820 results match your criteria Viral Pneumonia Imaging


Multicentre pilot study evaluation of lung ultrasound for the management of paediatric pneumonia in low-resource settings: a study protocol.

BMJ Open Respir Res 2018 19;5(1):e000340. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

International Programs, Save the Children Federation Inc, Fairfield, Connecticut, USA.

Introduction: Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death among children under 5 years of age worldwide. However, pneumonia is challenging to diagnose. Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a promising diagnostic technology. Read More

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http://bmjopenrespres.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjresp-201
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjresp-2018-000340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307622PMC
December 2018
8 Reads

[A 64-year-old male with recurrence of herpes simplex encephalitis after suffering from severe pneumonia and sepsis].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2018 Dec 29;58(12):771-774. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Neurology, NTT Medical Center Tokyo.

The case is a 64-year-old male who had a past history of herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) two years prior to his admission. He was admitted to our hospital due to severe pneumonia and sepsis. Several days later, he developed HSE again. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5692/clinicalneurol.cn-001226DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Acute Respiratory Illness in Immunocompetent Patients.

J Am Coll Radiol 2018 Nov;15(11S):S240-S251

Specialty Chair, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin.

Acute respiratory illness, defined as cough, sputum production, chest pain, and/or dyspnea (with or without fever), is a major public health issue, accounting for millions of doctor office and emergency department visits every year. While most cases are due to self-limited viral infections, a significant number of cases are due to more serious respiratory infections where delay in diagnosis can lead to morbidity and mortality. Imaging plays a key role in the initial diagnosis and management of acute respiratory illness. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15461440183115
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2018.09.012DOI Listing
November 2018
10 Reads

Clinical implication of radiographic scores in acute Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus pneumonia: Report from a single tertiary-referral center of South Korea.

Eur J Radiol 2018 Oct 11;107:196-202. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351, Republic of Korea.

The aim of this study is to determine the earliest cutoff of radiographic score as a potential prognostic indicator of fatal outcomes in patients with acute Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) pneumonia. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. Serial chest radiographies (CXRs) were obtained from viral exposure until death or discharge in 35 patients with laboratory confirmed MERS-CoV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2018.09.008DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read
2.370 Impact Factor

Human Herpesvirus Alpha Subfamily (Herpes Simplex and Varicella Zoster) Viral Pneumonias: CT Findings.

J Thorac Imaging 2018 Nov;33(6):384-389

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate CT features of pneumonias caused by the alpha Herpesviruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV).

Materials And Methods: By searching the electronic medical record from 2005 to 2017, we identified 12 patients with HSV and 15 with VZV pneumonia. Four patients with coinfection were excluded from imaging analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000364DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads

High ratio of measles-specific IgG/IgM associated with nodular pneumonia in vaccinated individuals.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Nov 28;76:38-44. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Beijing Chaoyang Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Center for Respiratory Diseases, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, Beijing, China; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Vaccinated individuals infected with measles can develop nodular pneumonia. These cases can be misdiagnosed due to the absence of specific IgM and typical symptoms. An effective diagnostic tool is needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2018.08.015DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Radiological findings of complications after lung transplantation.

Insights Imaging 2018 Oct 15;9(5):709-719. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Division of Radiology, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, Geneva, Switzerland.

Complications following lung transplantation may impede allograft function and threaten patient survival. The five main complications after lung transplantation are primary graft dysfunction, post-surgical complications, alloimmune responses, infections, and malignancy. Primary graft dysfunction, a transient ischemic/reperfusion injury, appears as a pulmonary edema in almost every patient during the first three days post-surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13244-018-0647-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206387PMC
October 2018
8 Reads

Pulmonary measles disease: old and new imaging tools.

Radiol Med 2018 Dec 30;123(12):935-943. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Diagnostic Imaging Unit, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, L.Spallanzani, Rome, Italy.

Background: Measles virus can cause lower respiratory tract infection, so that chest radiography is necessary to investigate lung involvement in patients with respiratory distress.

