761,118 results match your criteria Viral Infections of the Mouth


Type I Interferons: Distinct Biological Activities and Current Applications for Viral Infection.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 11;51(5):2377-2396. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, OIE/National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou,

The interferons (IFNs) are a primary defense against pathogens because of the strong antiviral activities they induce. IFNs can be classified into three groups: type I, type II and type III, according to their genetic, structural, and functional characteristics and their receptors on the cell surface. The type I IFNs are the largest group and include IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-ε, IFN-ω, IFN-κ, IFN-δ, IFN-τ and IFN-ζ. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of porcine circovirus type 2 infection in in vitro embryo production using naturally infected oocytes.

Theriogenology 2018 Dec 4;126:75-80. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Key Laboratory of Animal Cellular and Genetics Engineering of Heilongjiang Province, College of Life Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, Heilongjiang, PR China. Electronic address:

In vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are important breeding techniques for livestock. High-quality MII oocytes produced from in vitro maturation (IVM) are required for the two techniques listed above. The ovaries used for IVM operations are primarily acquired from commercial abattoirs, and the pathogen status of slaughtered animals becomes an unavoidable issue. Read More

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December 2018

Seasonal Viral Influenza Among Persons with Primary Antibody Immunodeficiency.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Medical Advisory Committee Member, Immune Deficiency Foundation, Towson, MD.

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December 2018

Human rhinovirus infections in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: risk score for progression to lower respiratory tract infection.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N Seattle, WA 98109. Electronic address:

Human rhinovirus lower respiratory tract infection is associated with mortality following hematopoietic cell transplantation; however, risk factors for lower respiratory tract infection are not well characterized. We sought to develop a risk score for progression to lower respiratory tract infection from upper respiratory tract infection in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients. Risk factors for lower respiratory tract infection within 90 days were analyzed using Cox regression among hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients with rhinovirus upper respiratory tract infection between 1/2009-3/2016. Read More

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December 2018

Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for major capsid VP1 protein of trichodysplasia spinulosa associated polyomavirus.

Microbiol Immunol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Microbiology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 236-0004, Japan.

Trichodysplasia spinulosa associated polyomavirus (TSPyV), a newly identified polyomavirus has been implicated as a causative agent of trychodysplasia spinulosa (TS), a rare proliferative skin disease in severly immunocompromised hosts. The diagnosis using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has been provided as a promising tool as it offers high specificity towards specific antigen. Till there is no good mAb available for diagnosis of TS disease. Read More

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December 2018
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Virus genotyping by massive parallel amplicon sequencing: adenovirus and enterovirus in the Norwegian MIDIA study.

J Med Virol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Mental and Physical Health, Department of Chronic Diseases and Ageing, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Objectives: Direct genotyping of adenovirus or enterovirus from clinical material using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by Sanger sequencing is often difficult due to the presence of multiple virus types in a sample, or due to varying efficacy of PCR amplifying the capsid gene on the background of foreign nucleic acids. Here we present a simple protocol for virus genotyping using massive parallel amplicon sequencing.

Methods: The protocol utilized a set of 16 tailed degenerate primers flanking the seventh hypervariable region of the adenovirus hexon gene and 9 tailed degenerate primers targeted to the proximal portion of the enterovirus VP1 gene. Read More

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December 2018

Viral transmission in honey bees and native bees, supported by a global black queen cell virus phylogeny.

Environ Microbiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Entomology, Cornell University.

In recent decades, we have realized that honey bee viruses are not, in fact, exclusive to honey bees. The potential impact of Apis-affiliated viruses on native pollinators is prompting concern. Our research addresses the issue of virus crossover between honey bees and native bees foraging in the same localities. Read More

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December 2018

Estimating marginal proportions and intraclass correlations with clustered binary data.

Biom J 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Biostatistics, Department of Basic Clinical Practice, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

A logistic regression with random effects model is commonly applied to analyze clustered binary data, and every cluster is assumed to have a different proportion of success. However, it could be of interest to obtain the proportion of success over clusters (i.e. Read More

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December 2018

Human polyomavirus 7 (HPyV7)-associated dermatoses: novel molecular mechanism driven by viral activation of 4E-BP1 and MEK-ERK-cJun.

Int J Dermatol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX, USA.

A number of pruritic skin conditions arising in immunocompromised patients are associated with viral infection. Recently, human polyomavirus 7 (HPyV7) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of eruptive pruritic parakeratotic and dyskeratotic dermatoses with distinct "peacock plumage" histology. While expression of HPyV7 viral protein, namely small tumor (sT) antigen, is prominent within lesional tissue, the functional role of HPyV7 in cutaneous pathobiology is not yet known. Read More

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December 2018
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New cell lines for efficient propagation of koi herpesvirus and infectious salmon anaemia virus.

J Fish Dis 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI), Institute of Infectology, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

The production of piscine viruses, in particular of koi herpesvirus (KHV, CyHV-3) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), is still challenging due to the limited susceptibility of available cell lines to these viruses. A number of cell lines from different fish species were compared to standard diagnostic cell lines for KHV and ISAV regarding their capability to exhibit a cytopathic effect (CPE) and to accumulate virus. Two cell lines, so far undescribed, appeared to be useful for diagnostic purposes. Read More

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December 2018

Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in veterinarians in Finland: Older age, living in the countryside, tasting beef during cooking and not doing small animal practice associated with seropositivity.

Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Practising veterinary medicine has an inherent risk of exposure to zoonotic agents, including the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. We screened sera of veterinarians authorized to work in Finland for the presence of specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay, and evaluated potential risk factors for T. Read More

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December 2018

A chemogenetic approach for treating experimental Parkinson's disease.

Mov Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Background: PD is a common neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting the cortico-basal ganglia loop.

Objective: To investigate whether chemogenetic-mediated neuromodulation of various nuclei and pathways can counterbalance basal ganglia network abnormalities and improve motor disability in experimental PD.

Methods: Experimental PD was induced by stereotactic injection of 6-OHDA to the medial forebrain bundle. Read More

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December 2018

microRNAs: Key players in virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Virology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known as one of the major health problems worldwide. Pathological analysis indicated that a variety of risk factors including genetical (i.e. Read More

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December 2018

Bottom-up trait-mediated indirect effects decrease pathogen transmission in a tritrophic system.

Authors:
Bret D Elderd

Ecology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 70803, USA.

A plant's induction of secondary defenses helps to decrease herbivore damage by changing resource quality. While these chemical or physical defenses may directly decrease herbivory, they can also have indirect consequences. In a tritrophic system consisting of a plant, an insect herbivore, and an insect pathogen, plant based trait-mediated indirect effects (TMIEs) can alter host-pathogen interactions and, thereby, indirectly affect disease transmission. Read More

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December 2018

Neonatal influenza-specific effector CTLs retain elevated CD31 levels at the site of infection and have decreased IFN-γ production.

J Leukoc Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

The underlying mechanisms that regulate neonatal immune suppression are poorly characterized. CD31 (PECAM1) is highly expressed on neonatal lymphocytes and is a known modulator of TCR signaling. To further characterize the role of CD31 in the neonatal CTL response, 3-d and 7-d-old murine neonates were infected with influenza virus and compared to adults. Read More

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December 2018

Progress of polio eradication and containment requirements after eradication.

Authors:
M Steven Oberste

Transfusion 2018 Dec;58 Suppl 3:3078-3083

Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Wild poliovirus (WPV) is nearing eradication, and only three countries have never interrupted WPV transmission (Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria). WPV2 was last detected in 1999, and it was declared eradicated in 2015. WPV3 has not been detected since 2012. Read More

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December 2018

Continued use of poliovirus after eradication: hyper-attenuated strains as a safe alternative for release testing of human immunoglobulins.

Transfusion 2018 Dec;58 Suppl 3:3084-3089

Global Pathogen Safety, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Wild-type poliovirus may be eradicated soon and under WHO GAPIII guidance, laboratory use will be discontinued or subject to strict containment. Per US Code of Federal Regulations, however, immunoglobulin lot release testing will still require use of replicating poliovirus. The suitability of S19 hyper-attenuated and apathogenic poliovirus strains as alternatives to the currently used wild-type virus in such a release assay was investigated. Read More

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December 2018

[Neonatal viral meningitis. The importance of the polymerase chain reaction in their diagnosis].

Rev Neurol 2018 Dec;67(12):484-490

Hospital General Universitario de Albacete, 02006 Albacete, Espana.

Introduction: The different types of viral meningitis constitute a condition that is relatively frequent in newborn infants, although in many cases they are underdiagnosed due to the absence of pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Aims: To describe the clinical features and laboratory findings of newborn infants with viral meningitis and to highlight the importance of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the CSF to diagnose this condition.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of newborn infants hospitalised in the neonatology section who had been diagnosed with viral meningitis between May 2014 and May 2017. Read More

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December 2018

Conclusions and Perspectives.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;110:125

University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.

The dawn of nanoparticle-encapsulated genes is a revolutionary move in gene therapy. It promises to specifically and safely transport genetic cargo through biological systems within a non-viral "Trojan horse" system. Read More

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January 2018

Non-viral Gene Delivery.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;110:3-68

University of Waterloo, School of Pharmacy, Waterloo, ON, Canada.

Although viral vectors comprise the majority of gene delivery vectors, their various safety, production, and other practical concerns have left a research gap to be addressed. The non-viral vector space encompasses a growing variety of physical and chemical methods capable of gene delivery into the nuclei of target cells. Major physical methods described in this chapter are microinjection, electroporation, and ballistic injection, magnetofection, sonoporation, optical transfection, and localized hyperthermia. Read More

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January 2018

Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Morbidly Obese Bariatric Patients with Concurrent Hepatitis C Viral Infection.

Obes Surg 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of International Business, Chien Hsin University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of liver cirrhosis and its complications. The safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in patients with HCV infection is not clear.

Methods: Charts were reviewed to identify patients with HCV infection before bariatric surgery. Read More

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December 2018

Investigation of persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in Holstein dairy cows.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Section of Theriogenology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

The aim of this study was to investigate the persistent infection (PI) of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) along with its coexistence between BVDV antibody titer and BVD virus in blood of Holstein dairy cows. Only large commercial farms (each contained < 1000-3000 unvaccinated cows) were included. There were 11 dairy cattle herds. Read More

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December 2018

Over-expression of GmKR3, a TIR-NBS-LRR type R gene, confers resistance to multiple viruses in soybean.

Plant Mol Biol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics of MOE & Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China.

Key Message: That overexpression of GmKR3 enhances innate virus resistance by stimulating. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is found in many soybean production areas, and SMV infection is one of the prevalent viral diseases that can cause significant yield losses in soybean. In plants, resistance (R) genes are involved in pathogen reorganization and innate immune response activation. Read More

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December 2018

Development of a sensitive and reliable reverse transcription droplet digital PCR assay for the detection of citrus yellow vein clearing virus.

Arch Virol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

National Citrus Engineering Research Center, Citrus Research Institute, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400712, China.

In 2009, a new viral disease of citrus caused by citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVCV) was first discovered in China. CYVCV is considered to be the most serious pathogen affecting lemon production. In this study, a sensitive and reliable reverse transcription droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (RT-ddPCR) assay was developed to detect and quantify CYVCV without references. Read More

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December 2018

Serine arginine protein kinase 1 (SRPK1): a moonlighting protein with theranostic ability in cancer prevention.

Mol Biol Rep 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Hail, P O Box 2440, Hail, Saudi Arabia.

Serine/arginine protein kinase 1 (SRPK1); a versatile functional moonlighting protein involved in varied cellular activities comprised of cell cycle progression, innate immune response, chromatin reorganization, negative and positive regulation of viral genome replication, protein amino acid phosphorylation, regulation of numerous mRNA-processing pathways, germ cell development as well as inflammation due to acquaintances with many transcription factors and signaling pathways. Several diseases including cancer have been associated with dysregulation of SRPK1. The function of SRPK1 in cancer is contradictory and inexplicable because it acts as both tumor suppressor and promoter based on the type of cell and locale. Read More

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December 2018

Macrophage activation syndrome in a patient with axial spondyloarthritis on adalimumab.

Clin Rheumatol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.

Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a rare and potentially fatal condition characterized by excessive activation and uncontrolled proliferation of T lymphocytes and macrophages, leading to overwhelming systemic inflammation and cytokine release. MAS has been reported with viral infections, autoimmune disorders, malignancies, and medications. We describe a case of a patient with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) treated with adalimumab, who presented with MAS. Read More

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December 2018

Reprogramming of Human Melanocytes and Melanoma Cells with Yamanaka Factors.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1916:249-261

Biotechnology Institute, Ankara University, Tandogan, Ankara, Turkey.

The expression of Yamanaka factors (Oct3/4, Klf-4, Sox-2, c-Myc) can reprogram cancer cells to a pluripotent stage. This may cause the removal of their epigenetic memory and result in altered tumorigenicity. Various studies in the literature have shown that cancer cell reprogramming is a potential tool to study disease progression or discover novel therapeutic or diagnostic markers in cancer research. Read More

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January 2019

Cross-sectional study of the G and P genotypes of rotavirus A field strains circulating in regularly vaccinated dairy cattle herds.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid - Campus Universitário, PO Box 10011, Londrina, Paraná, 86057-970, Brazil.

Neonatal diarrhea is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in calves up to 30 days old, and rotavirus A (RVA) is the main viral etiology. RVA vaccines are one of the main tools for diarrhea control in neonates. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to monitor by RT-PCR the G and P genotypes of RVA strains identified in dairy cattle herds regularly vaccinated with the RVA UK strain (G6P[5]). Read More

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December 2018

Viral Manipulation of the Host Metabolic Network.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;109:377-401

Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.

Viruses are intracellular parasites that rely on host machinery to replicate and achieve a successful infection. Viruses have evolved to retain a broad range of strategies to manipulate host cell metabolism and metabolic resources, channeling them toward the production of virion components leading to viral production. Although several viruses share similar strategies for manipulating host cell metabolism, these processes depend on several factors, namely, the viral life cycle and the metabolic and energetic status of the infected cell. Read More

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January 2018

Metabolomic-Based Methods in Diagnosis and Monitoring Infection Progression.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;109:283-315

Center for Metabolomics and Bioanalysis (CEMBIO), CEU San Pablo University, Boadilla del Monte, Spain.

A robust biomarker screening and validation is crucial for overcoming the current limits in the clinical management of infectious diseases. In this chapter, a general workflow for metabolomics is summarized. Subsequently, an overview of the major contributions of this omics science to the field of biomarkers of infectious diseases is discussed. Read More

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January 2018

Genomic characterization, phylogenetic position and in situ localization of a novel putative mononegavirus in Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

Arch Virol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Sea Lice Research Centre, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, Thormøhlensgt. 55, Pb. 7803, 5020, Bergen, Norway.

The complete genome sequence of a novel mononegavirus, Lepeophtheirus salmonis negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (LsNSRV-1), obtained from a salmonid ectoparasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis was determined. The viral genome contains five open reading frames encoding three unknown proteins (ORF I, II and III), a putative glycoprotein (G), and a large (L) protein. Phylogenetic analysis placed LsNSRV-1 in the recently established mononegaviral family Artoviridae. Read More

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December 2018

Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of chalcone and amino-analogues.

Parasitol Res 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Laboratório de Pesquisa em Parasitologia, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, Porto Alegre, RS, 90610-000, Brazil.

Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can lead to serious consequences in reproductive health, cancer, and HIV acquisition. The current approved treatment present adverse effects and drug resistance data on this neglected parasitic infection is underestimated. Chalcones are a family of molecules that present biological applications, such as activity against many pathogenic organisms including protozoan pathogens. Read More

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December 2018

Inhibition of autophagy enhances adenosine‑induced apoptosis in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells.

Oncol Rep 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041, P.R. China.

In cancer research, autophagy acts as a double‑edged sword: it increases cell viability or induces cell apoptosis depending upon the cell context and functional status. Recent studies have shown that adenosine (Ado) has cytotoxic effects in many tumors. However, the role of autophagy in Ado‑induced apoptosis is still poorly understood. Read More

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November 2018

Different types of viral‑host junction found in HBV integration breakpoints in HBV‑infected patients.

Mol Med Rep 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430060, P.R. China.

The present study surveyed the characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) integration in the liver genomes of patients with acute hepatitis B (AHB), carriers of inactive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) receiving antiviral treatment. 'Short‑read' whole genome sequencing (WGS) with an average of 4,879x coverage for HBV integration was performed in three patients with AHB, two carriers of inactive HBsAg, and 13 patients with CHB receiving antiviral treatment. Conventional polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing were used to verify integration breakpoints supported by at least two paired‑end reads, and viral‑host chimeric transcripts were surveyed simultaneously. Read More

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November 2018

Pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetics of CNS penetration of efavirenz and its metabolites.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: There are limited data on the pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetics of the CNS penetration of efavirenz.

Objectives: We investigated genetic polymorphisms associated with CSF concentrations of efavirenz and its metabolites and explored the relationships with neurocognitive performance.

Methods: We included 47 HIV-infected South African black adults with and without HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder on efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine and collected paired plasma-CSF samples. Read More

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December 2018

Blood Viral Load in Symptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Background: Viral loads (VLs) frequently are followed during treatment of symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus disease, but their predictive value is unclear.

Methods: Post-hoc analysis of two antiviral studies was performed. Seventy-three subjects were treated for 6 weeks and 47 subjects for 6 months. Read More

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December 2018

Continued Evidence of Decline in the Enzootic Activity of Western Equine Encephalitis Virus in Colorado.

J Med Entomol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Western equine encephalitis (WEE) was once prevalent and routinely isolated from mosquitoes in Colorado; however, isolations of Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) have not been reported from mosquito pools since the early 1990s. The objective of the present study was to test pools of Culex tarsalis (Coquillett) mosquitoes sampled from Weld County, CO, in 2016 for evidence of WEEV infection. Over 7,000 mosquitoes were tested, but none were positive for WEEV RNA. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of the mutational load on the virological response to a first-line rilpivirine-based regimen.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

INSERM U1043 - CNRS UMR5282 - Toulouse University Paul Sabatier, CPTP, Toulouse, France.

Objectives: To determine how the load of rilpivirine-resistant variants (mutational load) influences the virological response (VR) of HIV-1-infected patients to a rilpivirine-based first-line regimen.

Patients And Methods: Four hundred and eighty-nine patients infected with HIV-1 whose reverse transcriptase gene had been successfully resistance genotyped using next-generation sequencing were given a first-line regimen containing rilpivirine. Variables associated with the VR at 12 months were identified using a logistic model. Read More

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December 2018

The Qualified Presumption of Safety assessment and its role in EFSA risk evaluations: fifteen years past.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Unit of Biological Hazards and Contaminants (BIOCONTAM), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), via Carlo Magno 1A, 43126 Parma, Italy.

Microorganisms (food or feed additive, novel food or plant protection product) are intentionally added at different stages of the food and feed chain and are subjected to regulation and safety assessment by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Safety evaluation is based on application dossiers for market authorisation to the European Commission. The qualified presumption of safety (QPS) concept was developed in 2003 to provide a harmonised generic safety pre-appraisal of the above microorganisms. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of Performance of Algorithms Using Serial Hepatitis C RNA Tests to Predict Treatment Initiation and Sustained Virologic Response Among Patients Infected With Hepatitis C.

Am J Epidemiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Viral Hepatitis, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Electronic medical record data structure prevents easy population-level monitoring of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment uptake and cure. Using an HCV registry from a public hospital system in Atlanta, Georgia, we developed multiple algorithms using serial HCV RNA test results as proxy measures for direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment initiation and sustained virologic response (SVR). We calculated sensitivity and positive predictive values by comparing the algorithms to the DAA initiation and SVR results from the registry. Read More

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December 2018

Cytidine deaminase enables Toll-like receptor 8 activation by cytidine or its analogs.

Int Immunol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Innate Immunity, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8), a sensor for pathogen-derived single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), binds to uridine (Uri) and ssRNA to induce defense responses. We here show that cytidine (Cyd) with ssRNA also activated TLR8 in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and a myeloid cell line U937, but not in an embryonic kidney cell line 293T. Cyd deaminase (CDA), an enzyme highly expressed in leukocytes, deaminates Cyd to Uri. Read More

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December 2018

International Importations of Measles Virus into the United States during the Post-Elimination Era, 2001‒2016.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

Background: Although measles was declared eliminated from the United States in 2000, measles cases and outbreaks continue to occur, resulting from importations of the disease from countries where it remains endemic.

Methods: We describe the epidemiology of international importations of measles virus into the United States during the post-elimination era.

Results: From 2001 to 2016, 553 imported measles cases were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Read More

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December 2018

Deciphering desirable immune responses from disease models with resistant and susceptible chickens.

Poult Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, USDA-ARS, College Station, TX 77845, USA.

Coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis (NE) are among the most significant diseases affecting the poultry industry. These diseases have become more prominent in the wake of policies to reduce the use of antibiotics in animal production. This has led to more research focused on better understanding the immune system and its responses to pathogen challenge, and thus developing informed strategies to exploit immune responses that can support enhanced disease resistance and growth performance. Read More

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December 2018
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[Factors related to oral candidiasis in HIV children and adolescents, species characterization and antifungal susceptibility].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2018 Aug;35(4):377-385

División de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Facultad de Odontología, UNAM, México.

Background: Factors associated with candidiasis and colonization in HIV-positive children and adolescents in developing countries are not well understood.

Aim: To identify the factors associated with oral Candida colonization and candidiasis in institutionalized HIV-positive children and adolescents in Tijuana, México, as well as the response of the isolates to antifungals.

Materials And Methods: Sample of the oral mucosa of 30 HIV positive children and adolescents were obtained to isolate and identify Candida species by culture and metabolic profile. Read More

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[Immunological and virological condition of adult patients with HIV infection at the beginning of antiretroviral therapy at Carlos van Buren Hospital. Comparison of 2013 and 2015 periods].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2018 ;35(3):326-328

Unidad de Infectología, Hospital Carlos van Buren, Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile.

Introduction: Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in HIV patients has shown reduction in morbidity and mortality, and decrease in contagious risk. International recommendations include early initiation of ART, irrespectively of CD4 cell count.

Objective: To describe the impact of ART initiation in CD4 cell count and viral load at the end of the first year of HIV treatment, for patients who entered the program at 2013 and 2015. Read More

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January 2018

[Epidemiology and risk factors for prolonged hospital length of stay in children with leukemia and bacteremia. Cohort study].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2018 ;35(3):233-238

Servicio de Infectologia, Hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan, Argentina.

Introduction: Bacteremia is a frequent complication in children with cancer, which is associated with greater severity, prolonged hospitalization and mortality. Prolonged hospitalization conditions greater morbidity and risk of acquisition of intranosocomial infections.

Aim: To describe risk factors for prolonged hospital length of stay in children with leukemia and bacteremia. Read More

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January 2018

Characterizing the encapsulation and release of lentivectors and adeno-associated vectors from degradable alginate hydrogels.

Biomater Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Gene therapy using viral vectors has been licensed for clinical use both in the European Union and the United States. Lentivectors (LV) and adeno-associated vectors (AAV) are two promising and FDA approved gene-therapy viral vectors. Many future applications of these vectors will benefit from targeting specific regions of interest within the body. Read More

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December 2018

Relationship between HIV integrase polymorphisms and integrase inhibitor susceptibility: An analysis.

Heliyon 2018 Dec 1;4(12):e00956. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.

Integrase (IN) plays an essential role in HIV-1 replication, by mediating integration of the viral genome into the host cell genome. IN is a potential target of antiretroviral (ARV) therapeutic drugs such as ALLINI, Raltegravir (RAL), and Elvitegravir (EVG). The effect of IN polymorphisms on its structure and binding affinity to the integrase inhibitors (INIs) is not well understood. Read More

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December 2018
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