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    Foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid protein VP2 activates the cellular EIF2S1-ATF4 pathway and induces autophagy via HSPB1.
    Autophagy 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    a State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Grazing Animal Diseases of Ministry of Agriculture , Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences , Lanzhou , Gansu , China.
    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can result in economical destruction of cloven-hoofed animals. FMDV infection has been reported to induce macroautophagy/autophagy; however, the precise molecular mechanisms of autophagy induction and effect of FMDV capsid protein on autophagy remain unknown. In the present study, we report that FMDV infection induced a complete autophagy process in the natural host cells of FMDV, and inhibition of autophagy significantly decreased FMDV production, suggesting that FMDV-induced autophagy facilitates viral replication. Read More

    Drug-Induced Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Disease Associated with Biologics and Nonbiologic Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs.
    Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2018 Feb;44(1):29-43
    Division of Rheumatology, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus Barbara Davis Center, 1775 Aurora Court, PO Box 6511, Mail Stop B-115, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
    A variety of gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions are seen in nearly all conventional antirheumatic medications, ranging from nausea to life-threatening drug-induced liver injury. Rheumatologists should be particularly familiar with hepatotoxicity associated with long-term methotrexate use, and the range of unique hepatic, biliary, and pancreatic manifestations associated with azathioprine. Hepatitis B virus reactivation is the most serious gastrointestinal disease risk associated with many biological therapies, particularly rituximab. Read More

    Long-term humoral immunity induced by CVC1302-adjuvanted serotype O foot-and-mouth disease inactivated vaccine correlates with promoted T follicular helper cells and thus germinal center responses in mice.
    Vaccine 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Institute of Veterinary Immunology & Engineering, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210014, China; National Research Center of Engineering and Technology for Veterinary Biologicals, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210014, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009, China. Electronic address:
    Long-lasting humoral immunity is one of the necessary criteria for a successful vaccine. In our previous study, it was demonstrated that the immunopotentiator CVC1302 could improve the humoral immunity induced by the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) killed vaccine (KV) with only one dose. Significantly higher FMDV-specific antibody titers and more persistent antibody responses were observed in pigs receiving CVC1302-adjuvanted KV (KV-CVC1302) than in those inoculated with KV alone. Read More

    Rapid and simple detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus: Evaluation of a cartridge-based molecular detection system for use in basic laboratories.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Vesicular Disease Reference Laboratory, The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey, UK.
    Highly contagious transboundary animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are major threats to the productivity of farm animals. To limit the impact of outbreaks and to take efficient steps towards a timely control and eradication of the disease, rapid and reliable diagnostic systems are of utmost importance. Confirmatory diagnostic assays are typically performed by experienced operators in specialized laboratories, and access to this capability is often limited in the developing countries with the highest disease burden. Read More

    Genome Sequence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus of Serotype O Lineage Ind-2001d Isolated from Cattle in Mongolia in 2015.
    Genome Announc 2017 Nov 9;5(45). Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Exotic Disease Research Unit, Division of Transboundary Animal Diseases, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Josui-honcho, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan
    We report the whole-genome sequence of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) O/MOG/BU/2-7/2015 isolated in Mongolia in 2015. This virus is closely related to isolates identified in Southeast Asia in 2015 and is classified under the O/ME-SA/Ind-2001d lineage. This is the first detection of an FMDV of this lineage in Mongolia. Read More

    Enterovirus 71 antagonizes the antiviral activity of host STAT3 and IL-6R with partial dependence on virus-induced miR-124.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    2​Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Laboratory of Medical Microbiology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai 200032, PR China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease. EV71 infections increase the production of many host cytokines and pro-inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and COX-2. Some of these molecules could stimulate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which plays a key role in regulating host immune responses and several viral diseases. Read More

    Expression and Immunogenicity of Two Recombinant Fusion Proteins Comprising Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Structural Protein VP1 and DC-SIGN-Binding Glycoproteins.
    Biomed Res Int 2017 8;2017:7658970. Epub 2017 Oct 8.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, OIE/National Foot and Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, China.
    Improving vaccine immunogenicity by targeting antigens to dendritic cells has recently emerged as a new design strategy in vaccine development. In this study, the VP1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A was fused with the gene encoding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) membrane glycoprotein gp120 or C2-V3 domain of hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E2, both of which are DC-SIGN-binding glycoproteins. After codon optimization, the VP1 protein and the two recombinant VP1-gp120 and VP1-E2 fusion proteins were expressed in Sf9 insect cells using the insect cell-baculovirus expression system. Read More