Purpose: To assess measles pneumonia imaging during the measles outbreak occurred in 2016-2017 in Italy.

Material And Methods: We retrospectively observed adult patients with a serological diagnosis of measles, who underwent chest-X rays for suspected pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-018-0919-yDOI Listing
December 2018
18 Reads

Impact of radiologically stratified exacerbations: insights into pneumonia aetiology in COPD.

Respir Res 2018 07 28;19(1):143. Epub 2018 Jul 28.

Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK.

Background: COPD patients have increased risk of developing pneumonia, which is associated with poor outcomes. It can be symptomatically indistinguishable from exacerbations, making diagnosis challenging. Studies of pneumonia in COPD have focused on hospitalised patients and are not representative of the ambulant COPD population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-018-0842-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6064093PMC
July 2018
11 Reads

Respiratory care in familial dysautonomia: Systematic review and expert consensus recommendations.

Respir Med 2018 08 21;141:37-46. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Department of Neurology, Dysautonomia Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome, hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type-III) is a rare genetic disease caused by impaired development of sensory and afferent autonomic nerves. As a consequence, patients develop neurogenic dysphagia with frequent aspiration, chronic lung disease, and chemoreflex failure leading to severe sleep disordered breathing. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory disorders in familial dysautonomia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2018.06.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6084453PMC
August 2018
19 Reads

Severe herpes simplex virus pneumonia in an elderly, immunocompetent patient.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jul 18;2018. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, kanagawa, Japan.

Although not common, herpes simplex virus (HSV) pneumonia can occur in immunocompromised patients. However, HSV pneumonia in immunocompetent hosts is very rare. The authors encountered a very rare case of severe HSV pneumonia in an immunocompetent host. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2017-224022DOI Listing
July 2018
12 Reads

A research pathway for the study of the delivery and disposition of nebulised antibiotics: an incremental approach from in vitro to large animal models.

Intensive Care Med Exp 2018 Jul 11;6(1):17. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Faculty of Medicine, UQ Centre for Clinical Research, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Nebulised antibiotics are frequently used for the prevention or treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Many factors may influence pulmonary drug concentrations with inaccurate dosing schedules potentially leading to therapeutic failure and/or the emergence of antibiotic resistance. We describe a research pathway for studying the pharmacokinetics of a nebulised antibiotic during mechanical ventilation using in vitro methods and ovine models, using tobramycin as the study antibiotic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40635-018-0180-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6041222PMC
July 2018
9 Reads

[Analysis of 15 cases of avian influenza virus (H7N9) infection].

Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2018 Jul;41(7):534-538

Taizhou People's Hospital, Taizhou 225300, China.

To describe the clinical, chest imaging, pathological manifestations and therapeutic experience of human infection with A/H7N9 virus. The features of 15 laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with A/H7N9 virus in Taizhou, Jiangsu Province were retrospectively analyzed. The 15 patients with confirmed viral pneumonia included 12 males and 3 females, with a median age of 61 years(ranging from 33 to 81 years). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1001-0939.2018.07.006DOI Listing
July 2018
16 Reads

Cerebral microbleeds and intracerebral hemorrhage associated with veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

Acta Neurol Belg 2018 Sep 6;118(3):513-515. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Department of Neurology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13760-018-0975-zDOI Listing
September 2018
11 Reads

Viral and bacterial co-infection in hospitalised children with refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.

Epidemiol Infect 2018 Aug 4;146(11):1384-1388. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Department of Respiration,Children's Hospital of Soochow University,Suzhou 215003,China.

To investigate the impact of viral and bacterial co-infection in hospitalised children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (RMPP). Retrospective analysis of 396 children with RMPP in our hospital admitted between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2016 was performed. Nasal aspirate samples were collected for pathogen detection and clinical data were collected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268818000778DOI Listing
August 2018
10 Reads

A case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following infection.

