7,392 results match your criteria Viral Meningitis


Chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with central nervous system complications caused by varicella-zoster virus.

J Neuroinflammation 2019 Feb 18;16(1):42. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a common viral agent causing central nervous system (CNS) infections including encephalitis, meningitis, and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Neurological complications occur frequently despite antiviral treatment. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cytokines are involved in the neuroinflammatory response during CNS infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1428-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Evaluation of Next-Generation Sequencing for the Diagnosis of Infections of the Central Nervous System Caused by the Neurotropic Herpes Viruses: A Pilot Study.

Eur Neurol 2019 Feb 14;80(5-6):283-288. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Medical School of Chinese PLA, Beijing, China.

Background: There are sparse and limited studies on small sample size reporting the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in the detection of central nervous system (CNS) viral infections. We assessed the diagnostic performance of NGS of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for predicting viral infections of the CNS caused by the neurotropic herpes viruses in a pilot population.

Materials And Methods: We prospectively collected CSF samples from 24 patients with CNS viral infection from April 2017 to October 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000497319DOI Listing
February 2019

[Acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome surveillance disease burden in four China prefectures].

Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Feb;53(2):164-168

Department of National Immunization Programme, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

To explore acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome (AMES) surveillance in 4 China prefectures, to understand the epidemiological features and disease burden of () meningitis, () meningitis, haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) meningitis and Japanese encephalitis and provide evidence for related disease prevention and control. AMES surveillance were conducted in Jinan, Shandong Province and Yichang, Hubei Province in September 2006, and in 13 districts of Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province and Guigang City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in April 2007. Six hospitals in each city were selected as monitoring pilot hospitals to carry out reports of suspected cases of acute meningitis and encephalitis, case investigation, blood specimens and cerebrospinal fluid specimen collection, anti-JEV IgM antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, , and Hib culture and polymerase chain reaction detection, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2019.02.008DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

A systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of Loop-mediated-isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) in the diagnosis of invasive meningococcal disease in children.

BMC Pediatr 2019 Feb 7;19(1):49. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Centre for Experimental Medicine, Queen's University Belfast, Wellcome Wolfson Institute of Experimental Medicine, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast, BT9 7AE, UK.

Background: The early recognition of meningococcal disease in children is vital. During the prodrome however, meningococcal infection presents similarly to many self-limiting viral infections. This mandates a cautious approach with many children receiving unnecessary broad-spectrum parenteral antibiotics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1403-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366060PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Viral (aseptic) meningitis: A review.

J Neurol Sci 2019 Jan 31;398:176-183. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pinnacle, United States.

Viral meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges associated with acute onset of meningeal symptoms and fever, pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid, and no growth on routine bacterial culture. It is sometimes associated with viral encephalitis and meningoencephalitis. Viruses reach the central nervous system (CNS) hematogenously or in a retrograde manner from nerve endings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2019.01.050DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Canadian and UK/Ireland practice patterns in lumbar puncture performance in febrile neonates with bronchiolitis.

Emerg Med J 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Serious bacterial infections in young infants with bronchiolitis are rare. Febrile infants <1 month old with bronchiolitis often receive a lumbar puncture (LP), despite limited data for this practice and lack of clinical practice guidelines for this population. The primary objective was to investigate practice patterns in performance of LPs in the ED management of febrile infants aged ≤30 days with bronchiolitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2018-208000DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Immunogenicity and safety of the new MMR vaccine containing measles AIK-C, rubella Takahashi, and mumps RIT4385 strains in Japanese children: a randomized phase I/II clinical trial.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

b Japan Vaccine Co., Ltd .

Domestic measles, mumps, and rubella combined (MMR) vaccines were discontinued in 1993 in Japan because of the unexpected high incidence of aseptic meningitis. The introduction of an effective MMR vaccine with lower reactogenicity has been expected. A new MMR vaccine (JVC-001) was developed, using mumps RIT4385 strain in combination with Japanese measles AIK-C strain and rubella Takahashi strain (MR) vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1578591DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Kynurenine is a cerebrospinal fluid biomarker for bacterial and viral CNS infections.

J Infect Dis 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Centre for Individualized Infection Medicine, Hannover, Germany.

