46,939 results match your criteria Viral Infections and Pregnancy


Moderately pathogenic maternal influenza A virus infection disrupts placental integrity but spares the fetal brain.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH USA; Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH USA; Infectious Diseases Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH USA; Medical Scientist Training Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH USA; Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH USA; Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH USA. Electronic address:

Maternal infection during pregnancy is a known risk factor for offspring mental health disorders. Animal models of maternal immune activation (MIA) have implicated specific cellular and molecular etiologies of psychiatric illness, but most rely on pathogen mimetics. Here, we developed a mouse model of live H3N2 influenza A virus (IAV) infection during pregnancy that induces a robust inflammatory response but is sublethal to both dams and offspring. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Assessment of HCMV-encoded microRNAs in plasma as potential biomarkers in pregnant women with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):638

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Life Sciences, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for MicroRNA Biology and Biotechnology, NJU Advanced Institute for Life Sciences (NAILS), School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infections and can lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). HCMV encodes multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) that have been reported to be partially related to host immune responses, cell cycle regulation, viral replication, and viral latency, and can be detected in human plasma. However, the relevance for HCMV-encoded miRNAs in maternal plasma as an indicator for APOs has never been evaluated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Management algorithm for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (2021)].

Authors:

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2021 Apr;29(4):313-318

The World Health Organization (WHO) has set the goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a threat to public health by 2030. Blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the key step for eliminating viral hepatitis, at the same time, it is the hotspot in the field of hepatitis B prevention and control as well. The China Foundation of Hepatitis Prevention and Control (CFHPC) organized a team of specialists to develop an algorithm for preventing MTCT of HBV, based on the most recent hepatitis B guidelines and the latest evidence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Hygiene measures in antenatal care].

Gynakologe 2021 May 7:1-11. Epub 2021 May 7.

Klinik für Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Klinikum Kempten und Immenstadt, Klinikverbund Allgäu, Robert-Weixler-Str. 50, 87439 Kempten, Deutschland.

Background: The prevention of infections in the obstetric care of pregnant women is paramount, on the one hand with regard to pathogens of congenital infections and on the other hand due to the association of maternal infections with premature delivery.

Objectives: Which measures are recommended for effective prevention of bacterial and viral diseases relevant to obstetrics?

Materials And Methods: Literature search on hygiene measures in terms of preventing transmission of infection.

Results: The physiological vaginal flora of the pregnant woman is a fundamental factor in natural defence against infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Intravenous immunoglobulin in COVID-19 associated Guillain-Barré syndrome in pregnancy.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 11;14(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Neurosciences, Philippine General Hospital, Manila, Philippines.

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a rise in cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). This autoimmune sequela is a manifestation of the neurotropism potential of the virus. At present, knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, clinical features, management and outcomes of the condition is still evolving. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Health and Art (HEART): Integrating Science and Art to Fight COVID-19.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:937-964

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Netting individuals separated from each other by vast distances; the present condition of COVID-19 needs art and its extraordinary capacity to connect human beings and integrate scientific disciplines. We can predict that the COVID-19 pandemic would leave the mind lonely and vulnerable to diseases, for, on the one hand, the COVID-19 pandemic and related problems, in particular social isolation, are itself stressor. On the other hand, studies confirm the potential of COVID-19 to involve the central nervous system by affecting the immune system, either directly or indirectly. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Coronavirus Diseases in Pregnant Women, the Placenta, Fetus, and Neonate.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:223-241

Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is similar to two other coronaviruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), in causing life-threatening respiratory infections and systemic complications in both children and adults. As the COVID-19 pandemic has continued to spread globally, increasing numbers of pregnant women have become infected, raising concern not only for their health but also for the health of their infants. This chapter discusses the effects of coronavirus infections, e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Dengue in pregnancy: Review article.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Apr 30;261:205-210. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Sidra Medicine, Education City, Al Luqta Street, Doha, Qatar.

Dengue is the most common viral mosquito- borne disease. It is a major public health problem, especially in tropical and sub-tropical areas worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 40% of the world's population (over 2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Early human milk lactoferrin during SARS-CoV-2 infection.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 May 9:1-4. Epub 2021 May 9.

Third Department of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, University General Hospital "ATTIKON", Athens, Greece.

Background/aim: Early human milk provides protection against viral infections due to its high nutritional value, abundance of maternal antibodies and the specific role of lactoferrin (Lf). Lf blocks the early interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host cells by binding to specific cell receptors and has been proposed as a preventative and adjunct treatment for COVID-19. This preliminary report aimed to investigate concentrations of Lf in early milk of SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers versus non-infected controls. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Genotype-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in asymptomatic Peruvian women: a community-based study.

BMC Res Notes 2021 May 7;14(1):172. Epub 2021 May 7.

Barcelona Research Center for Multiscale Science and Engineering, Departament D'Enginyeria Química, EEBE, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: To determine the general and genotype-specific prevalence of HPV and to identify potential risk factors for the infection in a population-based screening of Peruvian women.