IDCases 2018 12;12:41-43. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Infectious Diseases, Medical Subspecialty Institute, Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

We report a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) secondary to infection that failed to improve with methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG); who responded with plasmapheresis. A 21- year- old female with an unremarkable medical history, initially presented to an outside hospital with fever and an influenza-like illness and was subsequently intubated for worsening sensorium. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of ADEM or vasculitis for which she received five days of pulse steroids and IVIG. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2018.03.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6011136PMC
March 2018
2 Reads

Respiratory virus of severe pneumonia in South Korea: Prevalence and clinical implications.

PLoS One 2018 18;13(6):e0198902. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Severe viral pneumonia is associated with a high mortality rate. However, due to the vulnerability of critically ill patients, invasive diagnostic methods should be performed with caution in the intensive care unit (ICU). It would be helpful if the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical impact of virus detection are elucidated. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0198902PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6005478PMC
December 2018
17 Reads

Influenza-associated neurological complications during 2014-2017 in Taiwan.

Brain Dev 2018 Oct 8;40(9):799-806. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Department of Pediatrics, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Introduction: Seasonal influenza-associated neurological complications had high mortality and morbidity rates in recent studies. We reported influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy in children during 2014-2017 in Taiwan, focusing on neurological presentations, neuroimaging correlations, and critical care managements.

Materials/subjects: During January 1st 2014 to June 30th 2017, pediatric patients reported to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control surveillance system for severe complicated influenza infections in the hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2018.05.019DOI Listing
October 2018
6 Reads
1.542 Impact Factor

Radiographic and CT Features of Viral Pneumonia.

Radiographics 2018 May-Jun;38(3):719-739

From the Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology (H.J.K., J.C., K.H.D.), Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine (S.H.C.), and Department of Laboratory Medicine (H.S.), Asan Medical Center, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, 05505 Seoul, South Korea; and Department of Radiology, Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Ulsan, South Korea (S.L.).

Viruses are the most common causes of respiratory infection. The imaging findings of viral pneumonia are diverse and overlap with those of other nonviral infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, identification of the underlying viral pathogens may not always be easy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.2018170048DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Clinical manifestations in infants and children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

PLoS One 2018 26;13(4):e0195288. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Department of Paediatrics, Nordsjællands Hospital, Hillerød, Denmark.

Background: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in older children. Pulmonary and extra-pulmonary symptoms associated with M. pneumoniae infection are reported. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195288PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5919654PMC

Invasive fungal infections associated with prior respiratory viral infections in immunocompromised hosts.

Infection 2018 Aug 7;46(4):555-558. Epub 2018 Apr 7.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Background: Increased risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after influenza infection has been reported; however data are limited.

Purpose: To describe Invasive fungal infections (IFI) associated with preceding respiratory viral infection at a large referral center.

Methods: We reviewed all IFI cases among patients with positive influenza and/or RSV nasopharyngeal/lower respiratory tract PCR from October 2015 to December 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15010-018-1138-0DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads

A novel method for strict intranasal delivery of non-replicating RSV vaccines in cotton rats and non-human primates.

Vaccine 2018 05 26;36(20):2876-2885. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Infectious Disease/Vaccines, Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ 07033, United States.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children twelve months of age or younger and a significant cause of lower respiratory disease in older adults. As various clinical and preclinical candidates advance, cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) and non-human primates (NHP) continue to play a valuable role in RSV vaccine development, since both animals are semi-permissive to human RSV (HRSV). However, appropriate utilization of the models is critical to avoid mis-interpretation of the preclinical findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.02.110DOI Listing
May 2018
5 Reads

Point of care diaphragm ultrasound in infants with bronchiolitis: A prospective study.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Jun 26;53(6):778-786. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Department of Pediatric Emergency, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background: Bronchiolitis is the most common reason for hospitalization of children worldwide. Many scoring systems have been developed to quantify respiratory distress and predict outcome, but none of them have been validated. We hypothesized that the ultrasound evaluation of the diaphragm could quantify respiratory distress and therefore we correlated the ultrasound diaphragm parameters with outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.23993DOI Listing
June 2018
6 Reads

Community-Acquired Meningitis in HIV-Infected Patients in the United States.