Background: The tryptophan-kynurenine-NAD+ pathway is closely associated with regulation of immune cells toward less inflammatory phenotypes and may exert neuroprotective effects. Investigating its regulation in CNS infections would improve our understanding of pathophysiology and end-organ damage, and, furthermore, open doors to its evaluation as a source of diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers.

Methods: We measured concentrations of kynurenine (Kyn) and tryptophan (Trp) in 220 cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with bacterial and viral (herpes simplex, varicella zoster, enteroviruses) meningitis/encephalitis, neuroborreliosis, autoimmune neuroinflammation (anti-NMDA-R encephalitis, multiple sclerosis), and noninflamed controls (Bell's palsy, normal pressure hydrocephalus, Tourette syndrome). Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/inf
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz048DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Neurologic manifestations associated with cryoglobulinemia: A single center experience.

J Neurol Sci 2019 Jan 25;398:121-127. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Neurology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: Limited information is available describing the spectrum of neurological complications of cryoglobulinemia.

Methods: Single center retrospective review of patients with neurologic symptoms and elevated serum cryoglobulins, with their potential association being classified as definite, possible, or unlikely using defined criteria.

Results: Among 492 patients, 131 (87 classified as definite and 44 as possible) had neurologic symptoms associated with cryoglobulinemia. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022510X193005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2019.01.041DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Multiple factors including infections and antibiotics affecting new-onset epilepsy in hemodialysis patients.

Ther Apher Dial 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Nephrology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou310006, PR China.

Purpose: This study investigates some clinical characteristics of maintenance hemodialysis patients with new-onset epilepsy.

Methods: Thirty-five patients with new-onset epilepsy who underwent maintenance hemodialysis were selected for study. Sixty patients undergoing routine hemodialysis were selected as the control group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-9987.12793DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Mollaret Cells in Recurrent Benign Lymphocytic Meningitis.

Neurohospitalist 2019 Jan 24;9(1):49-50. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Department of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1941874417754029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327244PMC
January 2019

Period of Measurement in Time-Series Predictions of Disease Counts from 2007 to 2017 in Northern Nevada: Analytics Experiment.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2019 Jan 15;5(1):e11357. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Center for Research and Education in Advanced Transportation Engineering Systems, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ, United States.

Background: The literature in statistics presents methods by which autocorrelation can identify the best period of measurement to improve the performance of a time-series prediction. The period of measurement plays an important role in improving the performance of disease-count predictions. However, from the operational perspective in public health surveillance, there is a limitation to the length of the measurement period that can offer meaningful and valuable predictions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/11357DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Cerebrospinal fluid CXLC13 indicates disease course in neuroinfection: an observational study.

J Neuroinflammation 2019 Jan 19;16(1):13. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Department of Neurology, Christian-Doppler-Klinik, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.

Background: The chemokine CXCL13 is an intensively investigated biomarker in Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). Its role in other neuroinfections is increasingly recognized but less clear.

Objective: To determine the significance of CXCL13 in established central nervous system (CNS) infections other than LNB by matching cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CXCL13 elevations with severity of the disease course. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1405-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339696PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Identification of Cerebrospinal Fluid Metabolites as Biomarkers for Enterovirus Meningitis.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Jan 15;20(2). Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Clinical Neuroimmunology and Neurochemistry, Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany.

Enteroviruses are among the most common causes of viral meningitis. Enteroviral meningitis continues to represent diagnostic challenges, as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell numbers (a well validated diagnostic screening tool) may be normal in up to 15% of patients. We aimed to identify potential CSF biomarkers for enteroviral meningitis, particularly for cases with normal CSF cell count. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6359617PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Recurrent Chemical Meningitis Due to Parasellar Epidermoid Cyst.

Cureus 2018 Oct 25;10(10):e3496. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Neurology, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center, Los Angeles, USA.

Intracranial epidermoid cysts are exceedingly rare lesions that result from a disorder of gastrulation. They are seen only in the pediatric patient population. We describe a 44-year-old Hispanic woman who presented with acute confusion. Read More

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https://www.cureus.com/articles/15574-recurrent-chemical-men
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6318134PMC
October 2018
4 Reads

Expression of novel long noncoding RNAs defines virus-specific effector and memory CD8 T cells.