    A comparative study of multiple clinical enterovirus 71 isolates and evaluation of cross protection of inactivated vaccine strain FY-23 K-B in vitro.
    Virol J 2017 Oct 26;14(1):206. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, 650118, China.
    Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease, which mostly affects infants and children and leads to severe neurological diseases. Vaccination offers the best option for disease control. We have screened the virus strain FY-23 K-B, which is used as an inactivated vaccine strain. Read More

    Epstein-Barr virus infection and oral squamous cell carcinoma risk: A meta-analysis.
    PLoS One 2017 24;12(10):e0186860. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.
    Background: The evidence for association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is inconsistent in the literature. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to clarify this association.

    Methods: A literature search was conducted in electronic databases for English- and Chinese-language publications until March 31, 2017 to include eligible case-control studies. Read More

    Suppression of the toll-like receptor 7-dependent type I interferon production pathway by autophagy resulting from enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 infections facilitates their replication.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, 935 Jiaoling Road, Kunming, 650118, Yunnan, China.
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) act as molecular sentinels, detecting invading viral pathogens and triggering host innate immune responses, including autophagy. However, many viruses have evolved a series of strategies to manipulate autophagy for their own benefit. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), as the primary agents causing hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), can induce autophagy leading to their replication. Read More

    Complete Genome Sequences of Four Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses of Serotype South African Territories 1 (SAT 1), Topotype X, Isolated from Cattle in Nigeria in 2015.
    Genome Announc 2017 Oct 19;5(42). Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Vesicular and Exotic Diseases Unit, Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Ukkel, Belgium.
    The complete genome sequences of four foot-and-mouth disease viruses of South African territories 1 (SAT 1) serotype are reported. These viruses originate from an outbreak in Nigeria in 2015 and belong to the novel SAT 1 topotype X from the west and central African virus pool. Read More

    Case report: Features of hand, foot and mouth disease in neonates.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Oct;96(42):e8307
    aDepartment of Neonatology bInternal Medicine Intensive Care Unit, Zhangzhou Municipal Hospital affiliated to Fujian Medical School, Zhangzhou, China.
    Rationale: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by enterovirus. The virus may exist in secretions.

    Patient Concerns: Five neonates had symptoms of fever and maculopapular rashes involving face, trunk, breech, arms, and legs, especially scattering on palms and feet. Read More

    ORAL LESIONS IN KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS.
    Acta Clin Croat 2016 09;55(3):459-63
    Permanent immunosuppression is necessary to prevent rejection after kidney transplantation. However, it may predispose patients to different conditions and diseases including oral lesions. The most common benign oral lesions in kidney transplant recipients are gingival hyperplasia, oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia and saburral tongue. Read More

    Cholic acid attenuate ER stress induced cell death in coxsackievirus-B3 infection.
    J Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Oct 14. Epub 2017 Oct 14.
    Department of Biomedical Science, Jungwon University, Goesan-gun, Chungbuk, 367-805, Korea.
    Coxsackievirus Type B3 (CVB3) is an enterovirus that belongs to the Picornaviridae and causes of various diseases such as myocarditis and hand-foot-mouth diseases. But effective antiviral drug was still not developed. In this study, we looking for potential inhibitors of CVB3 replication by examining survival of CVB3-infected HeLa cells. Read More

    Molecular characterization, prevalence and clinical relevance of Phodopus sungorus papillomavirus type 1 (PsuPV1) naturally infecting Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).
    J Gen Virol 2017 Nov 12;98(11):2799-2809. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    1​Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Phodopus sungorus papillomavirus type 1 (PsuPV1), naturally infecting Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) and clustering in the genus Pipapillomavirus (Pi-PV), is only the second PV type isolated from the subfamily of hamsters. In silico analysis of three independent complete viral genomes obtained from cervical adenocarcinoma, oral squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa revealed that PsuPV1 encodes characteristic viral proteins (E1, E2, E4, E6, E7, L1 and L2) with conserved functional domains and a highly conserved non-coding region. The overall high prevalence (102/114; 89. Read More

    Straight from the Horse's "Mouth": Genomic Epidemiology of an Icelandic Equine Epidemic.
    MBio 2017 Oct 10;8(5). Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Despite tight biosecurity measures, an outbreak of respiratory disease rapidly spread across the Icelandic equine population in 2010. Horse transportation was brought to a halt in order to contain the spread of the infectious agent. In a recent article, Björnsdóttir and colleagues (S. Read More

    Detection and phylogenetic analyses of spike genes in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strains circulating in China in 2016-2017.
    Virol J 2017 Oct 10;14(1):194. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, OIE/National Foot and Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046, China.
    Background: Large-scale outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) have re-emerged in China in recent years. However, little is known about the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of field strains of PED virus (PEDV) in China in 2016-2017. To address this issue, in this study, 116 diarrhea samples were collected from pig farms in 6 Chinese provinces in 2016-2017 and were detected using PCR for main porcine enteric pathogens, including PEDV, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine kobuvirus (PKV). Read More

    Long non-coding RNA expression profiles in different severity EV71-infected hand foot and mouth disease patients.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 Dec 7;493(4):1594-1600. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is associated with the severe hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) outcomes, however the host-virus interaction mechanism and the pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in variety physiological and pathological processes, but the functions of lncRNAs in EV71 infection remain elusive. Here we profiled the expression of lncRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from EV71-infected mild patients, severe patients as well as the healthy controls, and identified 8541 lncRNAs were differentially expressed. Read More

    Epitope-associated and specificity-focused features of EV71-neutralizing antibody repertoires from plasmablasts of infected children.
    Nat Commun 2017 Oct 2;8(1):762. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, 33305, Taiwan.
    Protective antibody levels are critical for protection from severe enterovirus 71 infection. However, little is known about the specificities and functional properties of the enterovirus 71-specific antibodies induced by natural infection in humans. Here we characterize 191 plasmablast-derived monoclonal antibodies from three enterovirus 71-infected children, each of whom shows a distinct serological response. Read More

    Interferon-omega: Current status in clinical applications.
    Int Immunopharmacol 2017 Nov 12;52:253-260. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, OIE/National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, Gansu, China.; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province 225009, China.
    Since 1985, interferon (IFN)-ω, a type I IFN, has been identified in many animals, but not canines and mice. It has been demonstrated to have antiviral, anti-proliferation, and antitumor activities that are similar to those of IFN-α. To date, IFN-ω has been explored as a treatment option for some diseases or viral infections in humans and other animals. Read More

    Acute localized exanthem due to Coxsackievirus A4.
    Infez Med 2017 Sep;25(3):274-276
    DISSAL Department of Dermatology, IRCCS A.O.U. San Martino-IST, Genoa, Italy.
    Enteroviruses are the leading cause of exanthems in children, especially during summer and autumn. Enterovirus infections may occur in epidemics or small outbreaks. A 30-year-old woman presented with a three-day history of an erythematous maculopapular skin rash with petechiae localized exclusively under the nipple of the right breast. Read More

    [Design and immunogenicity evaluation for the bacteria-like particle vaccine against swine type O foot-and-mouth disease virus].
    Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2017 Feb;33(2):217-227
    College of Animal Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui, China.
    Based on gram positive enhancer matrix displaying technology, we designed and evaluated a bacteria-like particle vaccine against swine type O Foot-and-mouth disease virus. Three optimized genes of type O Foot-and-mouth disease virus strain Mya98 were cloned into recombinant prokaryotic expression vector pQZ-PA and renamed as pQZ-BT1B-PA, pQZ-BT2B-PA and pQZ-B (T1BT2) 4B-PA, fused with an anchor protein (PA) binding to Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles specifically. The protein expression was identified with SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, and then purified with GEM particles. Read More

    HERP Binds TBK1 To Activate Innate Immunity and Repress Virus Replication in Response to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.
    J Immunol 2017 Nov 27;199(9):3280-3292. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China; and
    Host innate immunity is crucial for cellular responses against viral infection sensed by distinct pattern recognition receptors and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease and neurological diseases. However, the exact mechanism underlying the link between ER stress induced by EV71 infection and host innate immunity is largely unknown. Read More

    Dendrimeric peptides can confer protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.
    PLoS One 2017 26;12(9):e0185184. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    Instituto de Virología, Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA)-Castelar, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals. A synthetic vaccine candidate consisting of dendrimeric peptides harbouring two copies of a B-epitope [VP1(136-154)] linked to a T-cell epitope [3A(21-35)] of FMDV confers protection to type O FMDV challenge in pigs. Herein we show in cattle that novel dendrimeric peptides bearing a T-cell epitope [VP1(21-40] and two or four copies of a B-cell epitope [VP1(135-160)] from type O1 Campos FMDV (termed B2T and B4T, respectively) elicited FMDV specific immune responses to similar levels to a commercial vaccine. Read More

    Vitamin D receptor protects glioblastoma A172 cells against Coxsackievirus A16 infection induced cell death in the pathogenesis of hand, foot, and mouth disease.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 Nov 21;493(2):952-956. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Harbin Children's Hospital, Harbin 150010, China.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) was one of the most common children illnesses. Coxsackievirus A16 was one of the major pathogens that cause HFMD. However, the role of vitamin D underlying this common illness has not been elucidated. Read More

    eEF1G interaction with foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural protein 2B: Identification by yeast two-hybrid system.
    Microb Pathog 2017 Sep 21;112:111-116. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot and Mouth Diseases Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046, PR China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, 225009, China. Electronic address:
    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a picornavirus that causes an economically significant disease in cattle and swine. Replication of FMDV is dependent on both viral proteins and cellular factors. Nonstructural protein 2B of FMDV plays multiple roles during viral infection and replication. Read More

    Multiple transmission chains of coxsackievirus A4 co-circulating in China and neighboring countries in recent years: Phylogenetic and spatiotemporal analyses based on virological surveillance.
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 2018 Jan 20;118:23-31. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, No. 44 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012, People's Republic of China.
    Coxsackievirus A4 (CV-A4) has been reported frequently in association with many infectious diseases and cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease potentially associated with CV-A4 infection are also identified. This study summarized the Shandong CV-A4 strains isolated from 25years acute flaccid paralysis surveillance, with an emphasis on exploring the phylogenetic analyses and spatiotemporal dynamics of CV-A4 at the global scale. We sampled 43 CV-A4 isolates and utilized VP1 gene to construct phylogenetic trees. Read More

    A highly conserved amino acid in VP1 regulates maturation of enterovirus 71.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Sep 22;13(9):e1006625. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical School, Beijing, PR China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children, causing severe clinical outcomes and even death. Here, we report an important role of the highly conserved alanine residue at position 107 in the capsid protein VP1 (VP1A107) in the efficient replication of EV71. Substitutional mutations of VP1A107 significantly diminish viral growth kinetics without significant effect on viral entry, expression of viral genes and viral production. Read More

    Pathogenesis of oral FIV infection.
    PLoS One 2017 21;12(9):e0185138. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is the feline analogue of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and features many hallmarks of HIV infection and pathogenesis, including the development of concurrent oral lesions. While HIV is typically transmitted via parenteral transmucosal contact, recent studies prove that oral transmission can occur, and that saliva from infected individuals contains significant amounts of HIV RNA and DNA. While it is accepted that FIV is primarily transmitted by biting, few studies have evaluated FIV oral infection kinetics and transmission mechanisms over the last 20 years. Read More

    Economic costs and health-related quality of life for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) patients in China.
    PLoS One 2017 21;12(9):e0184266. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    School of Public Health, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, China.
    Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common illness in China that mainly affects infants and children. The objective of this study is to assess the economic cost and health-related quality of life associated with HFMD in China.

    Method: A telephone survey of caregivers were conducted in 31 provinces across China. Read More

    [Targeting the skin - erythema multiforme in dogs and cats].
    Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2017 Oct 20;45(5):352-356. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Teresa Böhm, Medizinische Kleintierklinik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Veterinärstraße 13, 80539 München, E-Mail:
    This review article will describe the complex nature of erythema multiforme in dogs and cats. The disease pattern will be illustrated in terms of etiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnostics and therapy. Erythema multiforme is a rare, immune-mediated skin disorder with an acute specific reaction pattern of skin and mucous membranes against different underlying causes. Read More

    Zoonotic infection of Brazilian primate workers with New World simian foamy virus.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(9):e0184502. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Laboratory Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are retroviruses present in nearly all nonhuman primates (NHPs), including Old World primates (OWP) and New World primates (NWP). While all confirmed human infections with SFV are from zoonotic transmissions originating from OWP, little is known about the zoonotic transmission potential of NWP SFV. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective study of 56 workers occupationally exposed to NWP in Brazil. Read More

    Molecular vaccine prepared by fusion of XCL1 to the multi-epitope protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus enhances the specific humoural immune response in cattle.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Nov 19;101(21):7889-7900. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou, 730046, China.
    Targeting antigen to dendritic cells (DCs) is a promising way to manipulate the immune response and to design prophylactic molecular vaccines. In this study, the cattle XCL1, ligand of XCR1, was fused to the type O foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) multi-epitope protein (XCL-OB7) to create a molecular vaccine antigen, and an (△)XCL-OB7 protein with a mutation in XCL1 was used as the control. XCL-OB7 protein specifically bound to the XCR1 receptor, as detected by flow cytometry. Read More

    Prevalence and determinants of oral infection by Human Papillomavirus in HIV-infected and uninfected men who have sex with men.
    PLoS One 2017 14;12(9):e0184623. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    STI/HIV Unit, San Gallicano Dermatologic Institute, IFO, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.
    Background: Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is rare in the general population but common in high-risk individuals. Recent data indicate that oral HPV is associated with the development of head and neck carcinomas. HPV16 infection, in particular, increases the risk of oropharyngeal cancer. Read More

    An unusual case of bacillary angiomatosis in the oral cavity of an AIDS patient who had no concomitant tegumentary lesions - case report and review.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 Aug 24;59:e59. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Laboratório de Hantaviroses e Rickettsioses, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) is an angioproliferative disease of immunocompromised patients that usually presents as vascular tumors in the skin and subcutaneous tissues. It is caused by chronic infections with either Bartonella henselae or B. quintana. Read More

    Cost-effectiveness of a national enterovirus 71 vaccination program in China.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 11;11(9):e0005899. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Background And Aims: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused great morbidity, mortality, and use of health service in children younger than five years in China. Vaccines against EV71 have been proved effective and safe by recent phase 3 trials and are now available in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health impact and cost-effectiveness of a national EV71 vaccination program in China. Read More

    Spatiotemporal risk mapping of hand, foot and mouth disease and its association with meteorological variables in children under 5 years.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Oct 11;145(14):2912-2920. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment,Beijing,China.
    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) risk has become an increasing concern in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, which is the biggest urban agglomeration in north-eastern Asia. In the study, spatiotemporal epidemiological features of HFMD were analysed, and a Bayesian space-time hierarchy model was used to detect local spatial relative risk (RR) and to assess the effect of meteorological factors. From 2009 to 2013, there was an obvious seasonal pattern of HFMD risk. Read More

    Molecular characterization of circulating Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O topotype EA-3 and serotype A (African topotype) genotype IV in Egypt, 2016.
    Vet Microbiol 2017 Sep 18;208:89-93. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, 43 Brighton Road, Tifton, GA, USA.
    In January-April 2016, cattle and buffalo farm owners and veterinarians reported clinical signs suggestive of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) outbreaks among non-vaccinated cattle and buffalo herds in Egypt. The clinical disease observed was either mild (small oral lesions and speedy recovery) or severe (extensive oral lesions and/or mortalities), and the form of the disease (either mild or severe) segregated by farm. This study aimed to confirm the presence of FMDV and to characterize the circulating strains associated with the outbreaks. Read More

    ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Picornaviridae.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Oct 8;98(10):2421-2422. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    13​Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Nutrition, Shubun University, Aichi, Japan.
    The family Picornaviridae comprises small non-enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 6.7 to 10.1 kb, and contains >30 genera and >75 species. Read More

    Identification of a serotype-independent linear epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus.
    Arch Virol 2017 Dec 7;162(12):3875-3880. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Division of Livestock Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 678 Haping Road Xiangfang District, Harbin, 150069, People's Republic of China.
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. VP2 is a structural protein of FMDV. In this study, an FMDV serotype-independent monoclonal antibody (MAb), 10B10, against the viral capsid protein VP2 was generated, and a series of GST fusion proteins expressing a truncated peptide of VP2 was subjected to Western blot analysis using MAb 10B10. Read More

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) Virus 3C Protease Mutant L127P: Implications for FMD Vaccine Development.
    J Virol 2017 Nov 27;91(22). Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, New York, USA.
    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) afflicts livestock in more than 80 countries, limiting food production and global trade. Production of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines requires cytosolic expression of the FMDV 3C protease to cleave the P1 polyprotein into mature capsid proteins, but the FMDV 3C protease is toxic to host cells. To identify less-toxic isoforms of the FMDV 3C protease, we screened 3C mutants for increased transgene output in comparison to wild-type 3C using a Gaussia luciferase reporter system. Read More

    Mechanical Barriers Restrict Invasion of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Human Oral Mucosa.
    J Virol 2017 Nov 27;91(22). Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Center for Biochemistry, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
    Oral mucosa is one of the main target tissues of the human pathogen herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). How the virus overcomes the protective epithelial barriers and penetrates the tissue to reach its receptors and initiate infection is still unclear. Here, we established an ex vivo infection assay with human oral mucosa that allows viral entry studies in a natural target tissue. Read More

    A non-invasive specimen collection method and a novel simian foamy virus (SFV) DNA quantification assay in New World primates reveal aspects of tissue tropism and improved SFV detection.
    PLoS One 2017 1;12(9):e0184251. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) co-evolved with a wide range of Old World and New World primates (OWPs and NWPs, respectively) and occasionally transmit to humans. Previous studies of OWPs showed that the predominant site of SFV replication is the oral mucosa. However, very little is known about SFV viral loads (VLs) in the oral mucosa or blood of NWPs. Read More

    Influence of vaccine potency and booster administration of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines on the antibody response in calves with maternal antibodies.
    J Vet Sci 2017 Aug;18(S1):315-322
    Institute of Foot and Mouth Disease (SAP), Ankara 06044, Turkey.
    Foot-and-mouth disease is one of the most important viral diseases of cloven-hoofed animals. Mass vaccination is an effective method to control the disease and is frequently utilized in endemic regions. Sufficient protection of young animals is important in mass vaccination campaigns. Read More

    Cross-species hybridization of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected BHK-21 cells using human and mouse oligonucleotide microarrays.
    Acta Virol 2017;61(3):299-307
    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has a dual capacity to induce either acute or persistent infection in host animals. Establishment of an in vitro cell model of FMDV persistent infection facilitates the study of the mechanism underlying this type of infection. In this study, we analyzed gene expression profiles of both acute and persistent infections using cross-species microarrays. Read More

    HRS plays an important role for TLR7 signaling to orchestrate inflammation and innate immunity upon EV71 infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Aug 30;13(8):e1006585. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an RNA virus that causes hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), and even fatal encephalitis in children. Although EV71 pathogenesis remains largely obscure, host immune responses may play important roles in the development of diseases. Recognition of pathogens mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induces host immune and inflammatory responses. Read More

    Enrichment of Viral Nucleic Acids by Solution Hybrid Selection with Genus Specific Oligonucleotides.
    Sci Rep 2017 Aug 29;7(1):9752. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Federal Budget Institute of Science Central Research Institute for Epidemiology, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Despite recent advances, our knowledge of potential and rare human pathogens is far from exhaustive. Current molecular diagnostic tools mainly rely on the specific amplification of marker sequences and may overlook infections caused by unknown and rare pathogens. Using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) can solve this problem; but, due to the extremely low fraction of pathogen genetic material in clinical samples, its application is only cost-effective in special, rather than routine, cases. Read More


    Defining the relative performance of isothermal assays that can be used for rapid and sensitive detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.
    J Virol Methods 2017 Nov 31;249:102-110. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Surrey, GU24 0NF, UK. Electronic address:
    This study describes the first multiway comparison of portable isothermal assays for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), benchmarked against real-time reverse transcription RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). The selected isothermal chemistries included reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA). The analytical sensitivity of RT-LAMP was comparable to rRT-PCR (10(1) RNA copies), while RT-RPA was one log10 less sensitive (10(2) RNA copies). Read More

    A ten years (2007-2016) retrospective serological survey for Seneca Valley virus infection in major pig producing states of Brazil.
    Vet Res Commun 2017 Dec 23;41(4):317-321. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Laboratory of Animal Virology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid - Campus Universitário, CEP, PO Box 10011, Londrina, Paraná, 86057-970, Brazil.
    Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is the etiological agent of vesicular disease in pigs, clinically indistinguishable of classical viral vesicular infections, including foot-and-mouth disease. The first outbreaks of SVV infection in Brazil were reported in 2014. However, it was not known whether the virus was circulating in Brazilian pig herds before this year. Read More

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