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    Interferon-free therapy with sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for successful treatment of genotype 2 hepatitis C virus with lichen planus: a case report.
    Clin J Gastroenterol 2017 Apr 26. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan.
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains the main cause of liver disease and can lead to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV may also develop extrahepatic manifestations in the skin, eyes, joints, kidneys, nervous system, and immune system. In fact, several studies reported that up to 70% of HCV patients experienced extrahepatic manifestations. Read More

    Evaluation of immune responses of stabilised SAT2 antigens of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle.
    Vaccine 2017 Apr 18. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Transboundary Animal Diseases Programme, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa. Electronic address:
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines with improved stability and less reliant on a cold-chain are needed to improve the longevity of immune responses elicited in animals. This is especially so for serotypes O and SAT2 which are unstable in mildly acidic pH conditions or at elevated temperatures leading to dissociation of the capsid (146S particle) and loss of immunogenicity. Previously, stabilised SAT2 viruses were generated by reverse genetic approaches and assessed in vitro and in vivo with a guinea pig trial. Read More

    Protective efficacy of formaldehyde-inactivated whole-virus vaccine and antivirals in a murine model of coxsackievirus A10 infection.
    J Virol 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Shandong Universities Key Laboratory of Etiology and Epidemiology of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Taishan Medical University, Taian, China
    Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) is one of the major pathogens associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). CVA10 infection can cause herpangina and viral pneumonia, which can be complicated by severe neurological sequelae. Morbidity and mortality of CVA10-associated HFMD has been increasing in recent years, particularly in the pan-Pacific region. Read More

    Characterization of three small molecule inhibitors of enterovirus 71 identified from screening of a library of natural products.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Apr 13;143:85-96. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Pathogen Diagnostic Center, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology & Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection with EV-A71 is more often associated with neurological complications in children and is responsible for the majority of fatalities, but currently there is no approved antiviral therapy for treatment. Here, we identified auraptene, formononetin, and yangonin as effective inhibitors of EV-A71 infection in the low-micromolar range from screening of a natural product library. Read More

    A novel combined vaccine based on monochimeric VLP co-displaying multiple conserved epitopes against enterovirus 71 and varicella-zoster virus.
    Vaccine 2017 May 10;35(20):2728-2735. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.
    Chicken pox and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) are two major infectious diseases that mainly affect infants and children, causing significant morbidity annually. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and enterovirus 71 (EV71), respectively, are the principal epidemic pathogens causing these two diseases. To investigate the possibility of developing a novel combined vaccine to prevent chicken pox and HFMD, we constructed three chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) (termed HBc-V/1/2, HBc-2/V/1 and HBc-1/2/V) based on the hepatitis B core antigen (HBc) carrier that display epitopes derived from VZV-gE, EV71-VP1, and EV71-VP2 in a varied tandem manner. Read More

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection inhibits LGP2 protein expression to exaggerate inflammatory response and promote viral replication.
    Cell Death Dis 2017 Apr 13;8(4):e2747. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot and Mouth Diseases Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.
    The role of the innate immune protein LGP2 (laboratory of genetics and physiology 2) in FMDV-infected cells remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate the antiviral role of LGP2 during FMDV infection. FMDV infection triggered LGP2 mRNA expression but reduced protein expression. Read More

    Clinical application analysis of andrographolide total ester sulfonate injection, a traditional Chinese medicine licensed in China.
    J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 2017 Apr 11;37(2):293-299. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Department of Pharmacy, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China.
    Andrographolide total ester sulfonate (ATES) injection is one of the products of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) currently used against viral infection in China. ATES injection was approved for manufacturing and marketing in January 2002. It is indicated for acute respiratory infections, tonsillitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, influenza, foot and mouth disease, bronchiolitis, herpangina, mumps, infectious mononucleosis and psychosis. Read More

    Efficacy of a high potency O1 Manisa foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in cattle against heterologous challenge with a field virus from the O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 lineage collected in North Africa.
    Vaccine 2017 May 7;35(20):2761-2765. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Surrey GU24 0NF, United Kingdom.
    Outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in North Africa (2013) and the Gulf States (2013) of the Middle East have been caused by a FMD viral lineage (O/ME-SA/Ind-2001) that was before 2013 restricted to the Indian Sub-continent. This study was undertaken to assess the in vivo efficacy of a FMD virus emergency vaccine type O1 Manisa against heterologous challenge with a representative field virus (O/ALG/3/2014) from this emerging lineage. This widely available vaccine was selected since in vitro vaccine-matching results gave inconclusive results as to whether or not it would be protective. Read More

    A novel RNA-based in situ hybridization to detect Seneca Valley virus in neonatal piglets and sows affected with vesicular disease.
    PLoS One 2017 10;12(4):e0173190. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States of America.
    Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is the causative agent of an emerging vesicular disease in swine, which is clinically indistinguishable from other vesicular diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease. In addition, SVV has been associated with neonatal mortality in piglets. While a commercial SVV qRT-PCR is available, commercial antibodies are lacking to diagnose SVV infections by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Read More

    Lithium Chloride inhibits early stages of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication in vitro.
    J Med Virol 2017 Apr 8. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, OIE/National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China.
    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes an economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, swine, and sheep. FMD vaccine is the traditional way to protect against the disease, which can greatly reduce its occurrence. However, the use of FMD vaccines to protect early infection is limited. Read More

    Transient oral human cytomegalovirus infections indicate inefficient viral spread from very few initially infected cells.
    J Virol 2017 Apr 5. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, USA
    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is acquired by the oral route in children, and primary infection is associated with abundant mucosal replication as well as the establishment of latency in myeloid cells that results in lifelong infection. The efficiency of primary CMV infection in humans following oral exposure, however, is unknown. We consistently detected self-limited, low-level oral CMV shedding events, which we termed transient CMV infections, in a prospective birth cohort of 30 highly exposed CMV-uninfected infants. Read More

    Chimeric virus-like particles elicit protective immunity against serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus in guinea pigs.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Apr 1. Epub 2017 Apr 1.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, OIE/National Foot and Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046, China.
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute and highly contagious disease caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) that can affect cloven-hoofed animal species, leading to severe economic losses worldwide. Therefore, the development of a safe and effective new vaccine to prevent and control FMD is both urgent and necessary. In this study, we developed a chimeric virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidate for serotype O FMDV and evaluated its protective immunity in guinea pigs. Read More

    Preferences for oral fluid rapid HIV self-testing among social media-using young black, Hispanic, and white men-who-have-sex-with-men (YMSM): implications for future interventions.
    Public Health 2017 Apr 16;145:7-19. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    Fenway Community Health, USA.
    Objectives: We assessed preferences of social media-using young black, Hispanic and white men-who-have-sex-with-men (YMSM) for oral fluid rapid HIV self-testing, as compared to other currently available HIV testing options. We also identified aspects of the oral fluid rapid HIV self-test that might influence preferences for using this test instead of other HIV testing options and determined if consideration of HIV testing costs and the potential future availability of fingerstick rapid HIV self-testing change HIV testing preferences.

    Study Design: Anonymous online survey. Read More

    Paediatric Virology: A rapidly increasing educational challenge.
    Exp Ther Med 2017 Feb 23;13(2):364-377. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Department of Clinical Virology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003, Greece.
    The '2nd Workshop on Paediatric Virology', which took place on Saturday the 8th of October 2016 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview on recent views and advances on Paediatric Virology. Emphasis was given to HIV-1 management in Greece, a country under continuous financial crisis, hepatitis B vaccination in Africa, treatment options for hepatitis C virus in childhood, Zika virus in pregnancy and infancy, the burden of influenza on childhood, hand-foot-mouth disease and myocarditis associated with Coxsackie viruses. Other general topics covered included a critical evaluation of Paediatric Accident and Emergency viral infections, multimodality imaging of viral infections in children, surgical approaches of otolaryngologists to complex viral infections, new advances in the diagnosis and treatment of viral conjunctivitis and novel molecular diagnostic methods for HPV in childhood. Read More

    Outbreak of foot and mouth disease and peste des petits ruminants in sheep flock imported for immediate slaughter in Riyadh.
    Vet World 2017 Feb 22;10(2):238-243. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Department of Animal Medicine, Assiut University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, New Valley Branch, New Valley Governorate, Egypt.
    Aim: To detect and identify the causative agent or agents of the following clinical symptoms which were fever, lack of appetite, salivation, vesiculation, erosions of the buccal mucosa, nose, and feet. The signs vary from mild to severe. The mortality rate of the disease is high. Read More

    Oral microbiome in HIV-associated periodontitis.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Mar;96(12):e5821
    aIrsiCaixa AIDS Research Institute, Badalona bUniversity Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra cUniversity de Vic-University Central de Catalunya, Vic, Catalonia, Spain dDivision of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine eInfectious Diseases Program, Grady Health System fDepartment of Biology, Emory University, O. Wayne Rollins Research Center gDepartment of Global Health, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA hMinistry of Health, Zambia iUnitat VIH, Hosp. University Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Catalonia, Spain.
    HIV-associated periodontal diseases (PD) could serve as a source of chronic inflammation. Here, we sought to characterize the oral microbial signatures of HIV+ and HIV- individuals at different levels of PD severity.This cross-sectional study included both HIV+ and HIV- patients with varying degrees of PD. Read More

    SAT2 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Structurally Modified for Increased Thermostability.
    J Virol 2017 May 28;91(10). Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Transboundary Animal Disease Programme, ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Onderstepoort, South Africa
    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), particularly strains of the O and SAT serotypes, is notoriously unstable. Consequently, vaccines derived from heat-labile SAT viruses have been linked to the induction of immunity with a poor duration and hence require more frequent vaccinations to ensure protection. In silico calculations predicted residue substitutions that would increase interactions at the interpentamer interface, supporting increased stability. Read More

    A descriptive study on demographic and behavioral characteristics of males and their responses to a male involvement intervention in Blantyre, Malawi.
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 7;25:229. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    School of Public Health and Family Medicine, College of Medicine University of Malawi, Malawi.
    Introduction: Male involvement (MI) remains a key factor in the enrollment and retention of pregnant women in the Prevention of Mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) services. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of men who accompanied their partners for PMTCT services and secondly, describe the reported reasons for the non-reporting by men for the services in Blantyre, Malawi.

    Methods: All men included in this analysis were partners of pregnant women enrolled in a MI in PMTCT randomized controlled trial (RCT), which took place in Blantyre, Malawi from 14 June 2013 to 24 February 2014. Read More

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and abuse of anabolic steroids.
    J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Feb 20;43(1):57-60. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Dentistry, General Hospital of Siena, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is characterized by mucocutaneous tenderness and typical hemorrhagic erosions, erythema and epidermal detachment presenting as blisters and areas of denuded skin. SJS is often observed after drug use as well as after bacterial or viral infections. Several drugs are at high risk of inducing SJS, but there are no cases in the English literature regarding anabolic steroid use triggering SJS. Read More

    Amylmetacresol/2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol, hexylresorcinol, or carrageenan lozenges as active treatments for sore throat.
    Int J Gen Med 2017 28;10:53-60. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Marinomed Biotechnologie GmbH, Vienna, Austria.
    Up to 80% of sore throats are caused by viruses. Several over the counter products are available which provide symptomatic, not causal relief. For such lozenges, containing the antiseptics and local anesthetics amylmetacresol (AMC) and 2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol (DCBA) or hexylresorcinol (HR), recently an additional virucidal effect was published. Read More

    Enhancing enterovirus A71 vaccine production yield by microcarrier profusion bioreactor culture.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 6. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Immunology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) are mainly caused by Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infections. Clinical trials in Asia conducted with formalin-inactivated EV-A71 vaccine candidates produced from serum-free Vero cell culture using either roller bottle or cell factory technology, are found to be safe and highly efficacious. To increase vaccine yields and reduce the production costs, the bioprocess improvement for EV-A71 vaccine manufacturing is currently being investigated. Read More

    Identification of a conserved conformational epitope in the VP2 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.
    Arch Virol 2017 Mar 3. Epub 2017 Mar 3.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Division of Livestock Infectious Diseases, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, NO. 678 Haping Road Xiangfang District, Harbin, 150069, People's Republic of China.
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. VP2 is a structural protein of FMDV. In this study, a potent FMDV serotype-independent monoclonal antibody (MAb) 3D9 was generated. Read More

    Complete Genome Sequence of Variant Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain CH/HNZZ47/2016 Isolated from Suckling Piglets in China.
    Genome Announc 2017 Mar 2;5(9). Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, OIE/National Foot and Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China
    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) could cause an acute and highly contagious enteric disease in swine. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of PEDV strain CH/HNZZ47/2016 isolated from suckling piglets with mild diarrhea in Henan Province, China. It will help understand the molecular and evolutionary characteristics of PEDV in China. Read More

    Oral cancer risk factors in New Zealand.
    N Z Med J 2017 Mar 3;130(1451):30-38. Epub 2017 Mar 3.
    Sir John Walsh Research Institute, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin.
    Oral cancer constitutes the majority of head and neck cancers, which are the fifth most common malignancy worldwide, accounting for an estimated 984,430 cases in 2012. Between 2000 and 2010, there were 1,916 cases of OSCC in New Zealand with a male to female ratio of 1.85:1, and an age-standardised incidence rate of 42 persons per 1,000,000 population. Read More

    A Neonatal Murine Model of Coxsackievirus A6 Infection for Evaluation of Antiviral and Vaccine Efficacy.
    J Virol 2017 May 13;91(9). Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Institute of Pathogen Biology, Taishan Medical College, Taian, Shandong, China
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a global health concern. Family Picornaviridae members, particularly enterovirus A71 (EVA71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), are the primary etiological agents of HFMD; however, a third enterovirus A species, CVA6, has been recently associated with epidemic outbreaks. Study of the pathogenesis of CVA6 infection and development of antivirals and vaccines are hindered by a lack of appropriate animal models. Read More

    Molecular markers for resistance against infectious diseases of economic importance.
    Vet World 2017 Jan 25;10(1):112-120. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar - 385 506, Gujarat, India.
    Huge livestock population of India is under threat by a large number of endemic infectious (bacterial, viral, and parasitic) diseases. These diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in exotic and crossbred cattle. Beside morbidity and mortality, economic losses by these diseases occur through reduced fertility, production losses, etc. Read More

    Recombinant heat shock protein 78 enhances enterovirus 71 propagation in Vero cells and is induced in SK-N-SH cells during the infection.
    Arch Virol 2017 Feb 24. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Antibody Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which mainly occurs in children. Children with EV71 infection can develop severe neurological diseases. Heat shock protein 78 (HSP78) facilitates proper protein folding during viral propagation and is induced during virus infection. Read More

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT1 in cattle, Nigeria.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2017 Jun 21;64(3):683-690. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Vesicular and Exotic Diseases Unit, Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (CODA-CERVA), Brussels, Belgium.
    The knowledge of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) dynamics and epidemiology in Nigeria and the West Africa subregion is important to support local and regional control plans and international risk assessment. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype South African territories (SAT)1 was isolated, identified and characterized from an FMD outbreak in cattle in Nigeria in 2015, 35 years after the last report of FMDV SAT1 in West Africa. The VP1 coding sequence of the Nigerian 2015 SAT1 isolates diverges from reported SAT1 topotypes resulting in a separate topotype. Read More

    Human enterovirus 71 protein interaction network prompts antiviral drug repositioning.
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 21;7:43143. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Department of Biotechnology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850, China.
    As a predominant cause of human hand, foot, and mouth disease, enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection may lead to serious diseases and result in severe consequences that threaten public health and cause widespread panic. Although the systematic identification of physical interactions between viral proteins and host proteins provides initial information for the recognition of the cellular mechanism involved in viral infection and the development of new therapies, EV71-host protein interactions have not been explored. Here, we identified interactions between EV71 proteins and host cellular proteins and confirmed the functional relationships of EV71-interacting proteins (EIPs) with virus proliferation and infection by integrating a human protein interaction network and by functional annotation. Read More

    A Novel Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Virulence Determinant: The 69th Residue of 3C Protease Modulates Pathogenicity.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 3;7:26. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Key Laboratory of Rare and Uncommon Diseases, Department of Microbiology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences Jinan, China.
    Human enterovirus type 71 (EV71), the major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, has been known to cause fatal neurological complications. Unfortunately, the reason for neurological complications that have been seen in fatal cases of the disease and the relationship between EV71 virulence and viral genetic sequences remains largely undefined. The 3C protease (3C(pro)) of EV71 plays an irreplaceable role in segmenting the precursor polyprotein during viral replication, and intervening with host life activity during viral infection. Read More

    Sero-prevalence, risk factors and distribution of foot and mouth disease in Ethiopia.
    Acta Trop 2017 May 14;169:125-132. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, P. O. Box. 307 Jimma, Ethiopia. Electronic address:
    Foot and mouth disease (FMD), world's most important highly infectious and contagious trans-boundary animal diseases, is responsible for huge global losses of livestock production as well as severe impacts on international trade. This vesicular disease is caused by foot and mouth disease virus of the genus Aphthovirus, family Picornaviridae. Currently FMD is major global animal health problem and endemic in Africa including Ethiopia. Read More

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the identification of antibodies to Senecavirus A in swine.
    BMC Vet Res 2017 Feb 15;13(1):50. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, 1971 Commonwealth Ave, St. Paul, MN, 55108, USA.
    Background: Senecavirus A (SVA), a member of the family Picornaviridae, genus Senecavirus, is a recently identified single-stranded RNA virus closely related to members of the Cardiovirus genus. SVA was originally identified as a cell culture contaminant and was not associated with disease until 2007 when it was first observed in pigs with Idiopathic Vesicular Disease (IVD). Vesicular disease is sporadically observed in swine, is not debilitating, but is significant due to its resemblance to foreign animal diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), whose presence would be economically devastating to the United States. Read More

    High prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral mucosal lesions of patients at the Ambulatory of Oral Diagnosis of the Federal University of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil.
    J Appl Oral Sci 2017 Jan-Feb;25(1):69-74
    Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Laboratório de Entomologia e Parasitologia Tropical, Departamento de Morfologia, São Cristóvão, SE, Brasil.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of HPV infection and its genotypes in patients with oral lesions at the Ambulatory of Oral Diagnosis of the Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil.

    Material And Methods: We conducted a molecular study with 21 patients (15 females) aged from two to 83 years with clinically detectable oral lesions. Samples were collected through exfoliation of lesions and HPV-DNA was identified using MY09/11 and GP5+/6+ primers. Read More

    Role of Candida species from HIV infected children in enamel caries lesions: an in vitro study.
    J Appl Oral Sci 2017 Jan-Feb;25(1):53-60
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Faculdade de Odontologia, Departamento de Odontopediatria e Ortodontia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
    Objectives: This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+) children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+) released from the enamel.

    Material And Methods: Candida spp. Read More

    Common Skin Conditions in Children: Skin Infections.
    FP Essent 2017 Feb;453:26-32
    University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Medicine Dermatology Residency Program, 410 Market St. Suite 400 CB#7715, Chapel Hill, NC 27516.
    Skin infections account for a significant subset of dermatologic conditions of childhood. Common cutaneous viral infections in children include warts, molluscum contagiosum, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and herpes simplex. Although viral infections are self-limited and often only mildly symptomatic, they can cause anxiety, embarrassment, and health care use. Read More

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the microbiological diagnostic routine laboratory: a review.
    Crit Rev Microbiol 2017 May 27;43(3):263-293. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    e Institute for Medical Microbiology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen , Giessen , Germany.
    Early identification of microbial pathogens is essential for rational and conservative antibiotic use especially in the case of known regional resistance patterns. Here, we describe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as one of the rapid methods for easy identification of microbial pathogens, and its advantages and disadvantages for the diagnosis of pathogens in human infections in the laboratory diagnostic routine. Binding of short fluorescence-labeled DNA or nucleic acid-mimicking PNA probes to ribosomes of infectious agents with consecutive analysis by fluorescence microscopy allows identification of bacterial and eukaryotic pathogens at genus or species level. Read More

    Correlation of symptomatic enterovirus infection and later risk of allergic diseases via a population-based cohort study.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jan;96(4):e5827
    aDepartment of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan bDepartment of Pediatrics and Kawasaki Disease Center, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan cDepartment of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Infants who are exposed to the rhinovirus or respiratory syncytial virus are at a higher risk of subsequently developing wheezing or asthma. This study aims to determine whether preschoolers with a history of symptomatic enterovirus infection are at an increased risk of developing allergic diseases or not.We used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1999 to 2006 for this nationwide population-based cohort study. Read More

    Development of multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection and differentiation of six DNA and RNA viruses from clinical samples of sheep and goats.
    J Virol Methods 2017 May 19;243:44-49. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:
    Multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR protocols were developed and subsequently evaluated for its effectiveness in detecting simultaneously single and mixed infections in sheep and goats. Specific primers for three DNA viruses and three RNA viruses, including foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), Bluetongue virus (BTV), peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), sheeppox virus (SPPV), goatpox virus (GTPV) and orf virus (ORFV) were used for testing procedure. A single nucleic acid extraction protocol was adopted for the simultaneous extraction of both RNA and DNA viruses. Read More

    Genome variability of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the short period of the 2010 epidemic in Japan.
    Vet Microbiol 2017 Feb 21;199:62-67. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    Exotic Disease Research Unit, Division of Transboundary Animal Diseases, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 6-20-1, Josui-honcho, Kodaira, Tokyo, 187-0022, Japan. Electronic address:
    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is highly contagious and has a high mutation rate, leading to extensive genetic variation. To investigate how FMDV genetically evolves over a short period of an epidemic after initial introduction into an FMD-free area, whole L-fragment sequences of 104 FMDVs isolated from the 2010 epidemic in Japan, which continued for less than three months were determined and phylogenetically and comparatively analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of whole L-fragment sequences showed that these isolates were classified into a single group, indicating that FMDV was introduced into Japan in the epidemic via a single introduction. Read More

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection suppresses autophagy and NF-кB antiviral responses via degradation of ATG5-ATG12 by 3C(pro).
    Cell Death Dis 2017 Jan 19;8(1):e2561. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology and National Foot and Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, P. R. China.
    Autophagy-related protein ATG5-ATG12 is an essential complex for the autophagophore elongation in autophagy, which has been reported to be involved in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication. Previous reports show that ATG5-ATG12 positively or negatively regulates type I interferon (IFN-α/β) pathway during virus infection. In this study, we found that FMDV infection rapidly induced LC3 lipidation and GFP-LC3 subcellular redistribution at the early infection stage in PK-15 cells. Read More

    Detection and Molecular Characterization of Foot and Mouth Disease Viruses from Outbreaks in Some States of Northern Nigeria 2013-2015.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2017 Jan 17. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Vesicular and Exotic Diseases Unit, Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (CODA-CERVA), Brussels, Belgium.
    Control measures for foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Nigeria have not been implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and risk-based analysis resulting from insufficient data on the circulating FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes/strains. In 2013-2015, blood and epithelial samples were collected from reported FMD outbreaks in four states (Kaduna, Kwara, Plateau and Bauchi) in northern Nigeria. FMDV non-structural protein (NSP) seroprevalence for the outbreaks was estimated at 80% (72 of 90) and 70% (131 of 188) post-outbreak. Read More

    The Preferential Infection of Astrocytes by Enterovirus 71 Plays a Key Role in the Viral Neurogenic Pathogenesis.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2016 21;6:192. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College Kunming, China.
    The pathological manifestations of fatal cases of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) are characterized by inflammatory damage to the central nervous system (CNS). Here, the dynamic distribution of EV71 in the CNS and the subsequent pathological characteristics within different regions of neonatal rhesus macaque brain tissue were studied using a chimeric EV71 expressing green fluorescence protein. The results were compared with brain tissue obtained from the autopsies of deceased EV71-infected HFMD patients. Read More

    Inhibition of enterovirus 71 replication by an α-hydroxy-nitrile derivative NK-1.9k.
    Antiviral Res 2017 May 5;141:91-100. Epub 2017 Jan 5.
    College of Pharmacy & State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology & Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Drug Research, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major etiological agents of human hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide. EV71 infection in young children and people with immunodeficiency causes severe symptoms with a high fatality rates. However, there is still no approved drugs to treat such infections. Read More

    CE: Human Papillomavirus-Related Oral Cancers: The Nurse's Role in Mitigating Stigma and Dispelling Myths.
    Am J Nurs 2017 Jan;117(1):34-39
    Anne Katz is a clinical nurse specialist at CancerCare Manitoba in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Contact author: The author and planners have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.
    : The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oral cancers has been rising, the cancers occurring in adults at a younger age than HPV-negative oral cancers typically do and in men more often than women. Patients who are diagnosed often don't understand the disease's etiology. Because HPV is sexually transmitted, diagnosis with an HPV-related oral cancer may prompt feelings of shame, embarrassment, and guilt. Read More

    Clinicopathologic analysis of atypical hand, foot, and mouth disease in adult patients.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Apr 24;76(4):722-729. Epub 2016 Dec 24.
    Clinique Dermatologique, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Strasbourg et Hôpitaux, Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Background: Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious viral infection usually affecting children. A resurgence of cases in adults, mainly caused by coxsackievirus A6 and with an atypical and more severe presentation, has taken place.

    Objective: The goal was to examine the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of this disease in adults. Read More

    An Outbreak of Kingella Kingae Infections Complicating a Severe Hand, Foot, And Mouth Disease Outbreak in Nice, France, 2016.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 May;36(5):530-532
    From the *URMITE " Unité de Recherche en Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes", UM63, Inserm 1095, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée-Infection, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France; †Childcare Centers, Nice, France; ‡Laboratoire de Virologie, Centre National de Référence des Enterovirus et Parechovirus-laboratoire associé, CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France; §Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, La Timone Children's Hospital, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France; ¶Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, North Hospital, Marseille, France; ‖Department of Pediatrics, Foundation Lenval Children's Hospital, Nice, France; **Laboratory of Foundation Lenval Children's Hospital, Nice, France; and ††IRD French Institute of Research and Development, EHESP French School of Public Health, EPV UMR_D 190 "Emergence des Pathologies Virales," Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée-Infection, Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France.
    We report the investigation methods for the diagnosis of an epidemic and culture-negative Kingella kingae endocarditis complicating a severe outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease in a childcare center. The diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction testing performed from cardiac tissue. Our findings argue for the systematic investigation of K. Read More

    Molecular and Serological Survey of Selected Viruses in Free-Ranging Wild Ruminants in Iran.
    PLoS One 2016 20;11(12):e0168756. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Iran Department of Environment, Tehran, Iran.
    A molecular and serological survey of selected viruses in free-ranging wild ruminants was conducted in 13 different districts in Iran. Samples were collected from 64 small wild ruminants belonging to four different species including 25 Mouflon (Ovis orientalis), 22 wild goat (Capra aegagrus), nine Indian gazelle (Gazella bennettii) and eight Goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) during the national survey for wildlife diseases in Iran. Serum samples were evaluated using serologic antibody tests for Peste de petits ruminants virus (PPRV), Pestiviruses [Border Disease virus (BVD) and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV)], Bluetongue virus (BTV), Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), and Parainfluenza type 3 (PI3). Read More

    Development of a novel real-time RT-PCR assay to detect Seneca Valley virus associated with emerging cases of vesicular disease in pigs.
    J Virol Methods 2016 Oct 29. Epub 2016 Oct 29.
    Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Kansas State University, 1800 Denison Avenue, Manhattan, KS 66506, United States; Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State University, 1800 Denison Avenue, Manhattan, KS 66506, United States. Electronic address:
    Seneca Valley virus (SVV) can cause vesicular disease that is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease. SVV-associated disease has been identified in pigs in several countries, namely USA, Canada, Brazil and China. Diagnostic tests are required to reliably detect this emerging virus, and this report describes the development and evaluation of a novel real-time reverse-transcription (RT) PCR assay (rRT-PCR), targeting the viral polymerase gene (3D) of SVV. Read More

    In Vivo Imaging with Bioluminescent Enterovirus 71 Allows for Real-Time Visualization of Tissue Tropism and Viral Spread.
    J Virol 2017 Mar 14;91(5). Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a reemerging illness caused by a variety of enteroviruses. The main causative agents are enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), and, most recently, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6). Enterovirus infections can vary from asymptomatic infections to those with a mild fever and blisters on infected individuals' hands, feet, and throats to infections with severe neurological complications. Read More

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