Nat Commun 2019 01 14;10(1):196. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30307, USA.

In response to viral infection, CD8 T cells undergo expansion and differentiate into distinct classes of effector cells. After clearance of the virus, a small population of long-lived memory cells persists. Comprehensive studies have defined the protein-coding transcriptional changes associated with this process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07956-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331603PMC
January 2019

High-throughput sequencing for the aetiologic identification of viral encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, and meningitis. A narrative review and clinical appraisal.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Laboratory of Virology, Division of Laboratory Medicine and Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland; University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Viral aetiologies are the most common cause of central nervous system (CNS) infections. Approximately one-half of CNS infections remain of undetermined origin. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) brought new perspectives to CNS infection investigations, allowing investigation of viral aetiologies with an unbiased approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2018.12.022DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Human parechovirus meningitis and gross-motor neurodevelopment in young children.

Eur J Pediatr 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Elisabeth-Tweesteden Hospital, Hilvarenbeekseweg 60, 5022 LC, Tilburg, the Netherlands.

This multicenter prospective cohort study describes the impact of human parechovirus meningitis on gross-motor neurodevelopment of young children. Gross-motor function was measured using Alberta Infant Motor Scale. Of a total of 38 eligible children < 10 months of age at onset, nine cases had clinical evidence of meningitis and polymerase chain reaction positive for human parechovirus in cerebrospinal fluid; 11 had no meningitis and polymerase chain reaction positive for human parechovirus in nasopharyngeal aspirate, blood, urine, or feces; and in 18, no pathogen was identified (reference group). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-019-03319-6DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Evaluation of integrated disease surveillance and response (IDSR) core and support functions after the revitalisation of IDSR in Uganda from 2012 to 2016.

BMC Public Health 2019 Jan 9;19(1):46. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Global Public Health Solutions Inc, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Uganda is a low income country that continues to experience disease outbreaks caused by emerging and re-emerging diseases such as cholera, meningococcal meningitis, typhoid and viral haemorrhagic fevers. The Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy was adopted by WHO-AFRO in 1998 as a comprehensive strategy to improve disease surveillance and response in WHO Member States in Africa and was adopted in Uganda in 2000. To address persistent inconsistencies and inadequacies in the core and support functions of IDSR, Uganda initiated an IDSR revitalisation programme in 2012. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6336-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327465PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Human bocavirus, coronavirus, and polyomavirus detected among patients hospitalised with severe acute respiratory illness in South Africa, 2012 to 2013.

Health Sci Rep 2018 Aug 18;1(8):e59. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service Centre for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis Johannesburg South Africa.

Aim: To investigate the prevalence of human bocavirus (hBoV), human coronaviruses (hCoV), and human polyomaviruses (hPyV) among patients with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI), in South Africa.

Methods: The study included 680 South African patients randomly selected in age-defined categories from hospitalised patients enrolled through SARI surveillance during 2012 to 2013. A multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect hBoV; hCoV-OC43, hCoV-229E, hCoV-NL63, and hCoV-HKU1; and Washington University hPyV (hPyV-WU) and Karolinska Insitute hPyV (hPyV-KI), in respiratory tract specimens collected from patients with SARI. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/hsr2.59
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hsr2.59DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266378PMC
August 2018
6 Reads

H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid to identify metabolic features and markers for tuberculosis meningitis.

Infect Genet Evol 2019 Mar 4;68:253-264. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Neurology, First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China. Electronic address:

Background: Tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of tuberculosis, and currently lacks efficient diagnostic approaches. Metabolomics has the potential to differentiate patients with TBM from those with other forms of meningitis and meningitis-negative individuals. However, no systemic metabolomics research has compared the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of these patients. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15671348183074
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2019.01.003DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Pediatric West Nile Virus-Associated Neuroinvasive Disease: A Review of the Literature.

Pediatr Neurol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Section of Child Neurology and Developmental Neuroscience, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas.