Results: A total of 524 samples were analyzed by PCR and a total of 100 HPV positive samples were found, of which 89 were high-risk, 19 were probably oncogenic, 9 were low-risk and 27 other HPV types. The 26-35 and 36-45 age groups showed the highest proportion of HPV positive samples with a total of 37% (37/100) and 30% (30/100), respectively. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hepatitis E: an update on One Health and clinical medicine.

Liver Int 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Wilhelmstrasse 27, 72074, Tübingen, Germany.

The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the main causes of acute hepatitis and the de facto global burden is underestimated. HEV-related clinical complications are often undetected and are not considered in the differential diagnosis. Convincing findings from studies suggest that HEV is clinically relevant not only in developing countries but also in industrialized countries. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

COVID-19 and the neonatal microbiome: will the pandemic cost infants their microbes?

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-7

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Mortality and morbidity from SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19) infections in children remains low, including an exceedingly low rate of horizontal and vertical transmission. However, unforeseen complications to childhood health have emerged secondary to the pandemic. Few studies to date have examined unintended complications of the pandemic in newborns and infants. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The impact of aging on innate and adaptive immunity in the human female genital tract.

Aging Cell 2021 May 5:e13361. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH, USA.

Mucosal tissues in the human female reproductive tract (FRT) are primary sites for both gynecological cancers and infections by a spectrum of sexually transmitted pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), that compromise women's health. While the regulation of innate and adaptive immune protection in the FRT by hormonal cyclic changes across the menstrual cycle and pregnancy are being intensely studied, little to nothing is known about the alterations in mucosal immune protection that occur throughout the FRT as women age following menopause. The immune system in the FRT has two key functions: defense against pathogens and reproduction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Training in reconstructive surgery in sub-Saharan Africa : the « 2nd Chance » model].

Rev Med Suisse 2021 May;17(737):885-888

Association 2nd Chance, Rue Ferdinand-Hodler 7, 1207 Genève.

Based in Geneva since 2010, 2 Chance's mission is the development of reconstructive surgery care in resource-limited countries with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa, through teaching and advocacy activities. We develop the surgical management of patients on the one hand, providing training for African surgical teams. On the other hand, we support surgical procedures for patients, in the areas of reconstructive surgery, giant goiters, obstetric fistulas and anesthesia so that quality care is guaranteed for the long term. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Immunological and physiopathological approach of COVID-19 in pregnancy.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Systemic Autoimmune Diseases Unit. Department of Internal Medicine-1, Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) related to Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a worldwide health concern. Despite the majority of patients will evolve asymptomatic or mild-moderate upper respiratory tract infections, 20% will develop severe disease. Based on current pathogenetic knowledge, a severe COVID-19 form is mainly a hyperinflammatory, immune-mediated disorder, triggered by a viral infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Anesthesia Considerations of a Pregnant Woman With COVID-19 Undergoing Cesarean Delivery: A Case Report.

AANA J 2020 Aug;88(4):47-53

is employed by Texas Wesleyan University.

Physiologic changes during pregnancy may increase the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Limited data show serious complications of COVID-19 infection and pregnancy. Severe adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes such as preterm delivery, intensive care unit admission, and neonatal and intrauterine death have been reported. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The next generation: Pregnancy in adolescents and women living with perinatally acquired HIV in South Africa.

S Afr Med J 2021 Mar 2;111(3):260-264. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: An increasing number of girls living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) are reaching adolescence and adulthood and becoming pregnant. Youth living with PHIV (YLPHIV) may have HIV-associated infections/complications, long-term exposure to antiretroviral treatment (ART), drug resistance and increased psychosocial challenges, which may adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. There is a lack of published studies on pregnancy in YLPHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vertical Transmission of COVID-19: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

J Nepal Health Res Counc 2021 Apr 23;19(1):203-205. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

KIST Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Imadol, Lalitpur, Nepal.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic will continue affecting pregnant women with possibility of vertical transmissions. However, knowledge and evidences regarding vertical transmission of COVID-19 are just emerging. This information is very crucial in the obstetrical care of COVID-19 infected women as well as in the care of newborn born to COVID-19 positive mothers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

COVID-19 Vaccine Considerations during Pregnancy and Lactation.

Am J Perinatol 2021 05 1;38(6):523-528. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Perinatal SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Neonatal COVID-19: A 2021 Update.

Neoreviews 2021 05;22(5):e284-e295

Divisions of Neonatology and.

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has swept across the world like an indiscriminating wildfire. Pregnant women and neonates are particularly vulnerable to this infection compared with older children and healthy young adults, with unique challenges in their management. Unfamiliarity with the consequences of this novel virus and lack of high-quality data led to considerable heterogeneity in obstetrical and neonatal management early in the pandemic. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Optimizing mother-baby wellness during the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic: A case for telemedicine.

Womens Health (Lond) 2021 Jan-Dec;17:17455065211013262

Women's Health Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic poses unique challenges to healthcare delivery. To limit the exposure of providers and patients to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention encourages providers to use telehealth platforms whenever possible. Given the maternal mortality crisis in the United States and the compounding 2019 coronavirus disease public health emergency, continued access to quality preconception, prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum care are essential to the health and well-being of mother and baby. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mother-to-Child Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus in Ethiopia.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Regional Centre for Imported and Tropical Diseases, Ullevål, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway.

High viral load and positive hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) results are risk factors for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV). In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the distribution of these risk factors, as well as early childhood HBV transmission. In this study, Ethiopian women aged 18-45 years with chronic hepatitis B were assessed for the presence of HBeAg and high viral load. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety, and Perceived Stress in Postpartum Mexican Women during the COVID-19 Lockdown.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 27;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Coordination of Gynecological and Perinatal Endocrinology, National Institute of Perinatology, Ministry of Health, Mexico City 11000, Mexico.

The COVID-19 lockdown represents a new challenge for mental health researchers and clinical practitioners. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and perceived stress in postpartum Mexican women. The study included 293, 4-12-week postpartum women over the age of 18. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Serum Vitamin D Level among Infants and Toddlers: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis and before-and-after Comparison.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 13;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the implementation of social distancing and home confinement measures may elevate the risk of vitamin D deficiency particularly for infants. This study aimed to quantify changes in vitamin D level among infants and toddlers in Hong Kong after the COVID-19 outbreak. We recruited 303 infants and toddlers aged 2-24 months by stratified random sampling from 1 June 2019 to November 30, 2020. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hematological Profile of Pregnant Women with Suspected Zika Virus Infection Followed Up at a Referral Service in Manaus, Brazil.

Viruses 2021 04 20;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Leônidas & Maria Deane Institute, Amazonas 69057-070, Brazil.

The purpose of this paper is to describe the hematological profile of pregnant women with suspected Zika virus (ZIKV) infection followed up at a reference service for infectious diseases in Manaus, Brazil, through a clinical, epidemiological, cross-sectional study of pregnant women with an exanthematic manifestation who looked for care between 2015 and 2017. The participants were 499 pregnant women, classified into four subgroups, according to laboratory confirmation of infections: ZIKV-positive; ZIKV-positive and positive for another infection; positive for another infection but not ZIKV-positive; and not positive for any of the infections investigated. Hematological parameters were analyzed descriptively. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Childbirth Care among SARS-CoV-2 Positive Women in Italy.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 16;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Servizio Assistenza Territoriale, Direzione Generale Cura Della Persona, Salute e Welfare, Emilia-Romagna Region, 40127 Bologna, Italy.

The new coronavirus emergency spread to Italy when little was known about the infection's impact on mothers and newborns. This study aims to describe the extent to which clinical practice has protected childbirth physiology and preserved the mother-child bond during the first wave of the pandemic in Italy. A national population-based prospective cohort study was performed enrolling women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted for childbirth to any Italian hospital from 25 February to 31 July 2020. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

High Incidence of Zika or Chikungunya Infection among Pregnant Women Hospitalized Due to Obstetrical Complications in Northeastern Brazil-Implications for Laboratory Screening in Arbovirus Endemic Area.

Viruses 2021 04 23;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Instituto Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Pernambuco, Recife CEP 50740-465, PE, Brazil.

The diagnostic of arbovirus-related obstetric complications in high-risk pregnancy and childbirth care is challenging, especially in endemic areas. We conducted a prospective study to track active or recent Zika (ZIKV), dengue (DENV), or chikungunya (CHIKV) virus infection among hospitalized pregnant women (PW) with obstetric complications in a hospital at the epicenter of Zika outbreak and ZIKV-related microcephaly in Brazil. Clinical data and blood samples were collected at enrollment and 10 days after the admission of study participants, between October 2018 and May 2019. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Why Did ZIKV Perinatal Outcomes Differ in Distinct Regions of Brazil? An Exploratory Study of Two Cohorts.

Viruses 2021 Apr 23;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Acute Febrile Illnesses Laboratory, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (OCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21040-900, Brazil.

The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in Brazil occurred in regions where dengue viruses (DENV) are historically endemic. We investigated the differences in adverse pregnancy/infant outcomes in two cohorts comprising 114 pregnant women with PCR-confirmed ZIKV infection in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil ( = 50) and Manaus, in the north region of the country ( = 64). Prior exposure to DENV was evaluated through plaque reduction neutralizing antibody assays (PRNT 80) and DENV IgG serologies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

COVID-19 and Pregnancy: Vertical Transmission and Inflammation Impact on Newborns.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Apr 15;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Université de Paris, NeuroDiderot, Inserm, 75019 Paris, France.

The COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing and we are still compiling new findings to decipher and understand SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. No reports encompass any conclusive confirmation of vertical transmission. Nevertheless, cases of fetal distress and multiple organ failure have been reported, as well as rare cases of fetal demise. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Screening for Gestational Diabetes during the COVID-19 Pandemic-Current Recommendations and Their Consequences.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Apr 15;57(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Filantropia Clinical Hospital, 11171 Bucharest, Romania.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is recognized as one of the most common medical complications of pregnancy that can lead to significant short-term and long-term risks for the mother and the fetus if not detected early and treated appropriately. Current evidence suggests that, with the use of appropriate screening programs for GDM, those women diagnosed and treated have reduced perinatal morbidity. It has been implied that, when screening for GDM, there should be uniformity in the testing used and in further management. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF