastern region of Nepal.
    Nepal J Ophthalmol 2016 Jan;8(15):18-22
    Introduction: Studies from Nepal show that most of the cases of unilateral childhood blindness are due to corneal causes. It was also observed that these corneal causes were mostly preventable or treatable.

    Objective: to study the patterns of corneal diseases in a pediatric out-patient department of a hospital in the eastern region of Nepal. Read More

    Anaemia in hospitalised preschool children from a rural area in Mozambique: a case control study in search for aetiological agents.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Feb 28;17(1):63. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    ISGlobal, Barcelona Ctr. Int. Health Res. (CRESIB), Hospital Clínic - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: Young children bear the world's highest prevalence of anaemia, the majority of which is of multifactorial aetiology, which in turn hampers its successful prevention. Even moderate degrees of anaemia are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Despite this evidence, there is a lack of effective preventive programs and absence of consensus in the safety of iron supplementation in malaria areas, which reflects the poor understanding of the contribution of different aetiologies to anaemia. Read More

    Hypovitaminosis A in extensively grazed beef cattle.
    Aust Vet J 2017 Mar;95(3):80-84
    College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia.
    Case Report: Vitamin A deficiency was diagnosed in a herd of 97 19-month-old Braford heifers in the Mitchell Grass Downs (Astrebla spp.) bioregion of Hughenden in north-western Queensland during November 2015. Two heifers died after a 48-h history of sternal recumbency and of the 19 that had neurological signs, 7 were blind. Read More

    Neonatal vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of mortality and morbidity in term neonates in low and middle income countries.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 02 24;2:CD006980. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.
    Background: Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem in low and middle income countries. Vitamin A supplementation in children six months of age and older has been found to be beneficial, but no effect of supplementation has been noted for children between one and five months of age. Supplementation during the neonatal period has been suggested to have an impact by increasing body stores in early infancy. Read More

    'Dose-to-Mother' Deuterium Oxide Dilution Technique: An Accurate Strategy to Measure Vitamin A Intake in Breastfed Infants.
    Nutrients 2017 Feb 21;9(2). Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Nutritional Sciences, Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, Mexico.
    In Mexico, infants (0-2 years old) show the highest prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), measured by serum retinol concentrations. Thus, we consider that low vitamin A (VA) intake through breast milk (BM) combined with poor weaning practices are the main factors that contribute to VAD in this group. We combined the assessment of VA status in lactating women using BM retinol and a stable isotope 'dose-to-mother' technique to measure BM production in women from urban and agricultural areas. Read More

    Role of Vitamin A/Retinoic Acid in Regulation of Embryonic and Adult Hematopoiesis.
    Nutrients 2017 Feb 20;9(2). Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos s/n Malaga 29071, Spain and Andalusian Center for Nanomedicine and Biotechnology (BIONAND), Severo Ochoa 25, Campanillas 29590, Spain.
    Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient throughout life. Its physiologically active metabolite retinoic acid (RA), acting through nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs), is a potent regulator of patterning during embryonic development, as well as being necessary for adult tissue homeostasis. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy increases risk of maternal night blindness and anemia and may be a cause of congenital malformations. Read More

    An investigation of the levels of vitamins A, D, and E in the serum of Chinese pregnant women.
    J Clin Lab Anal 2017 Feb 21. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    School of Life Science and Technology, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, China.
    Background: Vitamins A, D (Vitamin D2 and vitamin D3) and E, play an important role during pregnancy.

    Methods: Sera were collected from 1056 normal pregnant women, who were between 18 and 40 years old, at seven different hospitals in northeastern China. The levels of Vitamin A and E in the sera samples were detected using HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography), and the level of vitamin D was measured by LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). Read More

    [Study on anemia and vitamin A and vitamin D nutritional status of Chinese urban pregnant women in 2010-2012].
    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Feb;51(2):125-131
    National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Key Laboratory of Trace Element Nutrition, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing 100050, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of anemia and the nutritional status of vitamins A and D by analyzing hemoglobin, serum retinol, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in Chinese urban pregnant women during 2010-2012. Methods: Data were obtained from the China Nutrition and Health Survey in 2010-2012. Using multi-stage stratified sampling and population proportional stratified random sampling, 2 250 pregnant women from 34 metropolis and 41 middle-sized and small cities were included in this study. Read More

    [Study on vitamin A nutritional status of Chinese urban elderly residents in 2010-2012].
    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Feb;51(2):121-124
    National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Key Laboratory of Trace Element Nutrition, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing 100050, China.
    Objective: To assess the vitamin A nutritional status of the Chinese urban elderly population by analyzing serum retinol level in 2010-2012. Methods: Data were collected from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2010-2012. Using the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method, serum samples from elderly residents aged ≥60 years old were obtained from 34 metropolis and 41 middle-sized and small cities. Read More

    [Study on vitamin A nutritional status of 6- to 17-year-old urban children and adolescents between 2010 and 2012 in China].
    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Feb;51(2):117-120
    National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Key Laboratory of Trace Element Nutrition, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing 100050, China.
    Objective: To investigate the vitamin A nutritional status of 6- to 17-year-old urban children and adolescents by analyzing serum retinol level, between 2010 and 2012 in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the China Nutrition and Health Survey in 2010-2012. Using multi-stage stratified sampling and the population proportional stratified random sampling method, 6 617 children aged 6-17 years from 32 metropolis and 41 middle-sized and small cities of China were selected. Read More

    Mutation increasing β-carotene concentrations does not adversely affect concentrations of essential mineral elements in pepper fruit.
    PLoS One 2017 16;12(2):e0172180. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, Vienna, Austria.
    Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are prevalent in human populations throughout the world. Vitamin A deficiency affects hundreds of millions of pre-school age children in low income countries. Fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Read More

    Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements containing different amounts of zinc along with diarrhea and malaria treatment increase iron and vitamin A status and reduce anemia prevalence, but do not affect zinc status in young Burkinabe children: a cluster-randomized trial.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Feb 2;17(1):46. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Department of Nutrition, Program in International and Community Nutrition, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.
    Background: We assessed the effects of providing a package of interventions including small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) containing 0, 5 or 10 mg zinc and illness treatment to Burkinabe children from 9 to 18 months of age, on biomarkers of zinc, iron and vitamin A status at 18 months and compared with a non-intervention cohort (NIC).

    Methods: Using a two-stage cluster randomized trial design, communities were randomly assigned to the intervention cohort (IC) or NIC, and extended family compounds within the IC were randomly assigned to different treatment groups. IC children (n = 2435) were provided with 20 g SQ-LNS/d containing 0, 5 or 10 mg zinc, 6 mg of iron and 400 μg of vitamin A along with malaria and diarrhea treatment. Read More

    Subclinical inflammation influences the association between vitamin A- and iron status among schoolchildren in Ghana.
    PLoS One 2017 2;12(2):e0170747. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Background And Objective: In resource-poor settings, micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamin A deficiency may co-exist with iron-deficiency. In this study we assessed the iron and vitamin A status of schoolchildren and the association between vitamin A and iron status.

    Methods: A cross-sectional design using the baseline data of a dietary intervention trial conducted among randomly selected 5-12 years old schoolchildren (n = 224) from 2 rural schools in northern Ghana. Read More

    Vitamin A in pediatrics: An update from the Nutrition Committee of the French Society of Pediatrics.
    Arch Pediatr 2017 Mar 27;24(3):288-297. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Institut de recherche pour le développement, 44, boulevard de Dunkerque, 13572 Marseille, France. Electronic address:
    Vitamin A (retinol) fulfills multiple functions in vision, cell growth and differentiation, embryogenesis, the maintenance of epithelial barriers and immunity. A large number of enzymes, binding proteins and receptors facilitate its intestinal absorption, hepatic storage, secretion, and distribution to target cells. In addition to the preformed retinol of animal origin, some fruits and vegetables are rich in carotenoids with provitamin A precursors such as β-carotene: 6μg of β-carotene corresponds to 1μg retinol equivalent (RE). Read More

    Marginal vitamin A deficiency facilitates Alzheimer's pathogenesis.
    Acta Neuropathol 2017 Jun 27;133(6):967-982. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Children's Nutrition Research Center, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base for Child Development and Critical Disorders, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400014, China.
    Deposition of amyloid β protein (Aβ) to form neuritic plaques in the brain is the unique pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ is derived from amyloid β precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase cleavages and turned over by glia in the central nervous system (CNS). Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) has been shown to affect cognitive functions. Read More

    Socio-economic determinants of vitamin A intake in children under 5 years of age: evidence from Pakistan.
    J Hum Nutr Diet 2017 Jan 26. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Vitamin A deficiency, which is a leading health issue worldwide, is estimated to affect approximately 190 million children globally. The most affected areas are Africa and parts of Southeast Asia.

    Methods: The present study examined the use of vitamin A supplementation and the association between socio-demographic factors and vitamin A supplementation in children aged less than 5 years from a cross-sectional demographic survey of Pakistan. Read More

    Prevalence of anaemia, deficiencies of iron and vitamin A and their determinants in rural women and young children: a cross-sectional study in Kalalé district of northern Benin.
    Public Health Nutr 2017 May 25;20(7):1203-1213. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    1Health Promotion Sciences Department,Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health,University of Arizona,1295 N. Martin Avenue,Campus PO Box 245163,Tucson,AZ 85724,USA.
    Objective: To identify the magnitude of anaemia and deficiencies of Fe (ID) and vitamin A (VAD) and their associated factors among rural women and children.

    Design: Cross-sectional, comprising a household, health and nutrition survey and determination of Hb, biochemical (serum concentrations of ferritin, retinol, C-reactive protein and α1-acid glycoprotein) and anthropometric parameters. Multivariate logistic regression examined associations of various factors with anaemia and micronutrient deficiencies. Read More

    The interrelationship between bile acid and vitamin A homeostasis.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 2017 05 19;1862(5):496-512. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin important for vision, reproduction, embryonic development, cell differentiation, epithelial barrier function and adequate immune responses. Efficient absorption of dietary vitamin A depends on the fat-solubilizing properties of bile acids. Bile acids are synthesized in the liver and maintained in an enterohepatic circulation. Read More

    Vitamin A deficiency suppresses fish immune function with differences in different intestinal segments: the role of transcriptional factor NF-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways.
    Br J Nutr 2017 Jan 18;117(1):67-82. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    1Animal Nutrition Institute,Sichuan Agricultural University,Chengdu 611130,People's Republic of China.
    The present study investigated the effects of dietary vitamin A on immune function in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed graded levels of dietary vitamin A for 10 weeks, and then a challenge test using an injection of Aeromonas hydrophila was conducted for 14 d. The results showed that, compared with the optimum vitamin A level, vitamin A deficiency significantly decreased fish growth performance, increased enteritis morbidity, decreased intestinal innate humoral immune response and aggravated intestinal inflammation. Read More

    Serum levels of vitamin A, visual function and ocular surface after bariatric surgery.
    Arq Gastroenterol 2017 Jan-Mar;54(1):65-69
    Hospital de Olhos de Pernambuco (HOPE), Recife, PE, Brasil.
    Background: - Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity, but the surgery increases the risk of developing nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin A deficiency. In human metabolism, vitamin A plays a role in vision.

    Objective: - To evaluate serum vitamin A, visual function and ocular surface of patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Read More

    Vitamin profiles in two free-living passerine birds under a metal pollution gradient - A calcium supplementation experiment.
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2017 Apr 9;138:242-252. Epub 2017 Jan 9.
    Department of Biology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.
    Vitamin and carotenoid deficiency may impair development in free-living vertebrates, because of the importance of these micronutrients to growth, antioxidant defense and calcium regulation. Micronutrient and calcium insufficiency can be intensified by metal pollution which can interfere with nutrient homeostasis or indirectly reduce food availability. Furthermore, absorption of dietary heavy metals is dependent on food calcium and vitamin levels. Read More

    A rapid assessment and response approach for socially marketed nutrition commodities in Viet Nam.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2017 Jan;26(1):182-189
    National Institute for Nutrition (NIN), Ha Noi, Vietnam.
    Background: The leading cause of death in children in developing countries is protein-energy malnutrition. In Viet Nam, 25.9% of children under 5 experience stunted growth and 6. Read More

    Nutrition Status of Primary School Students in Two Rural Regions of Guinea-Bissau.
    Food Nutr Bull 2016 Jan 1:379572116679071. Epub 2016 Jan 1.
    1 Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background: The nutrition status of primary schoolchildren in Africa has received relatively little attention in comparison to that of younger children. We surveyed primary school students in Guinea-Bissau, a nation that is among the poorest in the world.

    Objective: Anthropometry and prevalence of anemia and vitamin A deficiency were assessed in schoolchildren participating in International Partnership for Human Development's school feeding program in 2 regions of Guinea-Bissau. Read More

    Limitations in vitamin A supplementation to optimise serum retinol in preschool children from two central Java districts.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2016 Dec;25(Suppl 1):S30-S35
    National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Indonesia.
    Background And Objectives: Vitamin A deficiency is particularly common among children younger than 5 years. In 2011, a study conducted in West Java revealed that the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-11 months, 12-23 months, and 24-59 months was 18.2%, 15. Read More

    Marginal Vitamin A Deficiency Exacerbates Memory Deficits Following Aβ1-42 Injection in Rats.
    Curr Alzheimer Res 2017 ;14(5):562-570
    No.136 Zhongshan Er Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 400014, China.
    Background: Although clinical vitamin A deficiency (VAD), which is a public health problem developing throughout the world, has been well controlled, marginal vitamin A deficiency (MVAD) is far more prevalent, especially among pregnant women and preschool children in China. Increasing evidence suggests that VAD is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether MVAD, beginning early in life, increases the risk of developing AD has yet to be determined. Read More

    Nutrition situation in Latin America and the Caribbean: current scenario, past trends, and data gaps.
    Rev Panam Salud Publica 2016 Aug;40(2):104-113
    Micronutrient Initiative, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Objective: To determine the current nutritional status in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and identify data gaps and trends in nutrition surveillance.

    Methods: A systematic Internet search was conducted to identify official sources that allowed for monitoring of LAC countries' nutritional status, including progress toward World Health Organization Global Nutrition Targets 2025. Reports from national nutrition surveillance systems and reports on nationally representative surveys were collected and collated to 1) analyze nutritional status, based on life-course anthropometric indicators and biomarkers, and 2) identify gaps in data availability and trends in nutritional deficiencies. Read More

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