Over the past two decades, West Nile virus has become the most common arbovirus in North America, leading to several outbreaks and infecting thousands of people. Mosquitos help transmit the virus in the majority of cases, but transmission occurs via blood transfusions, organ transplantation, and possibly pregnancy and breastfeeding. While most infected patients experience mild to no symptoms, thousands of West Nile virus-associated neuroinvasive cases have been reported in the United States, with over 700 cases occurring in children from 2003 to 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2018.07.019DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Echovirus plays a major role in natural recombination in the coxsackievirus B group.

Arch Virol 2019 Jan 1. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Medical College, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu road, Zhenjiang, 212013, People's Republic of China.

Coxsakievirus (CV) B4, CVB5, and CVA9 belong to the species Enterovirus B. These viruses can cause viral encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, pancreatitis, flaccid paralysis, dilated myocarditis, and hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). In order to analyze the evolution of CVB4, CVB5, and CVA9, we analyzed all of the available genome sequences of Enterovirus B (EVB) isolates and found that there were 12 putative recombination events that produced CVB4, 13 putative recombination events that produced CVB5, and 10 putative recombination events that produced CVA9. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-018-4114-1DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Molecular characterization of an outbreak of enterovirus-associated meningitis in Mossel Bay, South Africa, December 2015-January 2016.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 29;18(1):709. Epub 2018 Dec 29.

Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa and the National Health Laboratory Service, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa.

Background: Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are common causal agents of aseptic meningitis in young children. Laboratory and syndromic surveillance during December 2015 and January 2016 noted an unusually high number of paediatric aseptic meningitis cases at a hospital in Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa. HEV was detected in clinical samples, prompting an outbreak investigation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3641-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6311073PMC
December 2018
1 Read

The fraction of rhinovirus detections attributable to mild and severe respiratory illness in a high HIV-prevalence setting, South Africa, 2013-2015.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 22. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Centre for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: The association of rhinoviruses (RV) detection to illness is poorly understood.

Methods: We enrolled case-patients hospitalized with severe respiratory illness (SRI) at two hospitals and outpatients with influenza-like-illness (ILI) and asymptomatic individuals (controls) from two affiliated clinics during 2013-2015. We compared the RV prevalence among ILI and SRI cases to those of controls stratified by HIV-serostatus using penalized logistic regression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy725DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Heat shock protein 70 as a supplementary receptor facilitates enterovirus 71 infections in vitro.

Microb Pathog 2019 Mar 21;128:106-111. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Center Laboratory, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

As one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a small, non-enveloped positive stranded RNA virus. Children suffering EV71 infection may cause severe symptoms including neurological complications, pulmonary edema and aseptic meningitis. EV71 is a neurotropic virus and it can cause the damage of nervous cells, cytokine storm and toxic substance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2018.12.032DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Haploidentical transplantation using low-dose alemtuzumab: Comparison with haploidentical transplantation using low-dose thymoglobulin.

Eur J Haematol 2019 Mar 9;102(3):256-264. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Division of Hematology, Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University, Saitama, Japan.

Objectives: To establish the optimal strategy for haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

Methods: We performed a prospective study on haploidentical HSCT using low-dose alemtuzumab. Alemtuzumab was added at 0. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ejh.13204
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13204DOI Listing
March 2019
7 Reads

New molecular tools for meningitis diagnostics in Ethiopia - a necessary step towards improving antimicrobial prescription.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 20;18(1):684. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Division for Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Meningitis remains a top cause of premature death and loss of disability-adjusted life years in low-income countries. In resource-limited settings, proper laboratory diagnostics are often scarce and knowledge about national and local epidemiology is limited. Misdiagnosis, incorrect treatment and overuse of antibiotics are potential consequences, especially for viral meningitis. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3589-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302510PMC
December 2018
6 Reads
2.613 Impact Factor

Prevalence of Enterovirus Meningitis in Children: Report from a Tertiary Center.

Maedica (Buchar) 2018 Sep;13(3):213-216

Bahrami Children Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Meningitis is the most frequent infection of the central nervous system and viruses aret he most common agents. Enteroviruses are among the most important causative agents. The goal of this study was to determine Coxsackievirus and echovirus infections in children referred to Bahrami Hospital with the diagnosis of meningitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26574/maedica.2018.13.3.213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290187PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Recent Progress on Functional Genomics Research of Enterovirus 71.

