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    14242 results match your criteria Viral Infections of the Mouth

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    Comprehensive virome analysis reveals the complexity and diversity of the viral spectrum in pediatric patients diagnosed with severe and mild hand-foot-and-mouth disease.
    Virology 2018 Feb 19;518:116-125. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China. Electronic address:
    The management of hand-foot-and-mouth disease(HFMD) epidemic is difficult due to the frequent emergence of non-EV71 and non-CVA16 enteroviruses and some cases testing negative for HFMD-associated causative agents. To clarify the virus spectrum of mild and severe HFMD, a comprehensive virome analysis of 238 samples was performed using next-generation sequencing (NGS). The data revealed total thirteen mammalian- and plant- virus families and diverse viral populations including enteroviruses, common respiratory viruses, diarrhea-related viruses, plant viruses and anelloviruses. Read More

    Irreversible inactivation of ISG15 by a viral leader protease enables alternative infection detection strategies.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Protein and Nucleic Acid Chemistry Division, Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CB2 0QH Cambridge, United Kingdom;
    In response to viral infection, cells mount a potent inflammatory response that relies on ISG15 and ubiquitin posttranslational modifications. Many viruses use deubiquitinases and deISGylases that reverse these modifications and antagonize host signaling processes. We here reveal that the leader protease, Lb, from foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) targets ISG15 and to a lesser extent, ubiquitin in an unprecedented manner. Read More

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus type O specific mutations determine RNA-dependent RNA polymerase fidelity and virus attenuation.
    Virology 2018 Feb 15;518:87-94. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Division of Livestock Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 678 Haping Road, Xiangfang District, Harbin 150069, PR China. Electronic address:
    Previous studies have shown that the FMDV Asia1/YS/CHA/05 high-fidelity mutagen-resistant variants are attenuated (Zeng et al., 2014). Here, we introduced the same single or multiple-amino-acid substitutions responsible for increased 3Dfidelity of type Asia1 FMDV into the type O FMDV O/YS/CHA/05 infectious clone. Read More

    [The Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of neonatal herpes simplex infections].
    • Authors:
    An Pediatr (Barc) 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are rare, but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most newborns acquire herpes simplex virus infection in the peripartum period. For peripartum transmission to occur, women must be shedding the virus in their genital tracts symptomatically or asymptomatically around the time of delivery. Read More

    Single-cell analysis of the impact of host-cell heterogeneity on infection with foot and mouth disease virus.
    J Virol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
    Viral infection and replication are affected by host-cell heterogeneity, but the mechanisms underlying the effects remain unclear. Using single-cell analysis, we investigated the effects of host-cell heterogeneity, including cell size, inclusion, and cell cycle, on foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection (acute and persistent infections) and replication. We detected variable viral genome replication levels in FMDV-infected cells. Read More

    Pyroptosis induced by enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus B3 infection affects viral replication and host response.
    Sci Rep 2018 Feb 13;8(1):2887. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin, 150081, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the primary causative pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), affecting children with severe neurological complications. Pyroptosis is a programmed cell death characterized by cell lysis and inflammatory response. Although proinflammatory response has been implicated to play important roles in EV71-caused diseases, the involvement of pyroptosis in the pathogenesis of EV71 is poorly defined. Read More

    Development and validation of a foot-and-mouth disease virus SAT serotype-specific 3ABC assay to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals.
    J Virol Methods 2018 Feb 8;255:44-51. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Transboundary Animal Diseases, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa. Electronic address:
    The effective control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) requires sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic tools. However, the control and eradication of FMD in Africa is complicated by, among other factors, the existence of five of the seven FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes, including the SAT-serotypes 1, 2 and 3 that are genetically and antigenically the most variable FMDV serotypes. A key diagnostic assay to enable a country to re-gain its FMD-free status and for FMD surveillance, is the 3ABC or the non-structural protein (NSP) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Read More

    Seneca Valley Virus 3Cabrogates the IRF3- and IRF7-mediated innate immune response by degrading IRF3 and IRF7.
    Virology 2018 Feb 7;518:1-7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot and Mouth Diseases Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, China. Electronic address:
    Seneca Valley Virus (SVV) is a newly emerged virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae. Basic knowledge of the immunological response to SVV is limited. To date, one study has demonstrated that SVV 3Cmediates the cleavage of host MAVS, TRIF, and TANK at specific sites and consequently escapes the host's antiviral innate immunity. Read More

    GS-9620 inhibits enterovirus 71 replication mainly through the NF-κB and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) & Comparative Medicine Centre, Peking Union Medical Collage (PUMC) & Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Models of Emerging and Remerging Infectious Diseases, Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine Ministry of Health, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:
    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the second most common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which can occur as a severe epidemic especially among children under 5-years old. New and improved treatment strategies to control EV71 infection are therefore urgently required. The heterocyclic compound GS-9620, a potent and selective agonist of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), has been reported to activate plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), and suppress HBV as well as HIV replication. Read More

    Molecular epidemiology, evolution and phylogeny of foot-and-mouth disease virus.
    Infect Genet Evol 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    DTU National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Lindholm, Kalvehave 4771, Denmark. Electronic address:
    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is responsible for one of the most economically important infectious diseases of livestock. The virus spreads very easily and continues to affect many countries (mainly in Africa and Asia). The risks associated with the introduction of FMDV result in major barriers to trade in animals and their products. Read More

    Oral condyloma acuminatum in a 75-year-old geriatric patient.
    BMJ Case Rep 2018 Feb 1;2018. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Department of Oral Pathology, Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Science & Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Condyloma acuminatum (CA) is a human papillomavirus-induced sexually transmitted disease which is characterised by epithelial proliferation in the genital region, perianal region, oral cavity and larynx. It was first reported by Knapp and Uohara in 1967. The disease is more common in children and teenagers and appears as solitary or multiple, pinkish, sessile papules or plaques with pebbled surface or as pedunculated papillary lesions. Read More

    Genetic stability of foot-and-mouth disease virus during long-term infections in natural hosts.
    PLoS One 2018 1;13(2):e0190977. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, New York, United States of America.
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a severe infection caused by a picornavirus that affects livestock and wildlife. Persistence in ruminants is a well-documented feature of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) pathogenesis and a major concern for disease control. Persistently infected animals harbor virus for extended periods, providing a unique opportunity to study within-host virus evolution. Read More

    Modifications to the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A peptide; influence on polyprotein processing and virus replication.
    J Virol 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    DTU National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Lindholm, DK-4771, Kalvehave, Denmark
    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has a positive-sense ssRNA genome that includes a single, large, open reading frame encoding a polyprotein. The co-translational "cleavage" of this polyprotein at the 2A/2B junction is mediated by the 2A peptide (18 residues in length) using a non-proteolytic mechanism termed "ribosome skipping" or "StopGo". Multiple variants of the 2A polypeptide with this property among the picornaviruses share a conserved C-terminal motif (D(V/I)E(S/T)NPG↓P). Read More

    The pathogenesis of iodide mumps: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Nov;96(47):e8881
    Relation: Iodide mumps is an uncommon condition, induced by iodide-containing contrast, and is characterized by a rapid, painless enlargement of the bilateral or unilateral salivary gland. At present, the pathogenesis of iodide mumps is not yet clear. It may be related to an idiosyncratic reaction, a toxic accumulation of iodine in the gland duct, or renal function damage leading to an iodine excretion disorder. Read More

    Detection of Pathogen Exposure in African Buffalo Using Non-Specific Markers of Inflammation.
    Front Immunol 2017 11;8:1944. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Integrative Biology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States.
    Detecting exposure to new or emerging pathogens is a critical challenge to protecting human, domestic animal, and wildlife health. Yet, current techniques to detect infections typically target known pathogens of humans or economically important animals. In the face of the current surge in infectious disease emergence, non-specific disease surveillance tools are urgently needed. Read More

    Inhibition of EV71 by curcumin in intestinal epithelial cells.
    PLoS One 2018 25;13(1):e0191617. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.
    EV71 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Picornaviridae family. EV71 infection may cause various symptoms ranging from hand-foot-and-mouth disease to neurological pathological conditions such as aseptic meningitis, ataxia, and acute transverse myelitis. There is currently no effective treatment or vaccine available. Read More

    Development of a chemiluminescence immunoassay using recombinant non-structural epitope-based proteins to accurately differentiate foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected and vaccinated bovines.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China.
    The contamination of inactivated vaccine with non-structural proteins (NSPs) leads to a high false-positive rate, which is a substantial barrier to accurately differentiate foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-infected animals from vaccinated animals. To address this problem, a new chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) method was developed to detect antibodies targeting the two recombinant epitope-based proteins located in 3A and 3B. The 3Aepitp-3Bepitp CLIA exhibited a diagnostic sensitivity of 94. Read More

    Development of Orally Applicable, Combinatorial Drug-Loaded Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Fibrosarcoma.
    J Pharm Sci 2018 Jan 12. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Biruni University Faculty of Pharmacy, 34010, Topkapi, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:
    Nanoparticulate systems have been receiving a significant attention especially for the treatment of cancer but one of the main hurdles is to produce these developed and high-tech nanosystems in large quantities. Anticancer drug formulations are generally designed for parenteral administrations but oral administration is still the most convenient route. In this study, orally applicable nano-sized chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully prepared using Nano Spray Dryer. Read More

    Serological survey of neutralizing antibodies to eight major enteroviruses among healthy population.
    Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Jan 10;7(1). Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Life Sciences, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361102, China.
    Human enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common causative agents infecting human, causing many harmful diseases, such as hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), herpangina (HA), myocarditis, encephalitis, and aseptic meningitis. EV-related diseases pose a serious worldwide threat to public health. To gain comprehensive insight into the seroepidemiology of major prevalent EVs in humans, we firstly performed a serological survey for neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), Coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16), Coxsackie virus A6 (CV-A6), Coxsackie virus A10 (CV-A10), Coxsackie virus B3 (CV-B3), Coxsackie virus B5 (CV-B5), Echovirus 25 (ECHO25), and Echovirus 30 (ECHO30) among the healthy population in Xiamen City in 2016, using micro-neutralization assay. Read More

    Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an inactivated cell culture-derived Seneca Valley virus vaccine in pigs.
    Vaccine 2018 Feb 5;36(6):841-846. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot and Mouth Diseases Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China. Electronic address:
    Seneca Valley virus (SVV) infection in pigs is associated with porcine idiopathic vesicular disease (PIVD). Outbreaks of SVV infection in pig herds have been reported in several Asia and Americas countries. Recently, a series of outbreaks of SVV infection occurred in China, Canada, Thailand and the United States. Read More

    Enhanced human enterovirus 71 infection by endocytosis inhibitors reveals multiple entry pathways by enterovirus causing hand-foot-and-mouth diseases.
    Virol J 2018 Jan 3;15(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Background: Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) was previously known to enter cells through clathrin or caveolar mediated endocytic pathways. However, we observed chlorpromazine (CPZ) or dynasore (DNS), which inhibit clathrin and dynamin mediated endocytosis, did not suppress EV71 cell entry in particular cell types. So the current knowledge of entry mechanisms by EV71 is not complete. Read More

    Immunity against hepatitis E virus infection: Implications for therapy and vaccine development.
    Rev Med Virol 2017 Dec 22. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center and Postgraduate School Molecular Medicine, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide and an emerging cause of chronic infection in immunocompromised patients. As with viral infections in general, immune responses are critical to determine the outcome of HEV infection. Accumulating studies in cell culture, animal models and patients have improved our understanding of HEV immunopathogenesis and informed the development of new antiviral therapies and effective vaccines. Read More

    Multi-resistance strategy for viral diseases and in vitro shRNA verification method in pigs.
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2017 Dec 19. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Animal Biotechnology Major, Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
    Objective: Foot and mouth disease (FMD) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) are major diseases that interrupt porcine production. Because they are viral diseases, vaccinations are of only limited effectiveness in preventing outbreaks. To establish an alternative multi-resistant strategy against FMD virus (FMDV) and PRRS virus (PRRSV), the present study introduced two genetic modification techniques to porcine cells. Read More

    RSAD2 and AIM2 modulate CV-A16 and EV-A71 replication in neuronal cells in different ways that may be associated with their 5' non-translated regions.
    J Virol 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Departments of Pathology and Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) are closely related enteroviruses that cause the same hand, foot and mouth disease but neurological complications occur only very rarely in CV-A16 compared to EV-A71 infections. To elucidate host responses that may be able to explain these differences, we performed transcriptomic analysis and qRT-PCR in CV-A16 infected neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-SH) which showed that the radical s-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2 (RSAD2) was the highest up-regulated gene in the anti-microbial pathway. Increased RSAD2 expression was correlated with reduced viral replication while RSAD2 knockdown cells were correlated with increased replication. Read More

    Clearance of a persistent picornavirus infection is associated with enhanced pro-apoptotic and cellular immune responses.
    Sci Rep 2017 Dec 19;7(1):17800. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY, USA.
    Long-term persistent viral infections cause substantial morbidity and associated economic losses in human and veterinary contexts. Yet, the mechanisms associated with establishment of persistent infections are poorly elucidated. We investigated immunomodulatory mechanisms associated with clearance versus persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in micro-dissected compartments of the bovine nasopharynx by microarray. Read More

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection stimulates innate immune signaling in the mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells.
    Can J Microbiol 2018 Feb 18;64(2):155-166. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    a College of Veterinary Medicine, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, 730070 Gansu, People's Republic of China.
    The innate immune system acts as the first line of defense against invasion by bacterial and viral pathogens. The role of macrophages in innate immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is poorly understood. To determine the mechanism underlying activation of innate immunity after FMDV infection in macrophages, we performed FMDV infection in mouse macrophage RAW 264. Read More

    Risk factors for death in children with critical and severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease in Chongqing, China: An observational study.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(49):e8934
    Infection Department of the Children's Hospital, The Pediatrics Institution of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, The Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, P.R. China.
    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood infection that may lead to serious complications and even death. Globally, epidemics of HFMD are increasing each year, especially in China. This study aimed to identify risk factors for death in children with critical and severe HFMD in Chongqing, China. Read More

    Immunopathogenesis and Virus-Host Interactions of Enterovirus 71 in Patients with Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease.
    Front Microbiol 2017 28;8:2249. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a global infectious disease that affects millions of people. The virus is the main etiological agent for hand, foot, and mouth disease with outbreaks and epidemics being reported globally. Infection can cause severe neurological, cardiac, and respiratory problems in children under the age of 5. Read More

    The Kinase STK3 Interacts with the Viral Structural Protein VP1 and Inhibits Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Replication.
    Biomed Res Int 2017 31;2017:2481348. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot and Mouth Diseases Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, China.
    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of FMD, which affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. The structural protein VP1 plays an important role in FMDV pathogenesis. However, the interacting partners of VP1 in host cells and the effects of these interactions in FMDV replication remain incompletely elucidated. Read More

    Epidemiological and genetic characteristics of EV71 in hand, foot, and mouth disease in Guangxi, southern China, from 2010 to 2015.
    PLoS One 2017 7;12(12):e0188640. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Institute of Acute Infectious Diseases Control and Prevention, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Nanning, Guangxi, China.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a significant public health challenge in China. Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is regarded as the predominant causative pathogen of HFMD. Since 2015, two inactivated EV71 vaccines have been approved in mainland China, and because their use could change the HFMD pathogen spectrum, this should now be monitored. Read More

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission dynamics and persistence in a herd of vaccinated dairy cattle in India.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY, USA.
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an important transboundary disease with substantial economic impacts. Although between-herd transmission of the disease has been well studied, studies focusing on within-herd transmission using farm-level outbreak data are rare. The aim of this study was to estimate parameters associated with within-herd transmission, host physiological factors and FMD virus (FMDV) persistence using data collected from an outbreak that occurred at a large, organized dairy farm in India. Read More

    Bayesian inference of epidemiological parameters from transmission experiments.
    Sci Rep 2017 Dec 1;7(1):16774. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Surrey, GU24 0NF, UK.
    Epidemiological parameters for livestock diseases are often inferred from transmission experiments. However, there are several limitations inherent to the design of such experiments that limits the precision of parameter estimates. In particular, infection times and latent periods cannot be directly observed and infectious periods may also be censored. Read More

    A multiplex reverse transcription PCR and automated electronic microarray assay for detection and differentiation of seven viruses affecting swine.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Lethbridge Laboratory, National Centres for Animal Disease, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Lethbridge, AB, Canada.
    Microarray technology can be useful for pathogen detection as it allows simultaneous interrogation of the presence or absence of a large number of genetic signatures. However, most microarray assays are labour-intensive and time-consuming to perform. This study describes the development and initial evaluation of a multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and novel accompanying automated electronic microarray assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of seven important viruses that affect swine (foot-and-mouth disease virus [FMDV], swine vesicular disease virus [SVDV], vesicular exanthema of swine virus [VESV], African swine fever virus [ASFV], classical swine fever virus [CSFV], porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus [PRRSV] and porcine circovirus type 2 [PCV2]). Read More

    Serological investigation of some important RNA viruses affecting sheep and goats in Giza and Beni-Suef governorates in Egypt.
    Vet World 2017 Oct 2;10(10):1161-1166. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Department of Cell Biology, Division of Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology, National Research Centre, 12622 Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies against foot and mouth disease (FMD), Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR), and bluetongue (BT) in sheep and goats within Giza and Beni-Suef governorates at the second half of 2016.

    Materials And Methods: A total of 300 animals (sheep and goats) randomly selected from small stocks with no history of previous vaccination against FMD virus (FMDV), PPR, or BT viruses (BTV) and examined with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of FMD-non-structural protein, PPR, and BT antibodies.

    Results: Seroprevalence analysis revealed that antibodies against FMDV were 40. Read More

    Atypical Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6 in Denmark: A Diagnostic Mimicker.
    Acta Derm Venereol 2017 Nov 28. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre, Odense University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark.
    Since 2008, outbreaks of atypical hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in children and adults have been reported worldwide. The majority of these outbreaks are caused by a new lineage of Coxsackie virus A6 (CV-A6) presenting a more severe clinical phenotype than the classical childhood HFMD caused by CV-A16. Between June 2014 and January 2016, 23 cases of atypical HFMD disease presented at a Dermatology Department at a regional University Hospital in Denmark. Read More

    The 3C protease of enterovirus A71 counteracts the activity of host zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP).
    J Gen Virol 2018 Jan 28;99(1):73-85. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    1​CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, PR China.
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a positive-strand RNA virus that causes hand-foot-mouth disease and neurological complications in children and infants. Although the underlying mechanisms remain to be further defined, impaired immunity is thought to play an important role. The host zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP), an IFN-stimulated gene product, has been reported to specifically inhibit the replication of certain viruses. Read More

    Hsc70 regulates the IRES activity and serves as an antiviral target of enterovirus A71 infection.
    Antiviral Res 2018 02 24;150:39-46. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Biotechnology and Health Center, CityU Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a small positive-stranded RNA virus that causes human hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and fatal neurological disorders in some cases without effective treatment. Here we show that heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70), a molecular chaperone, displays pivotal role in viral infections. Knockdown of Hsc70 significantly suppresses viral replication evidenced by reducing not only the level of both viral replication intermediates (negative stranded RNA) and viral genomic RNA (positive stranded RNA), but also the level of viral protein expression; whereas ectopic expression of Hsc70 markedly promotes viral replication. Read More

    Nonstructural protein 2A modulates replication and virulence of enterovirus 71.
    Virus Res 2018 Jan 21;244:262-269. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012 Shandong Province, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease in children, and severe infections can induce neurological complications and even death. However, the pathogenesis of EV71 remains unknown. The 2A proteinase (2A) of EV71 plays an important role in segmenting the precursor polyprotein during viral replication, inhibiting host protein synthesis, and evading innate immunity. Read More

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid protein VP2 activates the cellular EIF2S1-ATF4 pathway and induces autophagy via HSPB1.
    Autophagy 2017 Nov 23:1-11. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    a State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Grazing Animal Diseases of Ministry of Agriculture , Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Lanzhou , Gansu , China.
    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can result in economical destruction of cloven-hoofed animals. FMDV infection has been reported to induce macroautophagy/autophagy; however, the precise molecular mechanisms of autophagy induction and effect of FMDV capsid protein on autophagy remain unknown. In the present study, we report that FMDV infection induced a complete autophagy process in the natural host cells of FMDV, and inhibition of autophagy significantly decreased FMDV production, suggesting that FMDV-induced autophagy facilitates viral replication. Read More

    [Fatal case of enterovirus A71 hand, foot, and mouth disease infection].
    Arch Pediatr 2017 Dec 20;24(12):1253-1258. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    CHU Clermont-Ferrand, CNR des entérovirus et parechovirus (laboratoire associé), 58, rue Montalembert, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France; Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, LMGE, équipe épidémiologie et physiopathologie des infections à entérovirus, place Henri-Dunant, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France. Electronic address:
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with enterovirus (EV) infections is a common pediatric pathology that is usually considered as benign. However, neurological complications of varying severity, sometimes fatal, are possible, particularly when EV-A71 is involved. Several Asian countries are regularly affected by large-scale epidemics of EV infections with substantial morbidity and mortality, where early screening and appropriate therapeutic management are a public health challenge. Read More

    Drug-Induced Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Disease Associated with Biologics and Nonbiologic Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs.
    Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2018 Feb;44(1):29-43
    Division of Rheumatology, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus Barbara Davis Center, 1775 Aurora Court, PO Box 6511, Mail Stop B-115, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
    A variety of gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions are seen in nearly all conventional antirheumatic medications, ranging from nausea to life-threatening drug-induced liver injury. Rheumatologists should be particularly familiar with hepatotoxicity associated with long-term methotrexate use, and the range of unique hepatic, biliary, and pancreatic manifestations associated with azathioprine. Hepatitis B virus reactivation is the most serious gastrointestinal disease risk associated with many biological therapies, particularly rituximab. Read More

    A tiny tick can cause a big health problem.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov;65(11):1228-1232
    Former Professor, Electron Microscopy Centre, Plymouth University, England, United Kingdom.
    Ticks are tiny crawling bugs in the spider family that feed by sucking blood from animals. They are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Infected ticks spread over a hundred diseases, some of which are fatal if undetected. Read More

    Long-term humoral immunity induced by CVC1302-adjuvanted serotype O foot-and-mouth disease inactivated vaccine correlates with promoted T follicular helper cells and thus germinal center responses in mice.
    Vaccine 2017 Dec 9;35(51):7088-7094. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Institute of Veterinary Immunology & Engineering, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210014, China; National Research Center of Engineering and Technology for Veterinary Biologicals, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210014, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009, China. Electronic address:
    Long-lasting humoral immunity is one of the necessary criteria for a successful vaccine. In our previous study, it was demonstrated that the immunopotentiator CVC1302 could improve the humoral immunity induced by the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) killed vaccine (KV) with only one dose. Significantly higher FMDV-specific antibody titers and more persistent antibody responses were observed in pigs receiving CVC1302-adjuvanted KV (KV-CVC1302) than in those inoculated with KV alone. Read More

    Rapid and simple detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus: Evaluation of a cartridge-based molecular detection system for use in basic laboratories.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Vesicular Disease Reference Laboratory, The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey, UK.
    Highly contagious transboundary animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are major threats to the productivity of farm animals. To limit the impact of outbreaks and to take efficient steps towards a timely control and eradication of the disease, rapid and reliable diagnostic systems are of utmost importance. Confirmatory diagnostic assays are typically performed by experienced operators in specialized laboratories, and access to this capability is often limited in the developing countries with the highest disease burden. Read More

    Genome Sequence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus of Serotype O Lineage Ind-2001d Isolated from Cattle in Mongolia in 2015.
    Genome Announc 2017 Nov 9;5(45). Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Exotic Disease Research Unit, Division of Transboundary Animal Diseases, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Josui-honcho, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan
    We report the whole-genome sequence of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) O/MOG/BU/2-7/2015 isolated in Mongolia in 2015. This virus is closely related to isolates identified in Southeast Asia in 2015 and is classified under the O/ME-SA/Ind-2001d lineage. This is the first detection of an FMDV of this lineage in Mongolia. Read More

    Rapid and Accurate Sequencing of Enterovirus Genomes Using MinION Nanopore Sequencer.
    Biomed Environ Sci 2017 Oct;30(10):718-726
    National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.
    Objective: Knowledge of an enterovirus genome sequence is very important in epidemiological investigation to identify transmission patterns and ascertain the extent of an outbreak. The MinION sequencer is increasingly used to sequence various viral pathogens in many clinical situations because of its long reads, portability, real-time accessibility of sequenced data, and very low initial costs. However, information is lacking on MinION sequencing of enterovirus genomes. Read More

    Enterovirus 71 antagonizes the antiviral activity of host STAT3 and IL-6R with partial dependence on virus-induced miR-124.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Dec 9;98(12):3008-3025. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    1​Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology of Ministries of Education and Health, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, PR China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease. EV71 infections increase the production of many host cytokines and pro-inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and COX-2. Some of these molecules could stimulate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which plays a key role in regulating host immune responses and several viral diseases. Read More

    Expression and Immunogenicity of Two Recombinant Fusion Proteins Comprising Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Structural Protein VP1 and DC-SIGN-Binding Glycoproteins.
    Biomed Res Int 2017 8;2017:7658970. Epub 2017 Oct 8.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, OIE/National Foot and Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, China.
    Improving vaccine immunogenicity by targeting antigens to dendritic cells has recently emerged as a new design strategy in vaccine development. In this study, the VP1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A was fused with the gene encoding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) membrane glycoprotein gp120 or C2-V3 domain of hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E2, both of which are DC-SIGN-binding glycoproteins. After codon optimization, the VP1 protein and the two recombinant VP1-gp120 and VP1-E2 fusion proteins were expressed in Sf9 insect cells using the insect cell-baculovirus expression system. Read More

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) perinatal transmission and risk of HPV persistence among children: Design, methods and preliminary results of the HERITAGE study.
    Papillomavirus Res 2016 Dec 12;2:145-152. Epub 2016 Jul 12.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sainte-Justine Hospital, Montreal, Canada.
    Perinatal route of transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been demonstrated in several small studies. We designed a large prospective cohort study (HERITAGE) to better understand perinatal HPV. The objective of this article is to present the study design and preliminary data. Read More

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