AIDS Patient Care STDS 2018 Feb;32(2):42-47

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center , Houston, Texas.

We conducted a retrospective study of 549 adults admitted with community-acquired meningitis (CAM) to several hospitals in New Orleans, LA and Houston, TX between 1999 and 2014 to characterize the current epidemiology, clinical manifestations, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) characteristics, and outcomes of CAM between HIV-infected and uninfected patients and to identify risk factors for adverse outcomes in CAM. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to identify prognostic factors. A total of 1022 patients with CAM were screened. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/apc.2017.0286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5808382PMC
February 2018
10 Reads

Pediatric Community Acquired Pneumonia.

S D Med 2017 Dec;70(12):557-561

Sanford Children's Hospital, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Pediatric community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently encountered by medical providers and is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission. CAP is known to cause significant morbidity and mortality, causing greater than 2 million deaths annually worldwide in children younger than five years old. The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) released guidelines in 2011 with recommendations regarding appropriate diagnosis and management of community acquired pneumonia for children greater than 3 months age, with the goal of assisting providers in clinical decision making. Read More

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December 2017
8 Reads

The significance of cytomegalovirus in children with pneumonia admitted for mechanical ventilation.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2017 12;21(12):800-806

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: The pathogenic role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) among children with pneumonia is not clear.

Objectives And Design: We describe the outcome of children on mechanical ventilation with 'probable' CMV-related pneumonitis (CMV DNA polymerase chain reaction [PCR] positive as well as clinical and imaging features of CMV on ganciclovir) and children with pneumonia and CMV infection (CMV DNA PCR-positive without clinical and imaging features of CMV and not on ganciclovir therapy) at a paediatric intensive care unit in South Africa between 2011 and 2013. CMV viral loads were measured in non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (NBBALF), plasma and whole-blood samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.17.0026DOI Listing
December 2017
2 Reads

Single-walled carbon nanotubes modulate pulmonary immune responses and increase pandemic influenza a virus titers in mice.

Virol J 2017 12 22;14(1):242. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Department of Environmental and Global Health, Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology and Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, 2187 Mowry Road, Box 110885, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA.

Background: Numerous toxicological studies have focused on injury caused by exposure to single types of nanoparticles, but few have investigated how such exposures impact a host's immune response to pathogen challenge. Few studies have shown that nanoparticles can alter a host's response to pathogens (chiefly bacteria) but there is even less knowledge of the impact of such particles on viral infections. In this study, we performed experiments to investigate if exposure of mice to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) alters immune mechanisms and viral titers following subsequent influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-017-0909-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5741862PMC
December 2017
27 Reads

Successful Treatment of Pulmonary and Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Associated with Pneumocystis Pneumonia in an HIV Patient.

Diseases 2017 Dec 18;5(4). Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Université Aix Marseille, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, Inserm 1095, AP-HM, URMITE, IHU Méditerranée Infection, 13915 Marseille CEDEX, France.

In both the post and pre combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, and remain common opportunistic infectious agents. The common manifestations are pneumonia for and brain abscess for . Nevertheless, co-infection remains rare, and pulmonary toxoplasmosis is scarce, or may be underestimated because of its similarity with pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diseases5040035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5750546PMC
December 2017
5 Reads

Cryptococcus gattii Infection Presenting as an Aggressive Lung Mass.

Mycopathologia 2018 Jun 6;183(3):597-602. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.

Cryptococcus gattii is an endemic fungus predominantly isolated in the tropical and subtropical regions, causing predominantly pulmonary disease with a predilection for the central nervous system. Herein, we report a case of rapidly progressing C. gattii pneumonia in an immune-deficient but virologically suppressed host with underlying human immunodeficiency viral (HIV) infection, exhibiting various fungal morphologies from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytological specimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-017-0233-6DOI Listing
June 2018
3 Reads

Follicular bronchiolitis in an HIV-infected individual on combination antiretroviral therapy with low CD4+ cell count but sustained viral suppression.