Virol Sin 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Antimicrobial Agents, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, China.

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens that causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). HFMD caused by EV71 infection is mostly self-limited; however, some infections can cause severe neurological diseases, such as aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, and even death. There are still no effective clinical drugs used for the prevention and treatment of HFMD. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12250-018-0071-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-018-0071-9DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

Household transmission of seasonal influenza from HIV-infected and -uninfected individuals in South Africa, 2013-2014.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Differential transmission from HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals may impact influenza burden. We estimated the household secondary infection risk (SIR) and serial interval (SI) for influenza transmission from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected index cases and identified associated factors.

Methods: Index cases were the first symptomatic person in a household with influenza-like illness, testing influenza positive on real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy702DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads
5.997 Impact Factor

Importance of cerebrospinal fluid investigation during dengue infection in Brazilian Amazonia Region.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2018 Dec 10;114:e180450. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

BACKGROUND Amazon, the largest tropical forest of the world, has suffered from dengue outbreaks since 1998. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients, from Amazonas state, suspected of central nervous system (CNS) viral infection was studied using molecular and immunological methods. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the importance of CSF investigation in patients with acute dengue virus (DENV) infection of CNS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0074-02760180450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319028PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

[Neonatal viral meningitis. The importance of the polymerase chain reaction in their diagnosis].

Rev Neurol 2018 Dec;67(12):484-490

Hospital General Universitario de Albacete, 02006 Albacete, Espana.

Introduction: The different types of viral meningitis constitute a condition that is relatively frequent in newborn infants, although in many cases they are underdiagnosed due to the absence of pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Aims: To describe the clinical features and laboratory findings of newborn infants with viral meningitis and to highlight the importance of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the CSF to diagnose this condition.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of newborn infants hospitalised in the neonatology section who had been diagnosed with viral meningitis between May 2014 and May 2017. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Acyclovir Neurotoxicity in a Peritoneal Dialysis Patient: Report of a Case and Review of the Pharmacokinetics of Acyclovir.

Am J Case Rep 2018 Dec 9;19:1459-1462. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Pharmacy Section, Jerry L Pettis Veterans Memorial Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

BACKGROUND The elderly population in the United States and the world is rapidly increasing. With aging, immunity and kidney function decrease, thus predisposing people to viral illnesses for which there is no effective prophylaxis. Herpes zoster afflicts the elderly and other immunocompromised patients, like those with end-stage renal disease, transplant recipients, and cancer patients, causing significant morbidity and sometimes mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.911520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6298245PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Fatty acids and selected endocannabinoids content in cerebrospinal fluids from patients with neuroinfections.

Metab Brain Dis 2019 02 5;34(1):331-339. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Neuroinfections are a significant medical problem and can have serious health consequences for patients. Their outcome, if not fatal, can be associated with permanent residual deficits. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination is commonly used for meningitis confirmation. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11011-018-0347-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-018-0347-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351517PMC
February 2019
12 Reads
2.638 Impact Factor

Causal relationship between immunological responses and adverse reactions following vaccination.

Authors:
Tetsuo Nakayama

Vaccine 2019 Jan 30;37(2):366-371. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Laboratory of Viral Infection, 5-9-1 Shirokane Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8641, Japan. Electronic address:

Vaccine adverse events and controversial safety issues have occurred in recent decades in Japan: aseptic meningitis following the measles-mumps-rubella combined vaccine (MMR), anaphylaxis after immunization with live virus vaccines and inactivated split influenza vaccine, an increased incidence of febrile illness following the simultaneous administration of inactivated vaccines, and chronic pain with neurological illness after immunization with the human papilloma virus vaccine (HPV). Vaccine adverse events are a matter of concern for the public as well as general practitioners; some are within the range of assumptions that adverse reactions after live attenuated vaccines are related to the nature of their parental wild-type viruses. Vaccines stimulate the innate immunity of host immunological defense mechanisms and induce the development of specific acquired immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.11.045DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Clinical Subpopulations in a Sample of North American Children Diagnosed With Acute Flaccid Myelitis, 2012-2016.

JAMA Pediatr 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Importance: Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is an emerging poliolike illness of children whose clinical spectrum and associated pathogens are only partially described. The case definition is intentionally encompassing for epidemiologic surveillance to capture all potential AFM cases. Defining a restrictive, homogenous subpopulation may aid our understanding of this emerging disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.4890DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Use of the Sysmex XT-4000i hematology analyzer in the differentiation of cerebrospinal fluid cells in children.

J Clin Lab Anal 2018 Nov 28:e22822. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Pediatric Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland.

Background: Routine analysis of pleocytosis and cellular composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is carried out with a phase-contrast microscope. The use of hematological analyzers seems to be an alternative to the manual method. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of the automated technique for counting and differentiating CSF cells in children. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jcla.22822
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.22822DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

An upstream protein-coding region in enteroviruses modulates virus infection in gut epithelial cells.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Feb 26;4(2):280-292. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Enteroviruses comprise a large group of mammalian pathogens that includes poliovirus. Pathology in humans ranges from sub-clinical to acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis and meningitis. Until now, all of the enteroviral proteins were thought to derive from the proteolytic processing of a polyprotein encoded in a single open reading frame. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0297-1DOI Listing
February 2019
16 Reads

High neopterin and IP-10 levels in cerebrospinal fluid are associated with neurotoxic tryptophan metabolites in acute central nervous system infections.

J Neuroinflammation 2018 Nov 23;15(1):327. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevaal Hospital, P. O. Box 4956 Nydalen, N-0450, Oslo, Norway.

Background: The host response to intruders in the central nervous system (CNS) may be beneficial but could also be harmful and responsible for neurologic symptoms and sequelae in CNS infections. This immune response induces the activation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) with the production of neuroactive metabolites. Herein, we explored cytokine and KP responses in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum in patients with encephalitis, aseptic, and bacterial meningitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-018-1366-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6260858PMC
November 2018
6 Reads

A neonatal mouse model of central nervous system infections caused by Coxsackievirus B5.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Nov 21;7(1):185. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Institute for Biological Products Control, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing, China.

As one of the key members of the coxsackievirus B group, coxsackievirus B5 (CV-B5) can cause many central nervous system diseases, such as viral encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis. Notably, epidemiological data indicate that outbreaks of CV-B5-associated central nervous system (CNS) diseases have been reported worldwide throughout history. In this study, which was conducted to promote CV-B5 vaccine and anti-virus drug research, a 3-day-old BALB/c mouse model was established using a CV-B5 clinical isolate (CV-B5/JS417) as the challenge strain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41426-018-0186-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6246558PMC
November 2018
15 Reads

Cost of managing meningitis and encephalitis among infants and children in the United States.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Oct 27. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

bioMérieux, Durham, NC; Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, Hempstead, NY.

A retrospective cohort study design was used to assess the use and costs of diagnostic tests, medication, and total hospitalization costs for pediatric patients with suspected meningitis/encephalitis who received a lumbar puncture (LP) procedure. Related costs were calculated by timing of LP performed and infectious etiology for infants (<1 year) and children (1-17 years). A total of 3030 infants and 3635 children with suspected ME diagnosed between 2011 and 2014 were included in the study. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07328893183054
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2018.10.012DOI Listing
October 2018
10 Reads

Recognition and management of febrile convulsions in children.

Br J Nurs 2018 Nov;27(20):1156-1162

Consultant Paediatrician, Torbay Hospital, Torquay.

Febrile convulsions (FCs) are characterised by convulsions associated with fever in children aged between 6 months and 6 years. FCs are relatively common and affect 3-4% of children in western countries. This is the most common seizure disorder seen in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2018.27.20.1156DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Limited Correlation of Shotgun Metagenomics Following Host Depletion and Routine Diagnostics for Viruses and Bacteria in Low Concentrated Surrogate and Clinical Samples.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 23;8:375. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Biology Division, Spiez Laboratory, Swiss Federal Office for Civil Protection, Spiez, Switzerland.

The etiologic cause of encephalitis, meningitis or meningo-encephalitis is unknown in up to 70% of cases. Clinical shotgun metagenomics combined with host depletion is a promising technique to identify infectious etiologies of central nervous system (CNS) infections. We developed a straightforward eukaryotic host nucleic acid depletion method that preserves intact viruses and bacteria for subsequent shotgun metagenomics screening of clinical samples, focusing on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fcimb.2018.00375
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2018.00375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206298PMC
October 2018
9 Reads

Immunoinformatics Approach for Epitope-Based Peptide Vaccine Design and Active Site Prediction against Polyprotein of Emerging Oropouche Virus.

J Immunol Res 2018 8;2018:6718083. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Kushtia 7003, Bangladesh.

Oropouche virus (OROV) is an emerging pathogen which causes Oropouche fever and meningitis in humans. Several outbreaks of OROV in South America, especially in Brazil, have changed its status as an emerging disease, but no vaccine or specific drug target is available yet. Our approach was to identify the epitope-based vaccine candidates as well as the ligand-binding pockets through the use of immunoinformatics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/6718083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6196980PMC
November 2018
3 Reads

Diagnosis of rotavirus infection in a vaccinated population: Is a less sensitive immunochromatographic method more suitable for detecting wild-type rotavirus than real-time RT-PCR?

J Clin Virol 2018 Dec 18;109:19-21. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

UCD National Virus Reference Laboratory, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Background: Diagnosis of wild-type rotavirus disease may be complicated by the detection of vaccine-derived virus which can be detected in stool samples following immunisation. We evaluate an immunochromatographic assay and real-time RT-PCR to determine which is more suitable for the detection of wild-type rotavirus.

Objectives: To compare the Ct values of wild-type rotavirus and Rotarix determined by real-time RT-PCR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2018.10.006DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

LRBA Deficiency in a Patient With a Novel Homozygous Mutation Due to Chromosome 4 Segmental Uniparental Isodisomy.

Front Immunol 2018 16;9:2397. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Jeffrey Modell Foundation Excellence Center, Barcelona, Spain.

LRBA deficiency was first described in 2012 as an autosomal recessive disorder caused by biallelic mutations in the gene (OMIM #614700). It was initially characterized as producing early-onset hypogammaglobulinemia, autoimmune manifestations, susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease, and recurrent infection. However, further reports expanded this phenotype (including patients without hypogammaglobulinemia) and described LRBA deficiency as a clinically variable syndrome with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02397
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6198091PMC
October 2018
11 Reads

Recurring and emerging questions related to management of HIV-related opportunistic infections.

Authors:
Henry Masur

Top Antivir Med 2018 Sep;26(3):79-84

George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.

The incidence of HIV-related opportunistic infections (OIs) has dramatically declined with the ability to achieve viral suppression and immune reconstitution with potent antiretroviral therapy. However, a large number of patients remain at risk for OIs because they are diagnosed at late stages of HIV disease, fail to stay in treatment, or fail to maintain viral suppression. Clinicians should remain vigilant for OIs and for changes in recommended management strategies. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291295PMC
September 2018
12 Reads

Ten years of antiretroviral therapy: Incidences, patterns and risk factors of opportunistic infections in an urban Ugandan cohort.

PLoS One 2018 1;13(11):e0206796. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Despite increased antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage and the raised CD4 threshold for starting ART, opportunistic infections (OIs) are still one of the leading causes of death in sub-Saharan Africa. There are few studies from resource-limited settings on long-term reporting of OIs other than tuberculosis.

Methods: Patients starting ART between April 2004 and April 2005 were enrolled and followed-up for 10 years in Kampala, Uganda. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206796PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6211746PMC
November 2018
8 Reads

Points & Pearls: Pediatric bacterial meningitis: an update on early identification and management

Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2018 11 1;15(Suppl 11):1-2. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Pediatric Emergency Medicine Ultrasound Fellow, Department of Emergency Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital, Palo Alto, CA

The presentation of bacterial meningitis can overlap with viral meningitis and other conditions, and emergency clinicians must remain vigilant to avoid delaying treatment for a child with bacterial meningitis. Inflammatory markers, such as procalcitonin, in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid may help distinguish between bacterial meningitis and viral meningitis. Appropriate early antibiotic treatment and management for bacterial meningitis is critical for optimal outcomes. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads