16,677 results match your criteria Viral Infections of the Mouth


[Epidemiological characteristics of infectious diseases of group A, B and C among Chinese students' population].

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Jun;53(3):498-505

Institute of Child and Adolescent Health, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.

Objective: To analyze the secular trend, ranking change, age- and regional- characteristics of leading infectious diseases among Chinese students population aged 6 to 22 years from 2008 to 2017.

Methods: Data were drawn from the national surveillance from 2008 to 2017, and the participants were students aged from 6 to 22 years who were diagnosed with notifiable infectious diseases. A total of 40 infectious diseases were classified into three groups based on national notifiable infectious diseases classification of A, B and C. Read More

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[Epidemiological and etiological characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease among children aged 5 years and younger in Ningbo (2016 to 2019)].

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Jun;53(3):491-497

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing 100191, China.

Objective: To describe the epidemiological and etiological characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children aged 5 years and younger in Ningbo after the access of entero-virus-A71 vaccine (2016 to 2019).

Methods: A retrospective cohort study were performed in children aged 5 years and younger in Ningbo from 2016 to 2019. Data for incidence of HFMD was collected from the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance Reporting System and the Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) System, while the demographic information was derived from the Immunization Information System. Read More

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Antiviral strategies targeting herpesviruses.

J Virus Erad 2021 Sep 30;7(3):100047. Epub 2021 May 30.

Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

Herpesviruses, known as large DNA viruses, have a wide host range. In addition to human beings, cattle, and horses, even carp can be hosts for herpesvirus infection. Herpesviruses are pathogens possessing elaborate mechanisms that regulate host cell components for its replication, assembly and generating mature virus particles that can infect humans and most animals, usually causing multiple and lifelong infections. Read More

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September 2021

Selection and use of reference panels: a case study highlighting current gaps in the materials available for foot and mouth disease.

Rev Sci Tech 2021 Jun;40(1):239-251

The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals describes a diverse array of assays that can be used to detect, characterise and monitor the presence of infectious agents of farmed livestock. These methods have been developed in different laboratories, at different times, and often include tests or kits provided by the commercial sector. Reference panels are essential tools that can be used during assay development and in validation exercises to compare the performance of these varied (and sometimes competing) diagnostic technologies. Read More

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Effect of a Topical Formulation on Infective Viral Load in Lambs Naturally Infected with Orf Virus.

Vet Med (Auckl) 2021 9;12:149-158. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Camden, NSW, 2570, Australia.

Introduction: Orf is a highly contagious eruptive viral disease of the skin and mucosa of sheep and goats. Although vaccination with live or attenuated orf virus is the preferred option for disease control, the vaccine is unavailable in many countries. Treatment of orf lesions involves standard hygiene and in numerous cases, management of presumptive secondary infections with antibiotics, increasing risks of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Read More

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Scientific Opinion on the assessment of the control measures for category A diseases of Animal Health Law: Foot and Mouth Disease.

EFSA J 2021 Jun 8;19(6):e06632. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

EFSA received a mandate from the European Commission to assess the effectiveness of some of the control measures against diseases included in the Category A list according to Regulation (EU) 2016/429 on transmissible animal diseases ('Animal Health Law'). This opinion belongs to a series of opinions where these control measures will be assessed, with this opinion covering the assessment of control measures for foot and mouth disease (FMD). In this opinion, EFSA and the AHAW Panel of experts review the effectiveness of: i) clinical and laboratory sampling procedures, ii) monitoring period and iii) the minimum radius of the protection and surveillance zones, and the minimum length of time the measures should be applied in these zones. Read More

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[Exhaled droplets and Covid-19].

Lakartidningen 2021 06 14;118. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

professor, överläkare, Arbets- och miljömedicin, avdelningen för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa, institutionen för medicin, Göteborgs universitet.

Exhaled droplets are composed of water, salts and organic material and the physical designation is particles. These particles vary in size from 0.01 µm to very large, e g produced during coughing. Read More

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Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Membrane Protein Interacted with IRF7 to Inhibit Type I IFN Production during Viral Infection.

J Immunol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot and Mouth Diseases Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China; and

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly pathogenic porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus causing severe enteritis and lethal watery diarrhea in piglets. PEDV infection suppresses the synthesis of type I IFN, and multiple viral proteins of PEDV have been shown to target the adaptors of innate immune pathways to inhibit type I IFN production. In this study, we identified PEDV membrane (M) protein as a new antagonist of type I IFN production in both human embryonic kidney HEK293T cells and porcine kidney PK-15 cells and determined the antagonistic mechanism used by M protein to target IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), an important regulator of type I IFN production. Read More

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Verrucous leukoplakia affecting the tongue of a patient recovered from COVID-19.

Minerva Dent Oral Sci 2021 06;70(3):128-130

College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Al Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

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Neonatal Murine Model of Coxsackievirus A2 Infection for the Evaluation of Antiviral Therapeutics and Vaccination.

Front Microbiol 2021 28;12:658093. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Coxsackievirus (CV) A2 has emerged as an important etiological agent in the pathogen spectrum of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). The symptoms of CVA2 infections are generally mild, but worsen rapidly in some people, posing a serious threat to children's health. However, compared with enterovirus 71 detected frequently in fatal cases, limited attention has been paid to CVA2 infections because of its benign clinical course. Read More

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Erratum for Zhu et al., "Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Viroporin 2B Antagonizes RIG-I-Mediated Antiviral Effects by Inhibition of Its Protein Expression".

J Virol 2021 Jun 10;95(13):e0054521. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot and Mouth Diseases Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

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Association between well-being and compliance with COVID-19 preventive measures by healthcare professionals: A cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(6):e0252835. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore.

Importance: Knowledge and attitude influence compliance and individuals' practices. The risk and protective factors associated with high compliance to these preventive measures are critical to enhancing pandemic preparedness.

Objective: This survey aims to assess differences in mental health, knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of preventive measures for COVID-19 amongst healthcare professionals (HCP) and non-healthcare professionals. Read More

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Reverse Genetic Approaches for the Generation of Full Length and Subgenomic Replicon of EV71 Virus.

Front Microbiol 2021 20;12:665879. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, China.

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic pathogen that causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and it has been consistently associated with severe neurological, cardiac, and respiratory complications. Yet there is no specific treatment for this virus and we still know little about the viral pathogenesis. In this study, we first generated an infectious cDNA clone of EV71 virus from a patient virus strain and made a full-length virus with a NanoLuc reporter gene through reverse genetic approaches. Read More

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Preclinical safety assessment of a combined vaccine against Hepatitis a virus and enterovirus 71.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 2;39(29):3952-3963. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

The Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, China. Electronic address:

Since 2007, Hepatitis A (HAV) vaccination has been a part of the National Immunization Program of China. Recognizing enterovirus 71 (EV71) as the most important pathogen in severe hand, foot and mouth disease, an inactivated EV71 vaccine was successfully marketed in 2015. Based on the concept of one vaccine preventing two diseases and owing to similarities in vaccine preparation and the overlap of the eligible population, a combination of the inactivated HAV vaccine and inactivated EV71 vaccine is theoretically feasible and desirable. Read More

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Reversible covalent inhibitors suppress enterovirus 71 infection by targeting the 3C protease.

Antiviral Res 2021 Jun 1;192:105102. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Function and Application of Biological Macromolecular Structures, School of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China. Electronic address:

As one of the principal etiological agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), enterovirus 71 (EV71) is associated with severe neurological complications or fatal diseases, while without effective medications thus far. Here we applied dually activated Michael acceptor to develop a series of reversible covalent compounds for EV71 3C protease (3C), a promising antiviral drug target that plays an essential role during viral replication by cleaving the precursor polyprotein, inhibiting host protein synthesis, and evading innate immunity. Among them, cyanoacrylate and Boc-protected cyanoarylamide derivatives (SLQ-4 and SLQ-5) showed effective antiviral activity against EV71. Read More

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Editorial: FMD Research: Bridging the Gaps With Novel Tools.

Front Vet Sci 2021 17;8:686141. Epub 2021 May 17.

Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Greenport, NY, United States.

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Antigenicity and Immunogenicity Analysis of the Expressed FMDV Structural Proteins; VP1, VP0, VP3 of the South African Territories Type 2 Virus.

Viruses 2021 May 27;13(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National/OIE Foot and Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, China.

An alternative vaccine design approach and diagnostic kits are highly required against the anticipated pandemicity caused by the South African Territories type 2 (SAT2) Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV). However, the distinct antigenicity and immunogenicity of VP1, VP0, and VP3 of FMDV serotype SAT2 are poorly understood. Similarly, the particular roles of the three structural proteins in novel vaccine design and development remain unexplained. Read More

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Presence of SARS-CoV-2 and Its Entry Factors in Oral Tissues and Cells: A Systematic Review.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 May 23;57(6). Epub 2021 May 23.

Maestría en Estomatología con Opción Terminal en Ortodoncia, Facultad de Estomatología, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla C.P. 72410, Mexico.

: The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the current data about the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its entry factors in oral tissues and cells. : This systematic review was carried out based on the Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). Three databases were analyzed (Pubmed, Web of science and Scopus) by three independent researchers. Read More

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Chimeric RHDV Virus-Like Particles Displaying Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Epitopes Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies and Confer Partial Protection in Pigs.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 7;9(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (CISA, CSIC-INIA), Valdeolmos, 28130 Madrid, Spain.

Currently there is a clear trend towards the establishment of virus-like particles (VLPs) as a powerful tool for vaccine development. VLPs are tunable nanoparticles that can be engineered to be used as platforms for multimeric display of foreign antigens. We have previously reported that VLPs derived from rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) constitute an excellent vaccine vector, capable of inducing specific protective immune responses against inserted heterologous T-cytotoxic and B-cell epitopes. Read More

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Peptide-Based Vaccines: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus, a Paradigm in Animal Health.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 8;9(5). Epub 2021 May 8.

Departament de Ciències Experimentals i de la Salut (DCEXS-UPF), 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

Vaccines are considered one of the greatest global health achievements, improving the welfare of society by saving lives and substantially reducing the burden of infectious diseases. However, few vaccines are fully effective, for reasons ranging from intrinsic limitations to more contingent shortcomings related, e.g. Read More

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Does Trypsin Oral Spray (Viruprotect/ColdZyme) Protect against COVID-19 and Common Colds or Induce Mutation? Caveats in Medical Device Regulations in the European Union.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 11;18(10). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Background: nasal or oral sprays are often marketed as medical devices (MDs) in the European Union to prevent common cold (CC), with ColdZyme/Viruprotect (trypsin/glycerol) mouth spray claiming to prevent colds and the COVID-19 virus from infecting host cells and to shorten/reduce CC symptoms as an example. We analyzed the published (pre)-clinical evidence.

Methods: preclinical: comparison of in vitro tests with validated host cell models to determine viral infectivity. Read More

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Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease and Their Influencing Factors in Urumqi, China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 5;18(9). Epub 2021 May 5.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) remains a serious health threat to young children. Urumqi is one of the most severely affected cities in northwestern China. This study aims to identify the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of HFMD, and explore the relationships between driving factors and HFMD in Urumqi, Xinjiang. Read More

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Antiviral activity of Mulberroside C against enterovirus A71 in vitro and in vivo.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 26:174204. Epub 2021 May 26.

School of Pharmacy, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan 250355, PR China; Department of Biotechnology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850, PR China. Electronic address:

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is one of the main causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease which seriously threatens young children's health and lives. However, there is no effective therapy currently available for treating these infections. Therefore, effective drugs to prevent and treat EV-A71 infections are urgently needed. Read More

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[Expert consensus on Antiviral Oral Liquid in treatment of influenza in clinical practice].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 May;46(9):2304-2308

Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Shanghai 200032, China.

Antiviral Oral Liquid is modified on the basis of Baihu Decoction in Treatise on Febrility Diseases by ZHANG Zhongjing and Qingwen Baidu Yin in Qing Dynasty, with effects in clearing toxic heat, repelling dampness and cooling blood. It is widely used in clinical treatment of common colds, influenza and upper respiratory tract infection, mumps, viral conjunctivitis and hand-foot-mouth disease, with a good clinical efficacy and safety. Based on a questionnaire survey of clinicians and a systematic review of study literatures on Antiviral Oral Liquid, the international clinical practice guidelines development method was adopted to analyze the optimal available evidences and expert experiences in the "evidence-based, consensus-based and experience-based" principles. Read More

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A clinical investigation of dental evacuation systems in reducing aerosols.

J Am Dent Assoc 2021 06;152(6):455-462

Background: The route of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has challenged dentistry to improve the safety for patients and the dental team during various treatment procedures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of dental evacuation systems in reducing aerosols during oral prophylactic procedures in a large clinical setting.

Methods: This was a single-center, controlled clinical trial using a split-mouth design. Read More

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Licochalcone A inhibits enterovirus A71 replication in vitro and in vivo.

Antiviral Res 2021 May 25:105091. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Pharmacy, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan 250355, P.R.China; Department of Biotechnology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850, P.R.China. Electronic address:

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is one of the main causative agents of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) and causes serious neurological complications. However, no effective therapy is currently available for treating these infections. Therefore, effective drugs to prevent and treat EV-A71 infections are urgently needed. Read More

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Association Between Bitter Taste Receptor Phenotype and Clinical Outcomes Among Patients With COVID-19.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 05 3;4(5):e2111410. Epub 2021 May 3.

Rhinology and Skull Base Research Group, Baton Rouge General Medical Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

Importance: Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) have been implicated in sinonasal innate immunity, and genetic variation conferred by allelic variants in T2R genes is associated with variation in upper respiratory tract pathogen susceptibility, symptoms, and outcomes. Bitter taste receptor phenotype appears to be associated with the clinical course and symptom duration of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Objective: To evaluate the association between T2R phenotype and patient clinical course after infection with SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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Comparative analysis of swine leukocyte antigen gene diversity in European farmed pigs.

Anim Genet 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pathobiology, Institute of Immunology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinaerplatz 1, Vienna, 1210, Austria.

In Europe, swine represent economically important farm animals and furthermore have become a preferred preclinical large animal model for biomedical studies, transplantation and regenerative medicine research. The need for typing of the swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) is increasing with the expanded use of pigs as models for human diseases and organ-transplantation experiments and their use in infection studies and for design of veterinary vaccines. In this study, we characterised the SLA class I (SLA-1, SLA-2, SLA-3) and class II (DRB1, DQB1, DQA) genes of 549 farmed pigs representing nine commercial pig lines by low-resolution (Lr) SLA haplotyping. Read More

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