BMJ Case Rep 2017 Nov 29;2017. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

A 36-year-old Danish man, living in Asia, was diagnosed with pneumonia (PCP) and HIV in 2013 (CD4+ count: 6 cells/µL; viral load: 518 000 copies/mL). He initiated combination antiretroviral therapy. Later that year, he was also diagnosed with granulomatosis with polyangiitis and was treated with prednisolone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2017-221025DOI Listing
November 2017
9 Reads

Spectrum of pathogen- and model-specific histopathologies in mouse models of acute pneumonia.

PLoS One 2017 20;12(11):e0188251. Epub 2017 Nov 20.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Pneumonia may be caused by a wide range of pathogens and is considered the most common infectious cause of death in humans. Murine acute lung infection models mirror human pathologies in many aspects and contribute to our understanding of the disease and the development of novel treatment strategies. Despite progress in other fields of tissue imaging, histopathology remains the most conclusive and practical read out tool for the descriptive and semiquantitative evaluation of mouse pneumonia and therapeutic interventions. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0188251PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5695780PMC
December 2017
17 Reads

Community-acquired pneumonia in children - a changing spectrum of disease.

Pediatr Radiol 2017 Oct 21;47(11):1392-1398. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

5th Floor ICH Building Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Klipfontein Road Cape Town, 7700, South Africa.

Pneumonia remains the leading cause of death in children outside the neonatal period, despite advances in prevention and management. Over the last 20 years, there has been a substantial decrease in the incidence of childhood pneumonia and pneumonia-associated mortality. New conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae have contributed to decreases in radiologic, clinical and complicated pneumonia cases and have reduced hospitalization and mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-017-3827-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5608782PMC
October 2017
3 Reads

Human Metapneumovirus Infection: Pneumonia Risk Factors in Patients With Solid Organ Transplantation and Computed Tomography Findings.

Transplantation 2018 04;102(4):699-706

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a newly detected pathogen that can cause lower respiratory tract disease. Clinical characteristics, computed tomography (CT) findings, and outcomes of HMPV pneumonia in patients with solid organ transplantation (SOT) have not been well demonstrated.

Methods: Between January 2010 and February 2016, clinical and imaging findings of 59 patients with SOT (types of organ: kidney, 37; liver, 16; heart, 4; and pancreas and kidney, 2) who had HMPV infection detected in nasopharyngeal or bronchoalveolar lavage by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were retrospectively evaluated. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00007890-201804000-0003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000001965DOI Listing
April 2018
34 Reads

Histopathology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronovirus (MERS-CoV) infection - clinicopathological and ultrastructural study.

Histopathology 2018 Feb 21;72(3):516-524. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Aims: The pathogenesis, viral localization and histopathological features of Middle East respiratory syndrome - coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in humans are not described sufficiently. The aims of this study were to explore and define the spectrum of histological and ultrastructural pathological changes affecting various organs in a patient with MERS-CoV infection and represent a base of MERS-CoV histopathology.

Methods And Results: We analysed the post-mortem histopathological findings and investigated localisation of viral particles in the pulmonary and extrapulmonary tissue by transmission electron microscopic examination in a 33-year-old male patient of T cell lymphoma, who acquired MERS-CoV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.13379DOI Listing
February 2018
26 Reads
5 Citations
3.453 Impact Factor

Case 26-2017.

N Engl J Med 2017 Aug;377(8):770-778

From the Departments of Medicine (A.R.L.), Radiology (M.C.P.), and Pathology (M.M.A.), Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Departments of Medicine (A.R.L.), Radiology (M.C.P.), and Pathology (M.M.A.), Harvard Medical School - both in Boston.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMcpc1616402DOI Listing
August 2017
13 Reads

Chest radiographic features of human metapneumovirus infection in pediatric patients.

Pediatr Radiol 2017 Dec 22;47(13):1745-1750. Epub 2017 Aug 22.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was identified in 2001 and is a common cause of acute respiratory illness in young children. The radiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed HMPV acute respiratory illness in young children have not been systematically assessed.

Objective: We systematically evaluated the radiographic characteristics of acute respiratory illness associated with HMPV in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-017-3943-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5901753PMC
December 2017
10 Reads

Community-Acquired Pneumonia Visualized on CT Scans but Not Chest Radiographs: Pathogens, Severity, and Clinical Outcomes.

Chest 2018 Mar 9;153(3):601-610. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN. Electronic address:

Background: The clinical significance of pneumonia visualized on CT scan in the setting of a normal chest radiograph is uncertain.

Methods: In a multicenter prospective surveillance study of adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), we compared the presenting clinical features, pathogens present, and outcomes of patients with pneumonia visualized on a CT scan but not on a concurrent chest radiograph (CT-only pneumonia) and those with pneumonia visualized on a chest radiograph. All patients underwent chest radiography; the decision to obtain CT imaging was determined by the treating clinicians. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2017.07.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5989638PMC
March 2018
37 Reads

Necrotizing pneumonia: an emerging problem in children?

Pneumonia (Nathan) 2017 25;9:11. Epub 2017 Jul 25.

School of Medicine and Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Gold Coast campus, Griffith University, Building G40, Southport Gold Coast, QLD Australia.

Background: In children, necrotizing pneumonia (NP) is an uncommon, severe complication of pneumonia. It is characterized by destruction of the underlying lung parenchyma resulting in multiple small, thin-walled cavities and is often accompanied by empyema and bronchopleural fistulae.

Review: NP in children was first reported in children in 1994, and since then there has been a gradual increase in cases, which is partially explained by greater physician awareness and use of contrast computed tomography (CT) scans, and by temporal changes in circulating respiratory pathogens and antibiotic prescribing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41479-017-0035-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5525269PMC
July 2017
3 Reads

Advances in the diagnosis of pneumonia in children.

BMJ 2017 Jul 26;358:j2739. Epub 2017 Jul 26.

Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, University of Cape Town.

Pneumonia remains a major cause of childhood mortality and morbidity globally. Accurate diagnosis and attribution of the causes of pneumonia are important for measuring the burden of disease, implementing appropriate preventive or treatment strategies, and developing more effective interventions. This review summarizes recent diagnostic advances in radiological techniques, specimen collection, and laboratory methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j2739DOI Listing
July 2017
11 Reads

A storm of stones in the lungs: an uncommon sequela of varicella pneumonia.

J Bras Pneumol 2017 May-Jun;43(3):246

. Dipartimento di Scienze Cardio-Toraciche e Respiratorie, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, Napoli, Italia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1806-37562017000000005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5687955PMC
December 2017
4 Reads

Advances in the causes and management of community acquired pneumonia in adults.

BMJ 2017 Jul 10;358:j2471. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Pulmonary and Critical Care, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

Community acquired pneumonia remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Usually, the causal organism is not identified and treatment remains empiric. Recent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies have challenged the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia, and epidemiologic studies are changing our perspective of what causes community acquired pneumonia, especially the role of viral pathogens and the frequent finding of multiple pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j2471DOI Listing
July 2017
32 Reads

Acute respiratory distress syndrome following alemtuzumab therapy for relapsing multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2017 May 12;14:1-3. Epub 2017 Mar 12.

Greater Manchester Multiple Sclerosis Group, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, UK. Electronic address:

We present the case of a 54 year old woman with known relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis who presented with acute respiratory deterioration five weeks after a first course of alemtuzumab. Imaging showed bilateral ground glass changes and extensive investigations confirmed chest infection with dual pathogens - Pneumocystis jirovecii and Cytomegalovirus. She responded to standard anti-PJP and CMV therapy and was discharged on oral prophylaxis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2017.03.001DOI Listing
May 2017
3 Reads

Is Higher Viral Load in the Upper Respiratory Tract Associated With Severe Pneumonia? Findings From the PERCH Study.

Clin Infect Dis 2017 Jun;64(suppl_3):S337-S346

Department of Pathology, University of Otago, and.

Background.: The etiologic inference of identifying a pathogen in the upper respiratory tract (URT) of children with pneumonia is unclear. To determine if viral load could provide evidence of causality of pneumonia, we compared viral load in the URT of children with World Health Organization-defined severe and very severe pneumonia and age-matched community controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5447843PMC
June 2017
32 Reads

The Enduring Challenge of Determining Pneumonia Etiology in Children: Considerations for Future Research Priorities.

Clin Infect Dis 2017 Jun;64(suppl_3):S188-S196

Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi.

Pneumonia kills more children each year worldwide than any other disease. Nonetheless, accurately determining the causes of childhood pneumonia has remained elusive. Over the past century, the focus of pneumonia etiology research has shifted from studies of lung aspirates and postmortem specimens intent on identifying pneumococcal disease to studies of multiple specimen types distant from the lung that are tested for multiple pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5447852PMC
June 2017
48 Reads

Colonization Density of the Upper Respiratory Tract as a Predictor of Pneumonia-Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pneumocystis jirovecii.

Clin Infect Dis 2017 Jun;64(suppl_3):S328-S336

Department of International Health, International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background.: There is limited information on the association between colonization density of upper respiratory tract colonizers and pathogen-specific pneumonia. We assessed this association for Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pneumocystis jirovecii. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5612712PMC
June 2017
52 Reads

Limited Utility of Polymerase Chain Reaction in Induced Sputum Specimens for Determining the Causes of Childhood Pneumonia in Resource-Poor Settings: Findings From the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) Study.

Clin Infect Dis 2017 Jun;64(suppl_3):S289-S300

Department of International Health, International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background.: Sputum examination can be useful in diagnosing the cause of pneumonia in adults but is less well established in children. We sought to assess the diagnostic utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of respiratory viruses and bacteria in induced sputum (IS) specimens from children hospitalized with severe or very severe pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5447848PMC
June 2017
49 Reads

Chest Radiograph Findings in Childhood Pneumonia Cases From the Multisite PERCH Study.

Clin Infect Dis 2017 Jun;64(suppl_3):S262-S270

Department of International Health, International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background.: Chest radiographs (CXRs) are frequently used to assess pneumonia cases. Variations in CXR appearances between epidemiological settings and their correlation with clinical signs are not well documented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5447837PMC
June 2017
44 Reads

Standardized Interpretation of Chest Radiographs in Cases of Pediatric Pneumonia From the PERCH Study.

Clin Infect Dis 2017 Jun;64(suppl_3):S253-S261

Department of International Health, International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background.: Chest radiographs (CXRs) are a valuable diagnostic tool in epidemiologic studies of pneumonia. The World Health Organization (WHO) methodology for the interpretation of pediatric CXRs has not been evaluated beyond its intended application as an endpoint measure for bacterial vaccine trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5447844PMC
June 2017
48 Reads

Antimicrobial stewardship for hospitalized patients with viral respiratory tract infections.

Am J Infect Control 2017 Aug 16;45(8):872-875. Epub 2017 May 16.

Division of Microbiology and Virology, Providence Health Care, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Infection Prevention and Control, Providence Health Care, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Division of Infectious Diseases, Providence Health Care, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: The purpose of this study was to implement a targeted antimicrobial stewardship intervention for patients with a viral respiratory tract infection.

Methods: This was a quasi-experimental before and after audit and feedback intervention of adult inpatients with a positive polymerase chain reaction for a respiratory virus in 2 acute care hospitals in Vancouver, Canada. Audit and feedback was implemented based on 2 criteria: microbiology (no positive bacterial cultures) and chest imaging (absence of pneumonia or consolidation on radiology dictation). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2017.03.025DOI Listing
August 2017
19 Reads
3 Citations
2.210 Impact Factor