760,481 results match your criteria Viral Hepatitis


PD-1/ PD-L1 blockade as a novel treatment for colorectal cancer.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 3;110:312-318. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Surgical Oncology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Colorectal cancer (CRC), as a prominent cause of cancer-related deaths, has historically been notable worldwide and many attempts have been made to raise the overall survival of CRC patients. Immune response has long been a question of great interest in a wide range of fields such as cancer therapies and anti-tumor immunity through checkpoint inhibitors, specifically anti PD-1/ PD-L1 interaction, is a new line of research for treatment of CRC patients. Following the successful development of anti-PD-1 for melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and non-small cell lung cancer, several clinical trials have been conducted on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against PD-1 in CRC. Read More

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December 2018
9 Reads

Genus Psoralea A review of the traditional and modern uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

J Ethnopharmacol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Plant Transgenic Laboratory, P.O. Box 436, Rana Pratap Marg,Lucknow-226 001, U.P., India. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The genus Psoralea (Fabaceae) harbours 105 accepted species that are extensively used by local peoples and medicinal practitioners of China, India, and other countries for treatment of tooth decay, psoriasis, leucoderma, leprosy, kidney problems, tuberculosis, indigestion, constipation and impotence. Presently, pharmacological research reports are available on only few species namely Bituminaria bituminosa (Syn: P. bituminosa), P. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

Pulmonary impairment following respiratory viral infections is associated with high mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Introduction: Pulmonary impairment predicts increased mortality in many settings, and respiratory viral infection (RVI) causes considerable morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (allo-HCT). We hypothesized that pulmonary impairment following respiratory viral infection, defined as a decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 second values by ≥10%, may identify allo-HCT recipients at high risk for mortality.

Methods: We studied all allo-HCT recipients at our institution who had RVI with respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, or influenza from 2004-2013 and had pre-RVI and post-RVI pulmonary function tests. Read More

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December 2018

An affinity peptide exerts antiviral activity by strongly binding nervous necrosis virus to block viral entry.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Institute of Aquatic Economic Animals and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) causes viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a disease that leads to almost 100% mortality among larvae and juvenile fish, severely affecting the aquaculture industry. VNN vaccines based on inactivated viruses or virus-like particles (VLPs) are unsuitable for fish fry with immature adaptive immune systems. Here, we applied an anti-NNV strategy based on affinity peptides (AFPs). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Engineered Viral RNA Decay Intermediates to Assess XRN1-mediated decay.

Methods 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80525, United States; Program in Cell & Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80525, United States. Electronic address:

Both RNA synthesis and decay must be balanced within a cell to achieve proper gene expression. Additionally, modulation of RNA decay specifically offers the cell an opportunity to rapidly reshape the transcriptome in response to specific stimuli or cues. Therefore, it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms through which RNA decay contribute to gene expression homeostasis. Read More

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December 2018

Pharmacological interventions for acute hepatitis C infection.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD011644. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Sheila Sherlock Liver Centre, Royal Free Hospital and the UCL Institute of Liver and Digestive Health, London, UK.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus that has the potential to cause inflammation of the liver. The traditional definition of acute HCV infection is the first six months following infection with the virus. Another commonly used definition of acute HCV infection is the absence of HCV antibody and subsequent seroconversion (presence of HCV antibody in a person who was previously negative for HCV antibody). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Transmission dynamics of re-emerging rabies in domestic dogs of rural China.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 6;14(12):e1007392. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

KU Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute, Laboratory of Evolutionary and Computational Virology, Leuven, Belgium.

Despite ongoing efforts to control transmission, rabies prevention remains a challenge in many developing countries, especially in rural areas of China where re-emerging rabies is under-reported due to a lack of sustained animal surveillance. By taking advantage of detailed genomic and epidemiological data for the re-emerging rabies outbreak in Yunnan Province, China, collected between 1999 and 2015, we reconstruct the demographic and dispersal history of domestic dog rabies virus (RABV) as well as the dynamics of dog-to-dog and dog-to-human transmission. Phylogeographic analyses reveal a lower diffusion coefficient than previously estimated for dog RABV dissemination in northern Africa. Read More

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December 2018

CCR5 structural plasticity shapes HIV-1 phenotypic properties.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 6;14(12):e1007432. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Viral Pathogenesis Unit, Department of Virology, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

CCR5 plays immune functions and is the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 strains. It exists in diverse conformations and oligomerization states. We interrogated the significance of the CCR5 structural diversity on HIV-1 infection. Read More

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December 2018

Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) genotype update and proposal of a new genotyping methodology.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208585. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

UAB, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CRESA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.

Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) is one of the most widespread viral infections of swine, causing a remarkable economic impact because of direct losses and indirect costs for its control. As other ssDNA viruses, PCV-2 is characterized by a high evolutionary rate, leading to the emergence of a plethora of variants with different biological and epidemiological features. Over time, several attempts have been made to organize PCV-2 genetic heterogeneity in recognized genotypes. Read More

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December 2018

Assessing the role of the T-box transcription factor Eomes in B cell differentiation during either Th1 or Th2 cell-biased responses.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208343. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Successful T-dependent humoral responses require the production of antibody-secreting plasmablasts, as well as the formation of germinal centers which eventually form high-affinity B cell memory. The ability of B cells to differentiate into germinal center and plasma cells, as well as the ability to tailor responses to different pathogens, is driven by transcription factors. In T cells, the T-box transcription factors T-bet and Eomesodermin (Eomes) regulate effector and memory T cell differentiation, respectively. Read More

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December 2018

Secular trend in interobserver agreement of VIA diagnosis for cervical cancer screening in Nigeria.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208531. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Strategic Information and Research, Institute of Human Virology Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria.

Objective: In low resource settings, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) by allied health workers, has been suggested as an alternative for cervical cancer screening. However, there are concerns about the objectivity and time to diagnostic concordance with specialists. We evaluated the secular trend in interobserver agreement between nurse providers and a gynecologist/colposcopist over a five-year period. Read More

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December 2018

E4orf1: A protein for enhancing glucose uptake despite impaired proximal insulin signaling.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208427. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, United States of America.

Background: Type 2 diabetes is often linked with impaired proximal insulin signaling. Hence, a therapeutic agent that enhances cellular glucose uptake without requiring proximal insulin signaling would be desirable for improving glycemic control. The E4orf1 peptide (E4) derived from human adenovirus 36 (Ad36) promotes cellular glucose uptake in vitro and in vivo, independent of insulin. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Bacterial microbiome of the chigger mite Leptotrombidium imphalum varies by life stage and infection with the scrub typhus pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208327. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America.

Scrub typhus is a mites-borne rickettsiosis caused by the obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. The disease is potentially life threatening and is prevalent in tropical Asia, islands of the western Pacific Ocean and northern Australia where an estimated one million cases occur annually. Orientia tsutsugamushi is transmitted by the bite of larval mites in the genus Leptotrombidium. Read More

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December 2018

Effectiveness of influenza and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines against influenza-related outcomes including pneumonia and acute exacerbation of cardiopulmonary diseases: Analysis by dominant viral subtype and vaccine matching.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0207918. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Influenza and pneumonia are leading causes of morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Although vaccination is a main strategy to prevent these infectious diseases, concerns remain with respect to vaccine effectiveness.

Methods: During three influenza seasons (2014-2015, 2015-2016 and 2016-2017), we evaluated the effectiveness of the influenza and pneumococcal vaccines against pneumonia and acute exacerbation of cardiopulmonary diseases among the elderly aged ≥65 years with influenza-like illness (ILI). Read More

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December 2018

Risk prediction system for dengue transmission based on high resolution weather data.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208203. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

IBM Research Australia, Southgate, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Dengue is the fastest spreading vector-borne viral disease, resulting in an estimated 390 million infections annually. Precise prediction of many attributes related to dengue is still a challenge due to the complex dynamics of the disease. Important attributes to predict include: the risk of and risk factors for an infection; infection severity; and the timing and magnitude of outbreaks. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Temporal changes in the viromes of Swedish Varroa-resistant and Varroa-susceptible honeybee populations.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0206938. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, in combination with the viruses it vectors, is the main cause for global colony losses of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. However, an isolated honeybee population established in 1999 on the Island of Gotland, Sweden has naturally acquired resistance to the mite, and has survived without mite control treatment for more than 18 years. A recent study has shown that this mite resistant (MR) population also appears to be resistant to Black queen cell virus (BQCV) and Sacbrood virus (SBV) and tolerant to Deformed wing virus (DWV), relative to nearby mite susceptible (MS) honeybee populations. Read More

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December 2018
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Outbreak of Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis Caused by Human Adenovirus Type D53 in an Eye Care Clinic - Los Angeles County, 2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Dec 7;67(48):1347-1349. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

On June 22, 2017, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LAC DPH) was notified of seven patients who were seen at an eye care clinic on June 8, 2017, and later developed symptoms of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). EKC is a contagious, severe form of viral conjunctivitis that can cause pain and blurred vision for up to 4 weeks (1). LAC DPH conducted an investigation, which identified 17 patients with EKC, including 15 who had visited the optometry clinic and two who were household contacts of clinic patients. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Subdominance and poor intrinsic immunogenicity limit humoral immunity targeting influenza HA-stem.

J Clin Invest 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Both natural influenza infection and current seasonal influenza vaccines primarily induce neutralising antibody responses against highly diverse epitopes within the "head" of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) protein. There is increasing interest on redirecting immunity towards the more conserved HA-stem or stalk as a means to broaden protective antibody responses. Here we examined HA-stem-specific B cell and T-follicular helper (Tfh) cell responses in the context of influenza infection and immunisation in mouse and monkey models. Read More

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December 2018

Oligomerization of equilibrative nucleoside transporters: a novel regulatory and functional mechanism involving PKC and PP1.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 6:fj201800440RR. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) translocate nucleosides and nucleobases across plasma membranes, as well as a variety of anti-cancer, -viral, and -parasite nucleoside analogs. They are also key members of the purinome complex and regulate the protective and anti-inflammatory effects of adenosine. Despite their important role, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their regulation. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Efficient production of antifungal proteins in plants using a new transient expression vector derived from tobacco mosaic virus.

Plant Biotechnol J 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Centre for Research in Agricultural Genomics (CRAG, CSIC-IRTA-UAB-UB), Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

Fungi that infect plants, animals or humans pose a serious threat to human health and food security. Antifungal proteins (AFPs) secreted by filamentous fungi are promising biomolecules that could be used to develop new antifungal therapies in medicine and agriculture. They are small highly stable proteins with specific potent activity against fungal pathogens. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Influence of miR-520e-mediated MAPK signaling pathway on HBV replication and regulation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via targeting EphA2.

J Viral Hepat 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Health Examination, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, China.

We determined the role of miR-520e in the replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. MiR-520e and EPH receptor A2 (EphA2) in HBV-positive HCC tissues and cells were detected and we studied the impact of miR-520e and the EphA2 receptor in cellular and murine HBV replication models. We find that MiR-520e was up-regulated and EphA2 was down-regulated in HBV-positive HCC tissues and cells. Read More

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December 2018

Advances in Genomic Hepatocellular Carcinoma Research.

Gigascience 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Graduate School of Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117456, Singapore.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the cancer with the second highest mortality in the world due to its late presentation and limited treatment options. As such, there is an urgent need to identify novel biomarkers for early diagnosis and develop novel therapies. The availability of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) data from tumors of liver cancer patients has provided us with invaluable resources to better understand HCC through the integration of data from different sources to facilitate the identification of promising biomarkers or therapeutic targets. Read More

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December 2018

Yeast-like filamentous fungi: Molecular identification and in vitro susceptibility study.

Med Mycol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano.

Yeast-like filamentous fungi, collected in Italy from 1985 to 2018, were submitted to molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility testings. Clinical isolates were identified as Magnusiomyces capitatus (28), M. clavatus (18), and Geotrichum candidum (2). Read More

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December 2018

Impact of HLA allele-KIR pairs on HIV clinical outcome in South Africa.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: HLA class I contributes to HIV immune control through antigen presentation to both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. However, by contrast with investigations of CTL, studies of NK cells in HIV control through HLA-killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) interactions remain sparse in African cohorts.

Methods: 312 treatment naïve, chronically HIV-infected adults were recruited from South Africa, and the effects of HLA-KIR pairs on clinical outcome were statistically analyzed. Read More

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December 2018
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Everything in its right place: resident memory CD8+ T cell immunosurveillance of HIV infection.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To introduce emerging concepts in tissue resident CD8 T cell immunosurveillance and their relevance to control HIV infection.

Recent Findings: It is well appreciated that HIV preferentially infects and persists in CD4 T cells located in gut and in lymphoid tissue, yet the majority of known immunological correlates of HIV control are derived from peripheral blood. Instead, tissue-based immunological surveillance likely dictates the course of infection. Read More

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December 2018
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Temperature-sensitive origin-binding protein as a tool for investigations of herpes simplex virus activities in vivo.

J Gen Virol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute of Virology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

While it is fairly clear that herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA replication requires at least seven virus-encoded proteins in concert with various host cell factors, the mode of this process in infected cells is still poorly understood. Using HSV-1 mutants bearing temperature-sensitive (ts) lesions in the UL9 gene, we previously found that the origin-binding protein (OBP), a product of the UL9 gene, is only needed in the first 6 hours post-infection. As this finding was just a simple support for the hypothesis of a biphasic replication mode, we became convinced through these earlier studies that the mutants tsR and tsS might represent suitable tools for more accurate investigations in vivo. Read More

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December 2018

Emergence and adaptation of H3N2 canine influenza virus from avian influenza virus: An overlooked role of dogs in interspecies transmission.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, Engineering Laboratory of Animal Immunity of Jiangsu Province, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

H3N2 CIV originated from avian species and emerged in dogs in Asia around 2005 where it became enzootic before reaching the USA in 2015. To investigate the key aspects of the evolution of H3N2 CIV regarding its emergence and adaptation in the canine host, we conducted an extensive analysis of all publicly available H3N2 CIV sequences spanning a 10-year period. We believe that H3N2 AIVs transferred to canines around 2002-2004. Read More

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December 2018

Co-localization of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in the respiratory tract and lymphoid tissues of pigs and llamas.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

UAB, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain.

The present study investigated the co-localization of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and its receptor dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) across respiratory and lymphoid organs of experimentally MERS-CoV infected pigs and llamas by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to assess the ciliary integrity of respiratory epithelial cells in both species. In pigs, on day 2 post-inoculation (p. Read More

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December 2018

Potential limits of AAV-based gene therapy with the use of new transgenes expressing factor IX fusion proteins.

Haemophilia 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Research Department of Haematology, University of London Cancer Institute, London, UK.

Introduction: The variety of treatment for haemophilia B (HB) has recently improved with the emergence of both AAV-based gene therapy and bioengineered human factor IX (hFIX) molecules with prolonged half-life due to fusion to either albumin (Alb) or immunoglobulin Fc fragment (Fc).

Aim: Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) mediating expression of hFIX-Alb and hFIX-Fc fusion proteins was investigated for gene therapy of HB to explore if their extended half-life translates to higher plasma levels of FIX.

Methods: Single-stranded cross-packaged AAV2/8 vectors expressing hFIX-Alb, hFIX-Fc and hFIX were evaluated in vitro, and in mice. Read More

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December 2018

Synthesis of novel derivatives of 7,8-dihydro-6H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazol-5-one and their virus-inhibiting activity against influenza A virus.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Fluoro and Agrochemicals Division (Organic Chemistry Division-II), CSIR - Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, India.

Influenza remains a highly pathogenic and hardly controlled human infection. The ability of selecting drug-resistant variants necessitates the search and development of novel anti-influenza drugs. Herein, we describe the synthesis and evaluation of a series of novel 2-substituted 7,8-dihydro-6H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazol-5-ones 3a-k for their virus-inhibiting activity against influenza A virus. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Prolactin induces IL-2 associated TRAIL expression on natural killer cells from chronic hepatitis C patients in vivo and in vitro.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Laboratorio de Hígado, Páncreas y Motilidad (HIPAM) - Unidad de Investigación en Medicina Experimental, Facultad de Medicina, UNAM. Mexico.

Background: Natural killer cells (NKC) are a major component of innate immune response to HCV, mediating their effects through TRAIL and IFN-γ. However, their function is diminished in chronic HCV patients (HCVp). Prolactin is an immunomodulatory hormone capable of activating NKC. Read More

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December 2018

Diagnostic Value of HLA Typing in Pathogenesis of Cardiomyopathy.

Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy Research Center, Research Institute of Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz. Iran.

Development of cardiomyopathy (CM) is dependent upon several factors. However, reaction of immune response against myocardial tissue due to microbial and viral infections plays an important role in this disease. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between HLAs and their pathogenic mechanisms in the incidence of CM. Read More

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December 2018

The interaction of HIV set-point viral load and subtype on disease progression.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

NIAID, LIR , 855 North Wolfe St. , Rangos Building, Room 538A , Baltimore, Maryland, United States , 21205.

HIV-1 subtype and viral load set-point have been implicated as strong predictors of HIV-1 disease progression; however the relationship between these two variables has not been investigated. We used data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study to investigate whether the association between viral load set-point and disease progression is modified by HIV subtype. Time to AIDS or AIDS-related death was investigated through Cox proportional hazards regression with an interaction term between viral load set point and HIV subtype. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Viral testing of 18 consecutive cases of equine serum hepatitis: A prospective study (2014-2018).

J Vet Intern Med 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Background: Three flaviviruses (equine pegivirus [EPgV]; Theiler's disease-associated virus [TDAV]; non-primate hepacivirus [NPHV]) and equine parvovirus (EqPV-H) are present in equine blood products; the TDAV, NPHV, and EqPV-H have been suggested as potential causes of serum hepatitis.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of these viruses in horses with equine serum hepatitis.

Animals: Eighteen horses diagnosed with serum hepatitis, enrolled from US referral hospitals. Read More

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December 2018

Viral testing of 10 cases of Theiler's disease and 37 in-contact horses in the absence of equine biologic product administration: A prospective study (2014-2018).

J Vet Intern Med 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Background: A novel equine parvovirus (EqPV-H) was recently discovered in the equine liver with Theiler's disease.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of EqPV-H infection in naturally occurring Theiler's disease cases and in-contact horses in the absence of historical equine biologic product administration.

Animals: Ten cases of Theiler's disease from 6 separate properties were included in the study, based on the criteria of acute onset of clinical signs of liver failure with laboratory or histopathologic findings characteristic of Theiler's disease and no history of receiving an equine biologic product within the preceding 4 months. Read More

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December 2018

HIV gp120-induced neuroinflammation potentiates NMDA receptors to overcome basal suppression of inhibitory synapses by p38 MAPK.

J Neurochem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) affects about half of HIV-infected patients. HIV impairs neuronal function through indirect mechanisms mainly mediated by inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic viral proteins, such as the envelope protein gp120. HIV gp120 elicits a neuroinflammatory response that potentiates NMDA receptor function and induces the loss of excitatory synapses. Read More

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December 2018

Development of an innovative one-step nested PCR strategy for virus detection using the LNA technique.

Sci China Life Sci 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 102206, China.

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December 2018
2 Reads

Role of Macrophage Dopamine Receptors in Mediating Cytokine Production: Implications for Neuroinflammation in the Context of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders.

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19102, USA.

Despite the success of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), around 50% of HIV-infected individuals still display a variety of neuropathological and neurocognitive sequelae known as NeuroHIV. Current research suggests these effects are mediated by long-term changes in CNS function in response to chronic infection and inflammation, and not solely due to active viral replication. In the post-cART era, drug abuse is a major risk-factor for the development of NeuroHIV, and increases extracellular dopamine in the CNS. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Development of a reverse genetics system for a feline panleukopenia virus.

Virus Genes 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Institute of Military Veterinary, Academy of Military Medical Science, 666 Liuying Xi Road, Changchun, 130122, China.

Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) infects cats and can be fatal to kittens. There is evidence that canine parvovirus originated from FPV, which makes FPV important in studies of the family Parvoviridae. In the present study, the entire genome of FPV strain HH-1/86 was converted into a full-length infectious clone (pFPV). Read More

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December 2018
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Fatty acids and selected endocannabinoids content in cerebrospinal fluids from patients with neuroinfections.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Neuroinfections are a significant medical problem and can have serious health consequences for patients. Their outcome, if not fatal, can be associated with permanent residual deficits. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination is commonly used for meningitis confirmation. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

HIV-associated cancers: the role of a unique multidisciplinary board to optimize patient's care behalf the CANCERVIH Group.

Med Oncol 2018 Dec 5;36(1):13. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Tenon Hospital, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Since 1996, the life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) has improved, while their risk of cancer is 2-3 times higher than in the general population. HIV-associated cancers remain a critical issue in this population and represent a particular care challenge due to the high risk of drug interactions and additive toxicity. The new standards of care with immunotherapy will also become a major issue for PLWHIV because of the potential impact on immunology and virology. Read More

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December 2018

Clinical and biological characteristics of myeloma patients influence response to elotuzumab combination therapy.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Würzburg, Oberdürrbacherstraße 6, 97080, Würzburg, Germany.

Based on ELOQUENT-2, combination therapy with the monoclonal antibody elotuzumab was approved for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma in the US and Europe. However, outside clinical trials, the optimal integration of elotuzumab into the sequence of treatment lines remains to be determined. Therefore, we analyzed safety and efficacy of elotuzumab/immunomodulatory drug combinations in a real-life cohort of 33 patients from our institution. Read More

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December 2018

Extracellular vesicles from mature dendritic cells (DC) differentiate monocytes into immature DC.

Life Sci Alliance 2018 Dec 3;1(6):e201800093. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Erlangen, Kussmaul Campus, Erlangen, Germany.

During inflammation, murine and human monocytes can develop into dendritic cells (DC), but this process is not entirely understood. Here, we demonstrate that extracellular vesicles (EV) secreted by mature human DC (maDC) differentiate peripheral monocytes into immature DC, expressing a unique marker pattern, including 6-sulfo LacNAc (slan), Zbtb46, CD64, and CD14. While EV from both maDC and immature DC differentiated monocytes similar to GM-CSF/IL-4 stimulation, only maDC-EV produced precursors, which upon maturation stimulus developed into T-cell-activating and IL-12p70-secreting maDC. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Phosphoprotein Contributes to the Thermostability of Newcastle Disease Virus.

Biomed Res Int 2018 4;2018:8917476. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, No. 600 Changjiang Street, Xiangfang District, Harbin 150030, Heilongjiang Province, China.

Newcastle disease (ND), caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is highly contagious and represents a major threat to the poultry industry. The thermostable vaccines are not insensitive to heat and ease of storage and transportation, but the mechanism of NDV thermostability remains unknown. The phosphoprotein (P), fusion protein (F), hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (HN), and large polymerase protein (L) are associated with NDV virulence. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Nasal microbiota and symptom persistence in acute respiratory tract infections in infants.

ERJ Open Res 2018 Oct 3;4(4). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

University Children's Hospital Basel UKBB, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) in infancy have been implicated in the development of chronic respiratory disease, but the complex interplay between viruses, bacteria and host is not completely understood. We aimed to prospectively determine whether nasal microbiota changes occur between the onset of the first symptomatic ARI in the first year of life and 3 weeks later, and to explore possible associations with the duration of respiratory symptoms, as well as with host, environmental and viral factors. Nasal microbiota of 167 infants were determined at both time-points by 16S ribosomal RNA-encoding gene PCR amplification and subsequent pyrosequencing. Read More

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October 2018

Celiac Disease: A Review of Current Concepts in Pathogenesis, Prevention, and Novel Therapies.

Front Pediatr 2018 21;6:350. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

The Diabetes and Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Our understanding of celiac disease and how it develops has evolved significantly over the last half century. Although traditionally viewed as a pediatric illness characterized by malabsorption, it is now better seen as an immune illness with systemic manifestations affecting all ages. Population studies reveal this global disease is common and, in many countries, increasing in prevalence. Read More

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November 2018
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Chronic Viral Hepatitis and Metabolic Syndrome/Cardiovascular Risk.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 4;2018:7369314. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Moradabad, India.

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November 2018

Deep cutaneous infection in a patient recovering from toxic epidermal necrolysis.

Med Mycol Case Rep 2019 Mar 26;23:26-28. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Brooke Army Medical Center, 3551 Roger Brooke Drive, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis, a condition that causes full thickness epidermal necrosis that affects over 30% of the skin surface and mucosal membranes, often develop comorbid infections throughout the recovery of the disease [1]. While most commonly these are related to a bacterial source, infections due to viral, mycobacterial, and rarely fungal organisms occur. We present a case of a patient who developed a deep cutaneous fungal infection caused by Trichosporon asahii and discuss the management. Read More

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March 2019
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