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    13789 results match your criteria Viral Infections of the Mouth

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    [Clinical stages and outcomes of severe cases on hand, foot and mouth disease].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2017 May;38(5):651-655
    Institute of Infectious Disease, Sichuan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chengdu 610041, China.
    Objective: To understand the characteristics and relation of clinical stage and outcome of severe cases on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and to establish the evaluation method for understanding severity of this disease. Methods: According to factors as geographical location, economic and epidemic levels, five provinces (Henan, Shandong, Yunnan, Zhejiang and Sichuan provinces) were selected. Reported severe cases of HFMD from the National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System were selected randomly in the five provinces. Read More

    T135I substitution in the nonstructural protein 2C enhances foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.
    Virus Genes 2017 Jun 20. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Division of Livestock Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 678 Haping Road, Xiangfang District, Harbin, 150069, People's Republic of China.
    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) nonstructural protein 3A plays an important role in viral replication, virulence, and host range. It has been shown that deletions of 10 or 19-20 amino acids in the C-terminal half of 3A attenuate serotype O and C FMDVs, which replicate poorly in bovine cells but normally in porcine-derived cells, and the C-terminal half of 3A is not essential for serotype Asia1 FMDV replication in BHK-21 cells. In this study, we constructed a 3A deletion FMDV mutant based on a serotype O FMDV, the wild-type virus O/YS/CHA/05, with a 60-amino acid deletion in the 3A protein sequence, between residues 84 and 143. Read More

    Immunogenicity of T7 bacteriophage nanoparticles displaying G-H loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV).
    Vet Microbiol 2017 Jun 4;205:46-52. Epub 2017 May 4.
    National Research Center of Engineering and Technology for Veterinary Biologicals, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Science, Nanjing 210014, Jiangsu Province, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that causes severe economic losses worldwide. The G-H loop of the FMDV VP1 structural protein is the major neutralizing antigenic site. However, a fully protective G-H loop peptide vaccine requires the addition of promiscuous Th sites from a source outside VP1. Read More

    Management of viral oral ulcers in children using Chinese herbal medicine: A report of two cases.
    Complement Ther Med 2017 Jun 12;32:61-65. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Department of Chinese Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Objective: Viral oral ulcers are common presentations in pediatric clinics. Although self-limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and lead to dehydration. Despite the widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for pediatric upper respiratory disease in Taiwan, there is little evidence for its effectiveness as an antipyretic or in aiding ulcer healing for children with viral oral ulcers. Read More

    Inter-laboratory validation of foot-and-mouth disease diagnostic capability in Germany.
    Vet Microbiol 2017 May 2;203:62-67. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.
    Germany has been free from foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) without vaccination since 1992, but diagnostic capability at regional laboratories is maintained for FMDV exclusion in suspect cases and as surge capacity for outbreak preparedness. A proficiency test was initiated in 2015 to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 20 regional veterinary laboratories. A panel of two identical samples of FMDV genome for real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), four lyophilized bovine sera for antibody detection and eight samples of inactivated vaccine antigen for analysis with a lateral-flow device (LFD) were tested with the systems routinely used at the participating institutions. Read More

    Chemiluminescence immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against the 2C and 3ABC nonstructural proteins induced by infecting pigs with the foot-and-mouth disease virus.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jun 7. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Stake Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot-and-Mouth Diseases Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, People's Republic of China
    The potential diagnostic value of chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIAs) has been accepted in recent years, although its use for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) diagnostics has not been reported. Full-length 3ABC and 2C proteins were expressed in bacteria and purified by affinity chromatography to develop a rapid and accurate approach to distinguish pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from vaccinated pigs (DIVA). The recombinant proteins were then used as antigens to develop two CLIAs for the detection of antibodies against nonstructural viral proteins. Read More

