761,527 results match your criteria Viral Pneumonia Imaging


Serologic Status of Routine Childhood Vaccines, Cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr Virus in Children With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Section of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Department of Paediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Data on the serologic status of childhood vaccines, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are limited in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we evaluated vaccine coverage and seroprotection, along with CMV and EBV seropositivity, in pediatric IBD.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, demographic data, IBD history, vaccine records, and serum for antibodies against measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, varicella, hepatitis B (HBV), CMV, and EBV were collected from children with IBD. Read More

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December 2018

Fish antiviral tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

INRA, Virologie et Immunologie Moléculaires, Université Paris-Saclay, Jouy-en-Josas, France. Electronic address:

Tripartite motif (TRIM) family or RBCC proteins comprises characteristic zinc-binding domains (a RING (R), a B-box type 1 (B1) and a B-box type 2 (B2)) and coiled-coil (CC) domain followed by a C-terminus variable domain. There are about 80 different TRIM proteins in human, but more than 200 in zebrafish with several large gene expansions (ftr >70 genes; btr >30 genes; trim35 > 30 genes). Repertoires of trim genes in fish are variable across fishes, but they have been remarkably diversified independently in a number of species. Read More

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December 2018

Cell-type specificity and functional redundancy of RIG-I-like receptors in innate immune sensing of Coxsackievirus B3 and encephalomyocarditis virus.

Virology 2018 Dec 11;528:7-18. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Vagelos College of Physicians & Surgeons of Columbia University, 701 W. 168th St., New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:

The contributions of RIG-I and MDA5 receptors to sensing viruses of the Picornaviridae family were investigated. The picornaviruses encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) are detected by both MDA5 and RIG-I in bone marrow derived macrophages. In macrophages from wild type mice, type I IFN is produced early after infection; IFNβ synthesis is reduced in the absence of each sensor, while IFNα production is reduced in the absence of MDA5. Read More

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December 2018

Enhanced hypovirus transmission by engineered super donor strains of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, into a natural population of strains exhibiting diverse vegetative compatibility genotypes.

Virology 2018 Dec 11;528:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA. Electronic address:

Horizontal transmission of virulence attenuating hypoviruses of Cryphonectria parasitica is restricted by an allorecognition system termed vegetative incompatibility (vic). A super donor formulation of two engineered C. parasitica strains (SD328/SD82) with gene disruptions at four of six vic loci transmitted hypovirus to strains in the laboratory independent of vic genotype. Read More

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December 2018

ER stress promotes antitumor effects in BRAFi/MEKi resistant human melanoma induced by natural compound 4-nerolidylcathecol (4-NC).

Pharmacol Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Skin Biology Group, Clinical Chemistry and Toxicology Department, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Melanoma accounts for only 4% of malignant neoplasms of the skin, but is considered the most serious because it is highly deadly. Mutations in the MAPK (Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK) pathway is closely linked to the lack of control of cell proliferation. Especially in melanoma, this pathway has become a target for the development of oncogene-targeted therapies, such as the potent inhibitors of v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAFi) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEKi). Read More

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December 2018
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Etiology and epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia in adults requiring hospital admission: a prospective study in rural Central Philippines.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Virology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan980-8575; Collaborating Research Center for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, 9002 Research Drive, Filinvest Corporate City, Alabang, Muntinlupa City, Metro Manila, Philippines 1781.

Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide. However, the distribution of etiology of CAP varies from one country to another with limited data from rural areas.

Methods: A prospective hospital-based study on adult CAP was conducted in Leyte, Central Philippines from May 2010 to May 2012. Read More

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December 2018

Sex-Specific Association between Prenatal Life Stress Exposure and Infant Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Levels during Acute Respiratory Infection.

Brain Behav Immun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, 37232-2650, USA.

Background: Prenatal life stress exposure is linked to dysregulated immune function and chronic inflammatory disease in offspring, but we know little about its effects on infant immune response during viral infection.

Method: To address this issue, we examined associations between prenatal life stress exposure and infant upper-airway inflammatory markers during acute respiratory infection (ARI) using data from a prospective, population-based birth-cohort study (N=180). Infant inflammation was measured as a continuous latent factor within a structural equation modeling framework using nasal wash concentrations of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Read More

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December 2018

Cisplatin induces autophagy to enhance hepatitis B virus replication via activation of ROS/JNK and inhibition of the Akt/mTOR pathway.

Free Radic Biol Med 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases (Ministry of Education), Institute for Viral Hepatitis, Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a serious global health concern. Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent commonly used to treat various cancers. However, HBV-infected patients receiving chemotherapy are at risk of HBV reactivation via unknown mechanisms, which we aimed to elucidate in this study. Read More

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December 2018

Induction of protective immunity by recombinant peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein (rPAL) protein of Legionella pneumophila in a BALB/c mouse model.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences, Medical Sciences University Islamic Azad, Tehran, Iran.

Legionella pneumophila causes a severe form of pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease especially in patients with impaired cellular immune response. In order to prevent the disease, immunogenicity and the level of the induction of protective immunity from the recombinant peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (rPAL) against Legionella pneumophila in BALB/c mice was examined. Mice immunized with (rPAL) rapidly increased an antibody response in serum and also displayed a strong activation of both innate and adaptive cell-mediated immunity as determined by antigen-specific splenocyte proliferation, an early production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum and in the splenocyte cultures. Read More

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December 2018
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Biochemical characterization of a native group III trypsin ZT from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland. University of Iceland, Sæmundargata 2, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. Electronic address:

Atlantic cod trypsin ZT is biochemically characterized for the first time in this report in comparison to a group I trypsin (cod trypsin I). To our knowledge, trypsin ZT is the first thoroughly characterized group III trypsin. A more detailed understanding of trypsin ZT biochemistry may give insight into its physiological role as well as its potential use within the biotechnology sector. Read More

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December 2018

Virus and host interactions critical for filoviral RNA synthesis as therapeutic targets.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Filoviruses, which include Ebola virus and Marburg virus, are negative-sense RNA viruses associated with sporadic outbreaks of severe viral hemorrhagic fever characterized by uncontrolled virus replication. The extreme virulence and emerging nature of these zoonotic pathogens make them a significant threat to human health. Replication of the filovirus genome and production of viral RNAs requires the function of a complex of four viral proteins, the nucleoprotein (NP), viral protein 35 (VP35), viral protein 30 (VP30) and large protein (L). Read More

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December 2018

Maternal vaccination with a novel chimeric glycoprotein formulated with a polymer-based adjuvant provides protection from human parainfluenza virus type 3 in newborn lambs.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

VIDO-InterVac, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E3, Canada; Microbiology & Immunology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E3, Canada. Electronic address:

Human parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are major causative agents of serious respiratory tract illness in newborns and infants. Maternal vaccination could be a promising approach to provide immediate protection against severe PIV3 and RSV infection in young infants. Previously, we demonstrated that maternal immunization with a subunit vaccine consisting of the RSV fusion (F) protein formulated with TriAdj, an adjuvant consisting of poly(I:C), immune defense regulatory peptide and polyphosphazene, protects newborn lambs from RSV. Read More

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December 2018

Antiviral effects of selected nucleoside analogs against human parechoviruses A1 and A3.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

KU Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Parechoviruses A (HPeV, Picornaviridae) are neglected human pathogens that cause sepsis-like illness and severe neurological complications in infants. There are no antivirals available for the treatment of HPeV infections. We here report on cell-based assays that allow for medium-throughput antiviral screening of compound libraries against HPeV. Read More

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December 2018
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Modulation of the unfolded protein response pathway as an antiviral approach in airway epithelial cells.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Institute of Virology and Immunology, Bern, Switzerland; Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Introduction: Rhinovirus (RV) infection is a major cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung morbidity with limited therapeutic options. Various diseases involving chronic inflammatory response and infection are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive response to maintain cellular homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests impaired ER stress response in CF airway epithelial cells, this might be a reason for recurrent viral infection in CF. Read More

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December 2018

West Nile virus epizootic in Germany, 2018.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany; German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Hamburg-Luebeck-Borstel, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. Electronic address:

The summer of 2018 in Germany was the second hottest and driest on record. These generally extremely favorable climatic conditions most likely triggered the further expansion and the efficient propagation of the zoonotic arthropod-borne West Nile virus in many Southern/Southeastern and even Central European countries. WNV infections were detected for the first time in resident wild and aviary birds, such as common blackbirds, northern goshawks and great grey owls in Eastern and Southeastern Germany. Read More

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December 2018

Protein Interaction Mapping Identifies RBBP6 as a Negative Regulator of Ebola Virus Replication.

Cell 2018 Dec;175(7):1917-1930.e13

Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Quantitative Biosciences Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; J. David Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

Ebola virus (EBOV) infection often results in fatal illness in humans, yet little is known about how EBOV usurps host pathways during infection. To address this, we used affinity tag-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) to generate an EBOV-host protein-protein interaction (PPI) map. We uncovered 194 high-confidence EBOV-human PPIs, including one between the viral transcription regulator VP30 and the host ubiquitin ligase RBBP6. Read More

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December 2018

Temperature-driven changes in viral loads in the honey bee Apis mellifera.

J Invertebr Pathol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

INRA, UR 406 Abeilles et Environnement - Site Agroparc - Domaine St Paul - 228, Route de l'aérodrome CS40509 - 84914 Avignon Cedex 9, France.

Many of the physiological traits in insects are shaped by environmental temperatures, which can influence their interactions with pathogens. Therefore, quantifying the thermal responses of the host-pathogen system is crucial for better understanding and predicting their dynamics due to environmental changes. This is particularly important in honey bees, which are experiencing severe colony losses around the world, notably due to infection with the Deformed wing virus (DWV). Read More

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December 2018

Evolutionary analysis of the Chikungunya virus epidemic in Mexico reveals intra-host mutational hotspots in the E1 protein.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209292. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

División de Laboratorios de Vigilancia e Investigación Epidemiológica, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico.

The epidemic potential of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was recently made evident by its introduction and rapid expansion in the Caribbean and the Americas. We sought to gain a detailed understanding of the dynamics of the epidemic in Mexico, the country with the highest number of confirmed CHIKV cases in the Americas, and to characterise viral evolution at the population and intra-host level. Analysis of the spatiotemporal distribution of 2,739 diagnosed cases in Mexico from December 2014 to December 2015 showed a rapid nationwide expansion of the epidemic with focalisation in the South West of the country. Read More

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December 2018
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A multigene typing system for human adenoviruses reveals a new genotype in a collection of Swedish clinical isolates.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209038. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology, and Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are common pathogens that can cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, urogenital, and ocular infections. They are divided into seven species containing 85 genotypes. Straightforward typing systems might help epidemiological investigations. Read More

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December 2018

Individual and sexual network predictors of HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in Nigeria.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: To date, HIV incidence studies among men who have sex with men (MSM) across sub-Saharan Africa have focused on studying sexual risk practices with less focus on sexual networks.

Setting: TRUST/RV368 conducted in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria recruited MSM using respondent driven sampling (RDS) and followed HIV negative men for incident infection over 4 years.

Methods: Four-hundred forty-one HIV-uninfected MSM underwent a parallel rapid HIV testing algorithm every 3 months for up to 18 months. Read More

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December 2018

Pulmonary hypertension in patients with a history of intravenous drug use.

Curr Med Res Opin 2018 Dec 14:1-14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

a Cardiovascular Department , John Hunter Hospital , Newcastle NSW , Australia.

Objective: Pulmonary hypertension may be a consequence of intrinsic elevation in pulmonary vasculature resistance or complicate numerous other conditions affecting the cardiac and respiratory systems. In this review we sought to explore the relationship between pulmonary hypertension and intravenous drug use.

Methods: A narrative review was conducted using PubMed MeSH search with further papers were identified using a standard PubMed search with relevant key terms and various synonyms. Read More

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December 2018
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Label-free Proteomic Analysis of Exosomes Secreted from THP-1-derived Macrophages Treated with IFN-α Identifies Antiviral Proteins Enriched in Exosomes.

J Proteome Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that function in intercellular communication. We have previously reported that exosomes play an important role in the transmission of antiviral molecules during interferon-α (IFN-α) treatment. In this study, the protein profiles of THP-1-derived macrophages with or without interferon-α treatment and the exosomes secreted from these cells were analyzed by label-free LC-MS/MS quantitation technologies. Read More

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December 2018

[Biological risk in agriculture and construction workplaces: a survey on perception, knowledge and prevention measures.]

G Ital Med Lav Ergon 2018 Dec;40(4):195-202

Cattedra di Igiene, Dipartimento di Medicina e Scienze per la Salute "Vincenzo Tiberio", Università degli Studi del Molise.

Objectives: Despite the potential presence in many workplaces, biological risk is little known and largely underestimated, except in healthcare environments. Objectives: To evaluate perception, knowledge and behaviors adopted for protection and prevention of biological risk, related also to the occupational activity, among construction and agricultural workers.

Methods: Workers were recruited at farms and construction companies of Molise Region, Central Italy, which were visited within the surveillance activities planned by local institutions. Read More

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December 2018

[Etiological structure of influenza and other ARVI in St. Petersburg during epidemic seasons 2012-2016.]

Vopr Virusol 2018 ;63(5):233-239

Federal State Research Institute of Influenza, St. Petersburg, 197376, Russian Federation.

The etiological structure of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections including their rate of incidence in St. Petersburg and Leningrad region during 4 epidemic seasons has been studied. Seasonality of some respiratory viruses was shown and peaks of circulation of RSV, adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses, rhinovirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus and coronavirus were marked. Read More

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January 2018

[Molecular and biological characteristics of vaccinary ERA-CB 20M of rabies virus.]

Vopr Virusol 2018 ;63(5):224-232

D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, «National Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology named after the honorary academician N.F. Gamaleya», Moscow, 109428, Russian Federation.

The molecular and biological characteristics of the vaccine against rabies virus strain ERA-CB 20M obtained by the Russian rabiologist, doctor of medical sciences S.V. Gribencha by adapting and cloning the strain ERA and SAD in a transplantable BHK-21 C13 cell culture are presented. Read More

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January 2018

[The experience in the application of nikavir in the schemes of perinatal chemoprophylactics of HIV infection: evaluation of the immunological and virusological effectiveness.]

Vopr Virusol 2018 ;63(5):212-217

Academician Ye. A. Wagner State Medical University, Perm, 614000, Russian Federation.

Objectives: The goal of this work was to study the immunological and virological efficacy of the domestic antiretroviral drug nicavir (at the optimal dose, as proven by previous clinical studies) with lamivudine, in comparison with other drugs of the group of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination with kaletra in perinatal HIV chemoprophylaxis regimens.

Methods: 658 pregnant women aged 16-39 years and children born to them were examined. The first group (281 people) and the third group (66 people) received the nicavir (manufactured by AZT PHARMA KB LLC) with lamivudine in combination with calyx; the second (281 people) and the fourth (30 people) of the comparison group, stag and zidovudine, respectively, with lamivudine in combination with calyx. Read More

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January 2018

[The clinical laboratory characteristic of primary acute cytomegalovirus infection in non-immunocompromised adult patients].

Klin Lab Diagn 2018 ;63(1):51-54

The state budget institution of health care "The clinical center of prevention and struggle with AIDS" of the Minzdrav of the Krasnodar kraii, 350015, Krasnodar, Russia.

The purpose of study is the clinical laboratory characteristic of acquired acute cytomegalovirus infection in nonimmunocompromised adult patients. The sampling included 75 patients with acquired acute cytomegalovirus infection admitted to the specialized clinical infection hospital of the Minzdrav of the Krasnodar kraii. The verifcation of diagnosis was implemented using serological tests and polymerase chain reaction. Read More

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January 2018

[The synchronous detection of serological markers of main herpes viral human infections].

Klin Lab Diagn 2018 ;63(1):35-40

The closed corporation "ECOlab", Elektrogorsk, Moscow oblast, Russia.

The new original national set of reagents "Line-Blot human herpesvirus-profle" was developed to detect antibodies (IgG - set 1 and IgM - set 2) to main agents of herpesvirus infections (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV) in the format of linear immunoblotting. The preliminary clinical trials were implemented using 319 samples of blood serum: HIV-infected patients (n=128), pregnant women (n=86) and persons undergoing treatment or diagnostic examination (n=105). In the case of every infection agent analyzes were implemented using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and linear immunoblotting with new set and its analogues of German manufacturer. Read More

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January 2018

[Hemodialysis treatment as a trigger cause of cryoglobulinemic purpura: a case report].

G Ital Nefrol 2018 Dec;35(6)

U.O.C. Nefrologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, ROMA.

We describe the clinical case of a patient who developed mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome after hemodialysis treatment with dialysate temperature lower than 36°C despite the negativization of the viral genome for HCV after eradication therapy. Read More

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December 2018

High prevalence of binge drinking among people living with HIV in four African countries.

J Int AIDS Soc 2018 Dec;21(12):e25202

Service de maladies infectieuses et tropicales, CRCF, CHU de Fann, Dakar, Sénégal.

Introduction: Excessive alcohol consumption leads to unfavourable outcomes in people living with HIV (PLHIV), including reduced adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and engagement into care. However, there is limited information on alcohol consumption patterns among PLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: Using a cross-sectional approach, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) was administered to PLHIV attending HIV clinics in Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, Senegal and Zambia (2013 to 2015). Read More

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December 2018
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Cationic Poly(Amino Acid) Vaccine Adjuvant for Promoting Both Cell-Mediated and Humoral Immunity Against Influenza Virus.

Adv Healthc Mater 2018 Dec 14:e1800953. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Yonsei-ro 50, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Powerful adjuvants to augment vaccine efficacy with a less immunogenic vaccine system are in great demand. In this study, a novel squalene-based cationic poly(amino acid) adjuvant (CASq) that elicits both cellular (Th1) and humoral (Th2) immune responses is developed. CASq is demonstrated to promote cellular uptake of viral antigen and stimulate macrophages, leading to active production of interleukin-12. Read More

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December 2018

MicroRNAs: Unfolding the link between inositol-requiring enzyme 1α and fatty liver.

Hepatology 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common cause of abnormal liver chemistry tests in the United States and western world. The mechanisms underlying hepatic steatosis and the progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remain incompletely understood. Multiple cellular stress pathways are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of fatty liver, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and its adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR). Read More

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December 2018
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Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin eradication of refractory hepatitis E in an immunosuppressed kidney transplant recipient.

Hepatology 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a self-limited asymptomatic illness in immunocompetent patients, but may cause chronic infection in immunosuppressed, solid organ transplant recipients. Chronic HEV can result in aggressive inflammation and fibrosis, leading to cirrhosis in up to 10%(1). Current therapy has been limited to reducing immunosuppression and/or ribavirin which leads to viral clearance in 64-74% of patients. Read More

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December 2018

Biallelic CCM3 mutations cause a clonogenic survival advantage and endothelial cell stiffening.

J Cell Mol Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Human Genetics, University Medicine Greifswald and Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

CCM3, originally described as PDCD10, regulates blood-brain barrier integrity and vascular maturation in vivo. CCM3 loss-of-function variants predispose to cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM). Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we here present a model which mimics complete CCM3 inactivation in cavernous endothelial cells (ECs) of heterozygous mutation carriers. Read More

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December 2018

Knockdown of heterochromatin protein 1 binding protein 3 recapitulates phenotypic, cellular, and molecular features of aging.

Aging Cell 2018 Dec 13:e12886. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine.

Identifying genetic factors that modify an individual's susceptibility to cognitive decline in aging is critical to understanding biological processes involved and mitigating risk associated with a number of age-related disorders. Recently, heterochromatin protein 1 binding protein 3 (Hp1bp3) was identified as a mediator of cognitive aging. Here, we provide a mechanistic explanation for these findings and show that targeted knockdown of Hp1bp3 in the hippocampus by 50%-75% is sufficient to induce cognitive deficits and transcriptional changes reminiscent of those observed in aging and Alzheimer's disease brains. Read More

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December 2018

Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomaviruses as favorable prognostic factors in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A nationwide study in Finland.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pathology, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is related to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in endemic areas; however, the role of viruses in nonendemic countries is unclear. Our nationwide study investigated the prevalence and prognostic significance of EBV and human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in Finnish NPC tumors.

Methods: We analyzed samples from 150 patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2009. Read More

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December 2018

Efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir-based therapy in hepatitis C virus recurrence post living donor liver transplant: A real life egyptian experience.

J Med Virol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Direct acting antiviral has offered treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence post liver transplantation (LT) with an all-oral regimen for short duration, excellent safety profile, and high sustained virological response (SVR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir (SOF)-based regimens in the real world among a cohort of Egyptian patients with recurrent HCV post living donor LT (LDLT).

Methods: Patients with HCV-G4 recurrence post-LDLT were recruited from National Committee of Control of Viral Hepatitis, Egypt, from November 2014 to May 2017. Read More

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December 2018

Whole Mouse Brain Reconstruction and Registration to a Reference Atlas with Standard Histochemical Processing of Coronal Sections.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 14:e24602. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Section on Neuroanatomy, NIMH, Bethesda, MD.

Advances in molecular neuroanatomical tools have expanded the ability to map in detail connections of specific neuron subtypes in the context of behaviorally driven patterns of neuronal activity. Analysis of such data across the whole mouse brain, registered to a reference atlas, aids in understanding the functional organization of brain circuits related to behavior. A process is described to image mouse brain sections labeled with standard histochemical techniques, reconstruct those images into a whole brain image volume and register those images to the Allen Mouse Brain Common Coordinate Framework. Read More

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December 2018

Development of an HIV-1 Integrase Genotyping Assay for HIV-1 Subtype AE.

J Med Virol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, CA, USA.

An HIV-1 integrase (IN) genotyping assay was developed to evaluate clinical samples from patients infected with HIV-1 subtype AE, a subtype highly prevalent in Asia. The HIV-1 integrase gene was amplified from plasma-derived HIV-1 viral RNA via RT-PCR followed by population sequencing. Assay sensitivity was also evaluated using serially diluted plasma samples. Read More

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December 2018

Hepatitis E virus blood donor NAT screening: as much as possible or as much as needed?

Transfusion 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institut für Laboratoriums- und Transfusionsmedizin, Herz- und Diabeteszentrum Nordrhein- Westfalen, Universitätsklinik der Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bad Oeynhausen, Germany.

Background: The cost-benefit question of general screening of blood products for the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is currently being discussed. One central question is the need for individual nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT) screening (ID-NAT) versus minipool NAT screening (MP-NAT) approaches to identify all relevant viremias in blood donors. Here, the findings of ID-NAT versus MP-NAT in pools of 96 samples were compared. Read More

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December 2018

Inhibition of Hepatitis C replication by targeting the molecular chaperone Hsp90 - synthesis and biological evaluation of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[1,2-d]thiazole derivatives.

ChemMedChem 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

University of Helsinki, Centre for Drug Research, Division of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Viikinkaari 4, 00014, Helsinki, FINLAND.

Cellular chaperones that belong to the heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) family are a prerequisite for successful viral propagation for most viruses. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) uses Hsp90 for maturation, folding and modification of viral proteins. Based on our previous discovery that marine alkaloid analogues with 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[1,2-d]thiazole-2-amine structure show inhibition of HCV replication and potential binding to Hsp90, a series of twelve novel compounds based on this scaffold was designed and synthesized. Read More

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December 2018

Etiology of acute viral respiratory infections common in Pakistan: A review.

Rev Med Virol 2018 Dec 12:e2024. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Respiratory infections, especially those of the lower respiratory tract, remain a foremost cause of mortality and morbidity of children greater than 5 years in developing countries including Pakistan. Ignoring these acute-level infections may lead to complications. Particularly in Pakistan, respiratory infections account for 20% to 30% of all deaths of children. Read More

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December 2018

Multiple imputation approach for interval-censored time to HIV RNA viral rebound within a mixed effects Cox model.

Biom J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Departarment d'Estadística i Investigació Operativa, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya/BARCELONATECH, Barcelona, Spain.

We present a method to fit a mixed effects Cox model with interval-censored data. Our proposal is based on a multiple imputation approach that uses the truncated Weibull distribution to replace the interval-censored data by imputed survival times and then uses established mixed effects Cox methods for right-censored data. Interval-censored data were encountered in a database corresponding to a recompilation of retrospective data from eight analytical treatment interruption (ATI) studies in 158 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) suppressed individuals. Read More

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December 2018

Editorial: comorbidities, concomitant medications, and potential drug-drug interactions with interferon-free direct-acting anti-viral agents in chronic hepatitis C.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2019 Jan;49(1):116-117

Department of Liver, Biliary Tract and Pancreas Diseases, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi, Japan.

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January 2019

Predictive value of oncogenic driver subtype, programmed death-1 ligand (PD-L1) score, and smoking status on the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in patients with oncogene-driven non-small cell lung cancer.

Cancer 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado.

Background: This multicenter, retrospective study explored the value of oncogene driver subtype, programmed death-1 ligand (PD-L1) status, and smoking status for predicting which patients with oncogene-driven non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) would benefit from treatment with programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 inhibitors.

Methods: The clinical features, PD-L1 tumor proportion scores, and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor (PDi) outcomes (objective response rate and progression-free survival) of patients who had advanced NSCLC with Kirsten rat sarcoma 2 viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations or common, actionable oncogenic drivers were captured.

Results: In total, 189 oncogene-positive patients were analyzed. Read More

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December 2018

Comprehensive analysis of nuclear export of herpes simplex virus type 1 tegument proteins and their Epstein-Barr virus orthologs.

Traffic 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Fraunhofer-Institut für Grenzflächen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik IGB, Stuttgart, Germany.

Morphogenesis of herpesviral virions is initiated in the nucleus but completed in the cytoplasm. Mature virions contain more than 25 tegument proteins many of which perform both nuclear and cytoplasmic functions suggesting they shuttle between these compartments. While nuclear import of herpesviral proteins was shown to be crucial for viral propagation, active nuclear export and its functional impact are still poorly understood. Read More

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December 2018

Incidence of hepatitis E virus infection among blood donors in a high endemic area of Central Italy.

J Viral Hepat 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy.

In Europe, autochthonous hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is mainly a food-borne zoonosis, but it is also transmitted by blood transfusion. Despite the numerous prevalence surveys, only a few studies have investigated HEV incidence. We aimed to determine HEV incidence and risk factors among blood donors in a hyperendemic area in Central Italy. Read More

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December 2018

Anti-tumor effects of antibodies to L-type amino-acid transporter 1 (LAT1) bound to human and monkey LAT1 with dual avidity modes.

Cancer Sci 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Cell Biology Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Kindai University, Osaka, Japan.

L-type amino-acid transporter 1 (LAT1) disulfide-linked to the CD98 heavy chain (hc) is highly expressed in most cancer cells, but weakly expressed in normal cells. In this study, we developed novel anti-LAT1 mAbs, and demonstrated the internalization activity, inhibitory effects of amino acid uptake and cell growth and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, as well as in vivo anti-tumor effects in athymic mice. Furthermore, we examined the reactivity of mAbs with LAT1 of Macaca fascicularis to evaluate possible side effects of anti-human LAT1 mAbs in clinical trials. Read More

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December 2018

Role of soluble inflammatory mediators and different immune cell populations in early control of symptomatic acute hepatitis C virus infection.

J Viral Hepat 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

The natural course of acute Hepatitis C Virus (aHCV) infection is highly heterogeneous and only few biomarkers have been identified to reliably predict the outcome of infection. We analyzed a large panel of serum soluble inflammatory mediators, immune cell frequencies and phenotypes using peripheral blood samples from 26 patients with symptomatic aHCV infection from a controlled randomized. We found that patients with a spontaneous early HCV control demonstrated a distinct expression pattern of various soluble immune mediators including IFNα and IL-16. Read More

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December 2018
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