    A Synonymous Mutation at Bovine Alpha Vitronectin Domain of Integrin Host Receptor (ITGAV) Gene Effect the Susceptibility of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Crossbred Cattle.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 Jun 1. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Molecular Genetics Laboratory, ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Cattle, Meerut, 250 001, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Integrins are one of the major biologically active proteins responsible for Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)- host interaction. Out of various heterodimeric integrins discovered, αVβ6 heterodimer serves as the chief receptor for FMDV host tropism. Earlier studies reported that, SNPs at beta 6 subunit (ITGB6) were associated with the occurrence of the diseases in cattle. Read More

    Emergence of novel Seneca Valley virus strains in China, 2017.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot and Mouth Diseases Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.
    Since early 2017, several outbreaks of Seneca Valley virus (SVV) infection have re-emerged in China. We report the identification of novel SVV KS15-01-like strains showing a notable distinction with previous Chinese SVV strains. The determined SVV strains are currently causing new outbreaks in two provinces in China where no SVV infection has been reported previously, implying the increased epidemic regions and potential threat to local pig breeds of SVV in China. Read More

    Dynamic Interaction of Enterovirus 71 and Dendritic Cells in Infected Neonatal Rhesus Macaques.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 10;7:171. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical CollegeKunming, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens responsible for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection with EV71 can lead to severe clinical disease via extensive infections of either the respiratory or alimentary tracts in children. Based on the previous pathological study of EV71 infections in neonatal rhesus macaques, our work using this animal model and an EV71 chimera that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-EV71) primarily explored where EV71 localizes and proliferates, and the subsequent initiation of the pathological process. Read More

    [Update on congenital and neonatal herpes infections: infection due to cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex].
    Rev Neurol 2017 May;64(s03):S29-S33
    Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Espana.
    Newborn infants are a population which is especially susceptible to viral infections that frequently affect the central nervous system. Herpes infections can be transmitted to the foetus and to the newborn infant, and give rise to severe clinical conditions with long-term sensory and cognitive deficits. Two thirds of newborn infants with encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus and half of the children with symptomatic congenital infection by cytomegalovirus develop sequelae, which results in high community health costs in the long term. Read More

    Ebola exposure, illness experience, and Ebola antibody prevalence in international responders to the West African Ebola epidemic 2014-2016: A cross-sectional study.
    PLoS Med 2017 May 16;14(5):e1002300. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: Healthcare and other front-line workers are at particular risk of infection with Ebola virus (EBOV). Despite the large-scale deployment of international responders, few cases of Ebola virus disease have been diagnosed in this group. Since asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic infection has been described, it is plausible that infections have occurred in healthcare workers but have escaped being diagnosed. Read More

    Increased expression of CD38 and HLADR in HIV-infected patients with oral lesion.
    J Med Virol 2017 May 13. Epub 2017 May 13.
    School of Medicine, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
    Persistent immune actiation is associated with innadequate immune recovery in HIV-patients. This study assessed the relationship between frequency of expression of cell activation markers (CD38 and HLADR) and presence of oral lesions in HIV-1 infected patients. Fifty-seven HIV-infected persons, undergoing antiretroviral treatment, were divided into three groups, according to the number of CD4(+) T cells and CD4(+) /CD8(+) ratio: adequate, partial, and inadequate immune restauration. Read More

    Transcriptomic analysis of porcine PBMCs in response to FMDV infection.
    Acta Trop 2017 May 8;173:69-75. Epub 2017 May 8.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730046, People's Republic of China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province 225009, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a significant zoonotic infectious disease. It has an important economic impact throughout the world. As well, it is a considerable threat to food security. Read More

    A Naturally Occurring Recombinant Enterovirus Expresses a Torovirus Deubiquitinase.
    J Virol 2017 Jul 26;91(14). Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA
    Enteroviruses (EVs) are implicated in a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. In this study, a novel enterovirus (enterovirus species G [EVG]) (EVG 08/NC_USA/2015) was isolated from a diagnostic sample from a neonatal pig diarrhea case and identified by using metagenomics and complete genome sequencing. The viral genome shares 75. Read More

    [Observation on intestinal viral shedding time of hand, foot and mouth disease induced by coxsackievirus A6].
    Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 May;55(5):369-372
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou Children's Hospital, Hangzhou 310014, China.
    Objective: To observe the intestinal viral shedding time in patients with hand, food and mouth disease (HFMD) induced by coxsackievirus A6 (CA6). Method: Throat swab specimens and stool specimens of HFMD children were collected from those admitted to Hangzhou Children's Hospital between May and October 2015, while fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the viral load.Eeighteen cases of HFMD children were followed up, who were confirmed as CA6 infection via laboratory tests. Read More

    Neonatal Herpes Simplex Viral Infections and Acyclovir: An Update.
    J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2017 Mar-Apr;22(2):88-93
    Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections have high morbidity and mortality rates. Optimization of treatment and prevention strategies are imperative to improve the care and outcomes of neonates infected with HSV. Management of HSV includes reducing neonatal transmission, treating acute infections, and limiting adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and future cutaneous outbreaks after acute infections. Read More

    [Health related quality of life on severe hand, foot and mouth disease patients].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2017 Apr;38(4):462-466
    Division of Infectious Disease, Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early Warning on Infectious Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the health related quality of life (HRQoL) for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) patients with different complications. Methods: A national telephone interview under the EQ-5D proxy2 questionnaire (EQ-SD and EQ-VAS), was conducted to obtain the HRQoL of lab-confirmed severe HFMD patients, aged between six months and five-year-olds from the national communicable disease surveillance system from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013. Results: A total of 685 severe HFMD cases were included in the study. Read More

    Tim-3-expressing macrophages are functionally suppressed and expanded in oral squamous cell carcinoma due to virus-induced Gal-9 expression.
    Tumour Biol 2017 May;39(5):1010428317701651
    Department of Stomatology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, P.R. China.
    Oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is a common malignant tumor in the oral cavity. High-risk human papillomavirus 16 infection is a major cause of oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma development. Strong antitumor immune responses, especially CD8(+) T cell responses, are thought to be essential to effective cancer treatment and are associated with better prognosis in oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Read More

    Laboratory validation of two real-time RT-PCR methods with 5'-tailed primers for an enhanced detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.
    J Virol Methods 2017 Aug 27;246:90-94. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Service for Vesicular and Exotic Diseases, OD Viral Diseases, CODA-CERVA, Groeselenberg 99, 1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    The 3D and 5UTR real-time RT-PCR assays (RT-qPCR) from Callahan et al. (2002) and Reid et al. (2002) are commonly used reference methods for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Read More

    [Oral lesions associated with human immunodeficiency virus disease in adult patients, a clinical perspective].
    Rev Chilena Infectol 2016 Oct;33(Suppl 1):27-35
    Departamento de Cirugía y Traumatología Máxilo-facial, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile,
    Among the clinical manifestations which may occur in HIV/AIDS patients, oral lesions are relevant because there are easily accessible and usually the diagnosis is made through clinical features. Some oral manifestations are strongly related with HIV/AIDS patients indicating infection and progression to AIDS and also allow monitoring the success or failure of using antiretroviral therapy. The massive introduction of antiretroviral therapy has changed the morbidity and mortality, frequency, type of clinical manifestation and the timing of the classic opportunistic complications. Read More

    [Burkitt's lymphoma of the oral cavity: about a case].
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 3;26:63. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Service d'Odontologie Chirurgicale, Centre de Consultations et de Traitements Dentaire de Casablanca, Faculté de Médecine Dentaire de Casablanca, Maroc.
    Burkitt's lymphoma (LB) is a type of malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma originating from malignant B-cell transformation and proliferation. Positive confirmation is based on biopsy of the tumor mass or bone marrow aspiration revealing the presence of tumor cells. We here report the case of a young man, about twenty years old, addressed for post tooth extraction gingival swellings evolving for 1 month. Read More

    Interferon-free therapy with sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for successful treatment of genotype 2 hepatitis C virus with lichen planus: a case report.
    Clin J Gastroenterol 2017 Jun 26;10(3):270-273. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan.
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains the main cause of liver disease and can lead to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV may also develop extrahepatic manifestations in the skin, eyes, joints, kidneys, nervous system, and immune system. In fact, several studies reported that up to 70% of HCV patients experienced extrahepatic manifestations. Read More

    Alteration of serum high-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) levels in children with enterovirus 71-induced hand, foot, and mouth disease.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Apr;96(17):e6764
    Department of Childhood Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric disease caused by enterovirus infection. It typically presents as a fever along with flat, discolored spots and bumps on the hands, feet, and mouth. Compared with other viruses, enterovirus 71 (EV71)-induced HFMD is more prone to cause severe complications in children, such as brainstem encephalitis, cardiopulmonary disorders, and even death. Read More

    Evaluation of immune responses of stabilised SAT2 antigens of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle.
    Vaccine 2017 Apr 18. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Transboundary Animal Diseases Programme, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa. Electronic address:
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines with improved stability and less reliant on a cold-chain are needed to improve the longevity of immune responses elicited in animals. This is especially so for serotypes O and SAT2 which are unstable in mildly acidic pH conditions or at elevated temperatures leading to dissociation of the capsid (146S particle) and loss of immunogenicity. Previously, stabilised SAT2 viruses were generated by reverse genetic approaches and assessed in vitro and in vivo with a guinea pig trial. Read More

    Development of Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Porcine Circovirus Type 2.
    Biomed Res Int 2017 23;2017:8403642. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xujiaping 1, Lanzhou, Gansu 730046, China.
    Porcine circovirus virus type II (PCV2) is the etiology of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), porcine dermatitis, nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), and necrotizing pneumonia. Rapid diagnosis tool for detection of PCV2 plays an important role in the disease control and eradication program. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays using a real-time fluorescent detection (PCV2 real-time RPA assay) and RPA combined with lateral flow dipstick (PCV2 RPA LFD assay) were developed targeting the PCV2 ORF2 gene. Read More

    Protective Efficacies of Formaldehyde-Inactivated Whole-Virus Vaccine and Antivirals in a Murine Model of Coxsackievirus A10 Infection.
    J Virol 2017 Jul 9;91(13). Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Shandong Universities Key Laboratory of Etiology and Epidemiology of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Taishan Medical University, Taian, China
    Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) is one of the major pathogens associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). CVA10 infection can cause herpangina and viral pneumonia, which can be complicated by severe neurological sequelae. The morbidity and mortality of CVA10-associated HFMD have been increasing in recent years, particularly in the pan-Pacific region. Read More

    Phenotypic and genotypic detection of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis strains isolated from oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 Apr 13;59:e14. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Odontologia, Departamento de Estomatologia, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    The aim of this study was to assess a collection of yeasts to verify the presence of Candida dubliniensis among strains isolated from the oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients which were initially characterized as Candida albicans by the traditional phenotypic method, as well as to evaluate the main phenotypic methods used in the discrimination between the two species and confirm the identification through genotypic techniques, i.e., DNA sequencing. Read More

    Characterization of three small molecule inhibitors of enterovirus 71 identified from screening of a library of natural products.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Jul 13;143:85-96. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Pathogen Diagnostic Center, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology & Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection with EV-A71 is more often associated with neurological complications in children and is responsible for the majority of fatalities, but currently there is no approved antiviral therapy for treatment. Here, we identified auraptene, formononetin, and yangonin as effective inhibitors of EV-A71 infection in the low-micromolar range from screening of a natural product library. Read More

    A novel combined vaccine based on monochimeric VLP co-displaying multiple conserved epitopes against enterovirus 71 and varicella-zoster virus.
    Vaccine 2017 May 10;35(20):2728-2735. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.
    Chicken pox and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) are two major infectious diseases that mainly affect infants and children, causing significant morbidity annually. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and enterovirus 71 (EV71), respectively, are the principal epidemic pathogens causing these two diseases. To investigate the possibility of developing a novel combined vaccine to prevent chicken pox and HFMD, we constructed three chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) (termed HBc-V/1/2, HBc-2/V/1 and HBc-1/2/V) based on the hepatitis B core antigen (HBc) carrier that display epitopes derived from VZV-gE, EV71-VP1, and EV71-VP2 in a varied tandem manner. Read More

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection inhibits LGP2 protein expression to exaggerate inflammatory response and promote viral replication.
    Cell Death Dis 2017 Apr 13;8(4):e2747. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot and Mouth Diseases Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.
    The role of the innate immune protein LGP2 (laboratory of genetics and physiology 2) in FMDV-infected cells remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate the antiviral role of LGP2 during FMDV infection. FMDV infection triggered LGP2 mRNA expression but reduced protein expression. Read More

    Spatio-Temporal Pattern and Risk Factor Analysis of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Associated with Under-Five Morbidity in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region of China.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Apr 13;14(4). Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciencesand Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

    Clinical application analysis of andrographolide total ester sulfonate injection, a traditional Chinese medicine licensed in China.
    J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 2017 Apr 11;37(2):293-299. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Department of Pharmacy, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China.
    Andrographolide total ester sulfonate (ATES) injection is one of the products of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) currently used against viral infection in China. ATES injection was approved for manufacturing and marketing in January 2002. It is indicated for acute respiratory infections, tonsillitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, influenza, foot and mouth disease, bronchiolitis, herpangina, mumps, infectious mononucleosis and psychosis. Read More

    Efficacy of a high potency O1 Manisa foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in cattle against heterologous challenge with a field virus from the O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 lineage collected in North Africa.
    Vaccine 2017 May 7;35(20):2761-2765. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Surrey GU24 0NF, United Kingdom.
    Outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in North Africa (2013) and the Gulf States (2013) of the Middle East have been caused by a FMD viral lineage (O/ME-SA/Ind-2001) that was before 2013 restricted to the Indian Sub-continent. This study was undertaken to assess the in vivo efficacy of a FMD virus emergency vaccine type O1 Manisa against heterologous challenge with a representative field virus (O/ALG/3/2014) from this emerging lineage. This widely available vaccine was selected since in vitro vaccine-matching results gave inconclusive results as to whether or not it would be protective. Read More

    A novel RNA-based in situ hybridization to detect Seneca Valley virus in neonatal piglets and sows affected with vesicular disease.
    PLoS One 2017 10;12(4):e0173190. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States of America.
    Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is the causative agent of an emerging vesicular disease in swine, which is clinically indistinguishable from other vesicular diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease. In addition, SVV has been associated with neonatal mortality in piglets. While a commercial SVV qRT-PCR is available, commercial antibodies are lacking to diagnose SVV infections by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Read More

    Evolving disparities in the epidemiology of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers.
    Cancer Causes Control 2017 Jun 8;28(6):635-645. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Population Health Science Program, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 201 E. Madison St., Springfield, IL, 62794-9664, USA.
    Incidence rates of head and neck cancers (HNC) associated with human papillomavirus (HPVa) infection are increasing while non-HPV-associated (non-HPVa) HNC cancer rates are decreasing. As nearly all sexually active individuals will acquire an HPV infection, it is important to understand epidemiologic trends of HNCs associated with this sexually transmitted disease. We analyzed SEER 9 (1973-2012) and 18 data (2000-2012) for HPVa HNCs (oropharynx area; OP) and non-HPVa (oral cavity area; OC). Read More

    Lithium Chloride inhibits early stages of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication in vitro.
    J Med Virol 2017 Apr 8. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, OIE/National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China.
    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes an economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, swine, and sheep. FMD vaccine is the traditional way to protect against the disease, which can greatly reduce its occurrence. However, the use of FMD vaccines to protect early infection is limited. Read More

    Transient Oral Human Cytomegalovirus Infections Indicate Inefficient Viral Spread from Very Few Initially Infected Cells.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 26;91(12). Epub 2017 May 26.
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is acquired by the oral route in children, and primary infection is associated with abundant mucosal replication, as well as the establishment of latency in myeloid cells that results in lifelong infection. The efficiency of primary CMV infection in humans following oral exposure, however, is unknown. We consistently detected self-limited, low-level oral CMV shedding events, which we termed transient CMV infections, in a prospective birth cohort of 30 highly exposed CMV-uninfected infants. Read More

    An inter- laboratory proficiency testing exercise for rabies diagnosis in Latin America and the Caribbean.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 3;11(4):e0005427. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center, Pan American Health Organization, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    The direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA), is performed in all rabies reference laboratories across Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Despite DFA being a critical capacity in the control of rabies, there is not a standardized protocol in the region. We describe the results of the first inter-laboratory proficiency exercise of national rabies laboratories in LAC countries as part of the regional efforts towards dog-maintained rabies elimination in the American region. Read More

    Epidemics and aetiology of hand, foot and mouth disease in Xiamen, China, from 2008 to 2015.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Jul 3;145(9):1865-1874. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases,Xiamen University,Xiang'an Campus of Xiamen University,South Xiang'an Road,Xiamen,China.
    Over the past 8 years, human enteroviruses (HEVs) have caused 27 227 cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Xiamen, including 99 severe cases and six deaths. We aimed to explore the molecular epidemiology of HFMD in Xiamen to inform the development of diagnostic assays, vaccines and other interventions. From January 2009 to September 2015, 5866 samples from sentinel hospitals were tested using nested reverse transcription PCR that targeted the HEV 5' untranslated region and viral protein 1 region. Read More

    Chimeric virus-like particles elicit protective immunity against serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus in guinea pigs.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Jun 1;101(12):4905-4914. Epub 2017 Apr 1.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, OIE/National Foot and Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046, China.
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute and highly contagious disease caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) that can affect cloven-hoofed animal species, leading to severe economic losses worldwide. Therefore, the development of a safe and effective new vaccine to prevent and control FMD is both urgent and necessary. In this study, we developed a chimeric virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidate for serotype O FMDV and evaluated its protective immunity in guinea pigs. Read More

    Preferences for oral fluid rapid HIV self-testing among social media-using young black, Hispanic, and white men-who-have-sex-with-men (YMSM): implications for future interventions.
    Public Health 2017 Apr 16;145:7-19. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    Fenway Community Health, USA.
    Objectives: We assessed preferences of social media-using young black, Hispanic and white men-who-have-sex-with-men (YMSM) for oral fluid rapid HIV self-testing, as compared to other currently available HIV testing options. We also identified aspects of the oral fluid rapid HIV self-test that might influence preferences for using this test instead of other HIV testing options and determined if consideration of HIV testing costs and the potential future availability of fingerstick rapid HIV self-testing change HIV testing preferences.

    Study Design: Anonymous online survey. Read More

    Paediatric Virology: A rapidly increasing educational challenge.
    Exp Ther Med 2017 Feb 23;13(2):364-377. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Department of Clinical Virology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003, Greece.
    The '2nd Workshop on Paediatric Virology', which took place on Saturday the 8th of October 2016 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview on recent views and advances on Paediatric Virology. Emphasis was given to HIV-1 management in Greece, a country under continuous financial crisis, hepatitis B vaccination in Africa, treatment options for hepatitis C virus in childhood, Zika virus in pregnancy and infancy, the burden of influenza on childhood, hand-foot-mouth disease and myocarditis associated with Coxsackie viruses. Other general topics covered included a critical evaluation of Paediatric Accident and Emergency viral infections, multimodality imaging of viral infections in children, surgical approaches of otolaryngologists to complex viral infections, new advances in the diagnosis and treatment of viral conjunctivitis and novel molecular diagnostic methods for HPV in childhood. Read More

    Outbreak of foot and mouth disease and peste des petits ruminants in sheep flock imported for immediate slaughter in Riyadh.
    Vet World 2017 Feb 22;10(2):238-243. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Department of Animal Medicine, Assiut University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, New Valley Branch, New Valley Governorate, Egypt.
    Aim: To detect and identify the causative agent or agents of the following clinical symptoms which were fever, lack of appetite, salivation, vesiculation, erosions of the buccal mucosa, nose, and feet. The signs vary from mild to severe. The mortality rate of the disease is high. Read More

    Oral microbiome in HIV-associated periodontitis.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Mar;96(12):e5821
    aIrsiCaixa AIDS Research Institute, Badalona bUniversity Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra cUniversity de Vic-University Central de Catalunya, Vic, Catalonia, Spain dDivision of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine eInfectious Diseases Program, Grady Health System fDepartment of Biology, Emory University, O. Wayne Rollins Research Center gDepartment of Global Health, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA hMinistry of Health, Zambia iUnitat VIH, Hosp. University Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Catalonia, Spain.
    HIV-associated periodontal diseases (PD) could serve as a source of chronic inflammation. Here, we sought to characterize the oral microbial signatures of HIV+ and HIV- individuals at different levels of PD severity.This cross-sectional study included both HIV+ and HIV- patients with varying degrees of PD. Read More

    SAT2 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Structurally Modified for Increased Thermostability.
    J Virol 2017 May 28;91(10). Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Transboundary Animal Disease Programme, ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Onderstepoort, South Africa
    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), particularly strains of the O and SAT serotypes, is notoriously unstable. Consequently, vaccines derived from heat-labile SAT viruses have been linked to the induction of immunity with a poor duration and hence require more frequent vaccinations to ensure protection. In silico calculations predicted residue substitutions that would increase interactions at the interpentamer interface, supporting increased stability. Read More

    A descriptive study on demographic and behavioral characteristics of males and their responses to a male involvement intervention in Blantyre, Malawi.
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 7;25:229. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    School of Public Health and Family Medicine, College of Medicine University of Malawi, Malawi.
    Introduction: Male involvement (MI) remains a key factor in the enrollment and retention of pregnant women in the Prevention of Mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) services. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of men who accompanied their partners for PMTCT services and secondly, describe the reported reasons for the non-reporting by men for the services in Blantyre, Malawi.

    Methods: All men included in this analysis were partners of pregnant women enrolled in a MI in PMTCT randomized controlled trial (RCT), which took place in Blantyre, Malawi from 14 June 2013 to 24 February 2014. Read More

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and abuse of anabolic steroids.
    J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Feb 20;43(1):57-60. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Dentistry, General Hospital of Siena, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is characterized by mucocutaneous tenderness and typical hemorrhagic erosions, erythema and epidermal detachment presenting as blisters and areas of denuded skin. SJS is often observed after drug use as well as after bacterial or viral infections. Several drugs are at high risk of inducing SJS, but there are no cases in the English literature regarding anabolic steroid use triggering SJS. Read More

    Amylmetacresol/2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol, hexylresorcinol, or carrageenan lozenges as active treatments for sore throat.
    Int J Gen Med 2017 28;10:53-60. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Marinomed Biotechnologie GmbH, Vienna, Austria.
    Up to 80% of sore throats are caused by viruses. Several over the counter products are available which provide symptomatic, not causal relief. For such lozenges, containing the antiseptics and local anesthetics amylmetacresol (AMC) and 2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol (DCBA) or hexylresorcinol (HR), recently an additional virucidal effect was published. Read More

    Enhancing enterovirus A71 vaccine production yield by microcarrier profusion bioreactor culture.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 6. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Immunology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) are mainly caused by Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infections. Clinical trials in Asia conducted with formalin-inactivated EV-A71 vaccine candidates produced from serum-free Vero cell culture using either roller bottle or cell factory technology, are found to be safe and highly efficacious. To increase vaccine yields and reduce the production costs, the bioprocess improvement for EV-A71 vaccine manufacturing is currently being investigated. Read More

    Identification of a conserved conformational epitope in the VP2 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.
    Arch Virol 2017 Jul 3;162(7):1877-1885. Epub 2017 Mar 3.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Division of Livestock Infectious Diseases, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, NO. 678 Haping Road Xiangfang District, Harbin, 150069, People's Republic of China.
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. VP2 is a structural protein of FMDV. In this study, a potent FMDV serotype-independent monoclonal antibody (MAb) 3D9 was generated. Read More

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