119,778 results match your criteria Viral Hepatitis


Seroprevalence and factors associated with HIV-1, HTLV and Hepatitis B/C infections in parturient women of Salvador - Bahia, Brazil.

Braz J Infect Dis 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Universidade Federal da Bahia, Faculdade de Medicina, Salvador, BA, Brazil; Universidade Federal de Bahia, Complexo Hospitalar Universitário Professor Edgard Santos, Salvador, BA, Brazil.

Background: The heterogeneity in detection rates of HIV, HTLV and Hepatitis B/C infections among pregnant women and the continuous exposure to risk factors limits the adoption of preventive and control actions.

Objective: To evaluate the HIV, HTLV, Hepatitis B and C seroprevalence rates, and associated risk factors in parturient women in Salvador, Brazil.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in 2099 parturient women attended in two public maternity hospitals in Salvador, Brazil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2020.05.001DOI Listing

Chronological change in alpha-fetoprotein levels in hepatocellular carcinoma after eradication of hepatitis C virus.

Liver Int 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Japan.

We read with interest the article by Chen et al. reporting proportion of time covered by imaging modality was associated with increased early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, in this study, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was not assessed as a surveillance tool because of low rate of AFP measurements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14544DOI Listing

Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus and Long-Term Effect on Glycemic Control.

J Manag Care Spec Pharm 2020 Jun;26(6):775-781

Department of Clinical Sciences, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been linked to worsening glycemic control in patients with diabetes due to insulin resistance. Studies have shown that treating HCV improves glycemic control in this patient population. Most studies assess glycemic control until the patient's sustained viral response at 12 weeks (SVR12). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2020.26.6.775DOI Listing

A Novel Vaccine Employing Non-Replicating Rabies Virus Expressing Chimeric SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Domains: Functional Inhibition of Viral/Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Complexes.

Med Sci Monit 2020 May 28;26:e926016. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, Center for Cognitive and Molecular Neuroscience, Prague, Czech Republic.

The emergence of the novel ß-coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in a global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Clinical studies have documented that potentially severe neurological symptoms are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, thereby suggesting direct CNS penetration by the virus. Prior studies have demonstrated that the destructive neurological effects of rabies virus (RABV) infections are mediated by CNS transport of the virus tightly bound to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.926016DOI Listing

The characteristic of the synonymous codon usage and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis B virus.

Genes Genomics 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

The Institute of Clinical Research and Translational Medicine, Gansu Provincial Hospital, 204 Donggang West Road, Chengguan District, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a crucial medical issue worldwide. The dependence of HBV replication on host cell machineries and their co-evolutionary interactions prompt the codon usage pattern of viral genes to translation selection and mutation pressure.

Objective: The evolutionary characteristics of HBV and the natural selection effects of the human genome on the codon usage characteristics were analyzed to provide a basis for medication development for HBV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-020-00932-wDOI Listing

Rebound of HBV DNA after cessation of nucleos/tide analogues in chronic hepatitis B patients with undetectable covalently closed.

JHEP Rep 2020 Jun 29;2(3):100112. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong.

Background & Aims: Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs) effectively suppress serum HBV DNA. Previously, we have identified 21 patients with undetectable covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) upon long-term NUC therapy. This study investigated the effect of NUC withdrawal in patients with undetectable cccDNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhepr.2020.100112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242874PMC

Quassinoid analogs with enhanced efficacy for treatment of hematologic malignancies target the PI3Kγ isoform.

Commun Biol 2020 May 27;3(1):267. Epub 2020 May 27.

Departments of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, and Microbiology, and the Tumor Virology Program, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Development of novel PI3K inhibitors is an important strategy to overcome their resistance and poor tolerability in clinical trials. The quassinoid family member Brusatol shows specific inhibitory activity against hematologic malignancies. However, the mechanism of its anti-cancer activity is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-0996-zDOI Listing

Molecular characterization of hepatitis A virus circulating in Uttar Pradesh, India: A hospital-based study.

Indian J Med Res 2020 Apr;151(4):375-379

Department of Microbiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background & Objectives: Hepatitis A is prevalent worldwide and is among the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis in India. Major geographical differences in endemicity of hepatitis A are closely related to hygienic and sanitary conditions and other indicators of the level of socio-economic development. The present study was aimed to know the seropositivity prevalence and predominant circulating strain of HAV in a north India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_429_18DOI Listing

Oregano oil and its principal component carvacrol inhibit HIV-1 fusion into target cells.

J Virol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, Florida, USA

Oregano essential oil as long been known for its health promoting benefits. Here we report its activity against viral replication. Oregano oil was found to specifically inhibit lentiviruses such as Human and Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV and SIV), irrespective of virus tropism, but not Hepatitis C, Adenovirus (ADV5), ZIKA and Influenza (H1N1) viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00147-20DOI Listing

Molecular detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine circovirus 2 and hepatitis E virus in oral fluid compared to their detection in faeces and serum.

BMC Vet Res 2020 May 27;16(1):164. Epub 2020 May 27.

Clinic for Ruminants and Pigs, Clinic for Reproduction and Farm Animals, Veterinary Faculty University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background: Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) are common and economically important viral disease causative agents detected in pig oral fluid (OF), faeces and serum at some infection stages. The purpose of this study was to detect PRRSV, PCV2 and HEV on six pig farms to determine which of the three sample types, OF, faeces or serum is appropriate for the diagnosis of these viruses in different pig categories. The following pig categories were included: 5 weeks-old (w/o), 7 w/o, 9 w/o, 11 w/o weaners, fatteners and breeding sows. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02378-4DOI Listing

Lagovirus europeus GI.2 (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2) infection in captive mountain hares (Lepus timidus) in Germany.

BMC Vet Res 2020 May 27;16(1):166. Epub 2020 May 27.

Institute of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover, Foundation, Buenteweg, 17 30559, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV, Lagovirus europeus GI.1) induces a contagious and highly lethal hemorrhagic disease in rabbits. In 2010 a new genotype of lagovirus (GI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02386-4DOI Listing

Viral Infections in Burns.

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Viral infections after burns are less common than bacterial infections but usually occur in the more severely burned patients and have been associated with poor outcomes. Retrospective reviews and case series were examined to provide an overview of the management of viral infections in the burn patient. The most common viral pathogens in these patients are the herpesviruses, which include herpes simplex, varicella zoster, cytomegalovirus, and human herpesvirus 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/sur.2020.130DOI Listing

The integrity of the intradimer interface of the Hepatitis B Virus capsid protein dimer regulates capsid self-assembly.

ACS Chem Biol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

During the hepatitis B virus lifecycle, 120 copies of homodimeric capsid protein assemble around a copy of reverse transcriptase and viral RNA and go on to produce an infectious virion. Assembly needs to be tightly regulated by protein conformational change to ensure symmetry, fidelity and reproducibility. Here we show that structures at the intradimer interface regulate conformational changes at the distal interdimer interface and so regulate assembly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.0c00277DOI Listing

Incidence of HCV reinfection among HIV-positive MSM and its association with sexual risk behavior: a longitudinal analysis.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Research and Prevention, Public Health Service of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection following clearance of HCV, but risk factors specifically for reinfection have never been comprehensively assessed.

Methods: Using data from a prospective observational cohort study among HIV-positive MSM with an acute HCV infection (MOSAIC), the incidence of HCV reinfection following spontaneous clearance or successful treatment was assessed. A univariable Bayesian exponential survival model was used to identify risk factors associated with HCV reinfection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa645DOI Listing

Genetic dissection of Rift Valley fever pathogenesis: Rvfs2 locus on mouse chromosome 11 enables survival to early-onset hepatitis.

Sci Rep 2020 May 26;10(1):8734. Epub 2020 May 26.

Mouse Functional Genetics, Institut Pasteur, UMR3738, CNRS, Paris, 75015, France.

Infection of mice with Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) reproduces major pathological features of severe human disease, notably the early-onset hepatitis and delayed-onset encephalitis. We previously reported that the Rvfs2 locus from the susceptible MBT/Pas strain reduces survival time after RVFV infection. Here, we used BALB/cByJ (BALB) mice congenic for Rvfs2 (C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65683-wDOI Listing

Resistance to excision determines efficiency of inhibition of hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase by nucleotide analogs including sofosbuvir.

J Biol Chem 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Molecular Biosciences, University of Texas at Austin, United States.

Nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) is theviral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase thatcatalyzes the replication of the hepatitis C virusgenome. It is a major target for antiviral drugs,including nucleotide analogs (NAs) such as theprodrugs mericitabine and sofosbuvir, which getmetabolized to 2'-fluoro-2'-C-methylcytidine-5'-triphosphate and 2'fluoro-2'-C-methyluridine-5'-triphosphate, respectively. These analogs act aschain terminators after they are incorporated duringviral RNA synthesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.013422DOI Listing

Hepatitis C virus relapse after successful treatment with direct-acting antivirals, followed by sarcomatous changes in hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2020 May 27;14(1):62. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Gastroenterology, Mitsui Memorial Hospital, 1 Kandaizumi-cho Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101-8643, Japan.

Background: Combination therapy of interferon and ribavirin has traditionally been used to eradicate hepatitis C virus. The sustained virologic response achieved with interferon-related therapy is persistent, and late relapses after achieving sustained virologic response at 24 weeks using this therapy are reportedly rare (< 1%). In 2014, interferon-free therapy with direct-acting antivirals was developed, and the rate of sustained virologic response was improved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13256-020-02392-yDOI Listing

On the Host Side of the Hepatitis E Virus Life Cycle.

Cells 2020 May 22;9(5). Epub 2020 May 22.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is one of the most common causes of acute hepatitis in the world. HEV is an enterically transmitted positive-strand RNA virus found as a non-enveloped particle in bile as well as stool and as a quasi-enveloped particle in blood. Current understanding of the molecular mechanisms and host factors involved in productive HEV infection is incomplete, but recently developed model systems have facilitated rapid progress in this area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9051294DOI Listing

Molecular, Evolutionary, and Structural Analysis of the Terminal Protein Domain of Hepatitis B Virus Polymerase, a Potential Drug Target.

Viruses 2020 May 22;12(5). Epub 2020 May 22.

Microbiology Department, Weber State University, 1415 Edvalson St., Ogden, UT 84408, USA.

Approximately 250 million people are living with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, which claim nearly a million lives annually. The target of all current HBV drug therapies (except interferon) is the viral polymerase; specifically, the reverse transcriptase domain. Although no high-resolution structure exists for the HBV polymerase, several recent advances have helped to map its functions to specific domains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12050570DOI Listing

Replication of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) in Primary Human-Derived Monocytes and Macrophages In Vitro.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 May 21;8(2). Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt.

HEV is the most causative agent of acute viral hepatitis globally. HEV causes acute, chronic, and extrahepatic manifestations. Chronic HEV infection develops in immunocompromised patients such as organ transplant patients, HIV-infected patients, and leukemic patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020239DOI Listing

Propranolol Is Associated with Lower Risk of Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Alcoholic Cirrhosis: A Tertiary-Center Study and Indirect Comparison with Meta-Analysis.

Gastroenterol Res Pract 2020 9;2020:1892584. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Linong Street, Beitou District, Taipei City 112, Taiwan.

Alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) leads to enormous disease burden and occupies a substantial proportion in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but scarce attention has been paid to this topic. Besides, propranolol has been reported to decrease the rate of HCC in viral hepatitis. We conducted a retrospective tertiary-center cohort study to identify the HCC incidence in AC patients with or without propranolol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/1892584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238337PMC

Molecular epidemiology and genotype distribution of hepatitis C in Pakistan; a multicenter cross-sectional study.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 May 23:104372. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Community Medicine, King Edward Medical University, Lahore 75500, Pakistan.

Pakistan has second highest burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients in the World. Little is known about the molecular epidemiology and risk factors for prevailing HCV genotypes in Pakistan. Considering this a multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted at 23different viral hepatitis control and prevention centers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104372DOI Listing

Type I astrocytes and microglia induce a cytokine response in an encephalitic murine coronavirus infection.

Authors:
Ehud Lavi Lin Cong

Exp Mol Pathol 2020 May 23:104474. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine and New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY 10065, United States of America.

The pathogenesis of viral infections involves an immune response by cytokines, causing a deleterious effect on organ function, in addition to tissue destruction due to viral replication. Clinical symptoms and laboratory findings of the human coronavirus disease COVID-19, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS CoV-2, indicate cytokine involvement. Our laboratory showed that an experimental murine coronavirus (MHV-A59) can be transmitted into the brain by intranasal or intracerebral exposure and that neurovirulence is mediated by cytokine secretion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2020.104474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245307PMC

The reasons to include the serology of human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) in the clinical follow-up of patients with viral hepatitis B and C in Brazil.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 May 26;14(5):e0008245. Epub 2020 May 26.

Laboratório de Pesquisa em HTLV, Centro de Imunologia, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Coordenadoria de Controle de Doenças, Secretaria de Estado da Saúde, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Background: The WHO established targets for 2030 to globally reduce new viral hepatitis B and C infections by 90% and deaths by 65% and recommends searching for coinfections that increase the progression of chronic liver infections towards cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Aims And Methodology: This study aimed to add information concerning the influence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) infections in hepatitis B and C, since in Brazil, these human retroviruses are endemic but neglected. Serum samples from 1,910 patients with hepatitis B and 1,315 with hepatitis C from São Paulo, southeast Brazil, that were previously tested and grouped for HIV and HTLV-1/-2 coinfections were analyzed for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) loads measurements and subsequent clearance using data from laboratory records. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008245DOI Listing

Extremely low risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis B in immune-tolerant phase.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Anti-viral therapy is not indicated for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the immune-tolerant phase.

Aims: To investigate the cumulative incidence of phase change and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and independent predictors for phase change in patients with CHB in immune-tolerant phase.

Methods: In total, 946 patients in immune-tolerant phase, defined as hepatitis B e antigen positivity, HBV-DNA >20 000 IU/mL and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≤40 IU/L, between 1989 and 2017 were enrolled from eight institutes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15741DOI Listing

SIRT1/IGFBPrP1/TGF β1 axis involved in cucurbitacin B ameliorating concanavalin A-induced mice liver fibrosis.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, 330004, PR China.

The present study investigated the improving effect of cucurbitacin B on liver fibrosis induced by concanavalin A in mice and explored its possible mechanism. AST, ALT and TB were detected by kits. ELISA was performed to detect the levels of IL 5, IL 6, IL 13 and TNF-α in serum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcpt.13446DOI Listing

Viral hijacking of the TENT4-ZCCHC14 complex protects viral RNAs via mixed tailing.

Nat Struct Mol Biol 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Center for RNA Research, Institute for Basic Science, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

TENT4 enzymes generate 'mixed tails' of diverse nucleotides at 3' ends of RNAs via nontemplated nucleotide addition to protect messenger RNAs from deadenylation. Here we discover extensive mixed tailing in transcripts of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), generated via a similar mechanism exploiting the TENT4-ZCCHC14 complex. TAIL-seq on HBV and HCMV RNAs revealed that TENT4A and TENT4B are responsible for mixed tailing and protection of viral poly(A) tails. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41594-020-0427-3DOI Listing

Omega-3 derivatives, specialized pro-resolving mediators: Promising therapeutic tools for the treatment of pain in chronic liver disease.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2020 May 17;158:102095. Epub 2020 May 17.

Centro de Investigaciones Medicas, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile. Electronic address:

The main causes of liver injury are associated with inflammation and permanent damage. They can cause chronic liver disease (CLD), which is mainly related to viral hepatitis, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. These conditions prevent the liver from working normally and make it begin to fail, which in turn may prompt a liver transplant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2020.102095DOI Listing

Hepatitis B Virus cccDNA: Formation, Regulation and Therapeutic Potential.

Antiviral Res 2020 May 22:104824. Epub 2020 May 22.

UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major public health concern worldwide with about 257 million individuals chronically infected. Current therapies can effectively control HBV replication and slow down disease progress, but cannot cure HBV infection. Upon infection, HBV establishes a pool of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nucleus of infected hepatocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104824DOI Listing

Microglia influence host defense, disease, and repair following murine coronavirus infection of the central nervous system.

Glia 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Neurobiology & Behavior, School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California, USA.

The present study examines functional contributions of microglia in host defense, demyelination, and remyelination following infection of susceptible mice with a neurotropic coronavirus. Treatment with PLX5622, an inhibitor of colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) that efficiently depletes microglia, prior to infection of the central nervous system (CNS) with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) resulted in increased mortality compared with control mice that correlated with impaired control of viral replication. Single cell RNA sequencing (scRNASeq) of CD45+ cells isolated from the CNS revealed that PLX5622 treatment resulted in muted CD4+ T cell activation profile that was associated with decreased expression of transcripts encoding MHC class II and CD86 in macrophages but not dendritic cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23844DOI Listing

Detection, stratification, and treatment of hepatitis C positive prisoners in the United Kingdom prison estate: Development of a pathway of care to facilitate the elimination of hepatitis C in a London prison.

J Viral Hepat 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Institute for Liver and Digestive Health, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, UK.

The United Kingdom is committed to eliminating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by 2025. The prison estate provides an opportunity to identify and treat HCV-positive individuals in a high-prevalence environment. We designed and implemented a pathway of care within a London prison to diagnose, stratify, and link HCV-positive prisoners into care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13336DOI Listing

Operating during COVID-19: Is there a risk of viral transmission from surgical smoke during surgery?

Can J Surg 2020 05 25;63(3):E299-E301. Epub 2020 May 25.

From the Department of General Surgery, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ont.

Summary: The World Health Organization declared a pandemic when coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) started to sweep the globe. Growing concerns for the safety of health care workers was raised when up to 80% of people with COVID-19 showed mild or no symptoms at all. Some surgical procedures will be inevitable during the pandemic, and proper safety measures must be in place to avoid transmission risks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cjs.007020DOI Listing

HCVpred: A web server for predicting the bioactivity of hepatitis C virus NS5B inhibitors.

J Comput Chem 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Center of Data Mining and Biomedical Informatics, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causes of liver disease affecting an estimated 170 million people culminating in 300,000 deaths from cirrhosis or liver cancer. NS5B is one of three potential therapeutic targets against HCV (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcc.26223DOI Listing

Cross talk between alcohol-induced oxidative stress and HCV replication.

Arch Microbiol 2020 May 24. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, No. 69, Pasteur Ave, 1316943551, Tehran, Iran.

Alcohol consumption exacerbates the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and aggravates disease consequences in alcohol-abusing patients. Although the exact reasons by which alcohol consumption affects several cellular pathways in liver cells are not clear, they might be partially attributed to the ability of alcohol to further suppress the innate immunity, modulation of autophagy and also its relationship with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. To evaluate these issues, Huh7 cells harboring HCV replicon and Cytochrome p450 (CYP2E1) plasmid were exposed to ethanol and mRNA expression of Beclin-1, interferon-stimulated gene15 (ISG15) genes and HCV NS5B for two different times were relatively quantitated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-020-01909-9DOI Listing

Homelessness among an inpatient HIV-positive cohort at a tertiary care hospital in central London.

Int J STD AIDS 2020 May 23:956462420918682. Epub 2020 May 23.

Guy's & St.Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

A cohort review was conducted at a central London tertiary care hospital trust on the prevalence of homelessness among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive inpatients over a year. Data were collected on the duration of inpatient stay, co-morbidities including acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining illnesses, co-infections, initiation of antiretroviral therapy, CD4 cell count, HIV viral load and substance misuse. Homeless people were found to be at high risk for hepatitis C, mental health illness, substance misuse including injecting drug use, recurrent bacterial infections, AIDS-associated illnesses, lower CD4 cell counts and HIV viremia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462420918682DOI Listing

Hepatitis B Reactivation: Diagnosis and Management.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital , Taipei, Taiwan.

Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation can be induced by treatments that attenuate the immunological control over HBV, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The risk of HBV reactivation is determined by host immunity, viral factors as well as the type and dose of treatments patients receive. Nevertheless, the risk of HBV reactivation for a growing number of novel therapies remains uncertain and needs to be carefully examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2020.1774364DOI Listing

Clinical application of ultrasonography-guided percutaneous liver biopsy and its safety over 18 years.

Clin Mol Hepatol 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon, Korea.

Background/aims: Liver biopsy (LB) remains the gold standard for the evaluation of liver disease. However, over the past two decades, many noninvasive tests have been developed and utilized in clinical practice as alternatives to LB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical use and safety of LB in the era of noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3350/cmh.2019.0019nDOI Listing

Development of a live attenuated duck hepatitis a virus type 3 vaccine (strain SD70).

Vaccine 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China; Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biological Engineering and Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Duck hepatitis A virus type 3 (DHAV-3) is an important pathogen that causes substantial losses in the Chinese duck industry. DHAV-3 is highly fatal to ducklings and there is no licensed vaccine in China available to reduce DHAV-3 infection. Our goal was to develop a live attenuated vaccine candidate against DHAV-3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.030DOI Listing

Shear Wave Elastography Performance in Noninvasive Assessment of Liver Cirrhosis in Liver Transplant Recipients With the Recurrence of Hepatitis C Infection.

Transplant Proc 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Immunology, Transplant Medicine, and Internal Diseases, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: The recurrence of hepatitis C (HCV) after liver transplant (LTX) leads to graft fibrosis and cirrhosis. Liver biopsy remains the criterion standard for their diagnosis and monitoring. Our objective was evaluation of shear wave elastography (SWE) in patients with HCV recurrence after LTX and its comparison with histopathologic fibrosis assessment scoring systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2020.02.097DOI Listing

Process improvement to effectively manage and reduce sharps injuries in a Tertiary Hospital in Northern India.

J Healthc Qual Res 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Artemis Hospital, Sector 51, Gurugram, Haryana 122001, India.

Introduction And Objectives: Needle stick injuries are associated with a 0.3-30% risk of transmission of Human Immunodeficiency virus, Hepatitis C virus, and Hepatitis B virus. Despite causing psychological trauma they also involve a huge financial burden. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhqr.2020.03.007DOI Listing

Treatment of Hepatitis C: A New Paradigm toward Viral Eradication.

J Pediatr 2020 Jun;221:12-22.e1

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, OH.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.02.082DOI Listing

IFN-α2b inhibits the ethanol enriched-HBV cccDNA through blocking a positive feedback loop of HBx/MSL2/cccDNA/HBV/HBx in liver.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 Jun 25;527(1):76-82. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China. Electronic address:

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major risk factor for liver diseases, in which HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), as the genomic form that templates viral transcription, plays crucial roles in sustaining viral persistence. Clinically, the excessive ethanol intake accelerates the progression of liver diseases with HBV infection. Here, we supposed that ethanol might trigger HBV cccDNA in the liver. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.04.057DOI Listing

SIRT1 enhances hepatitis virus B transcription independent of hepatic autophagy.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 Jun 25;527(1):64-70. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan. Electronic address:

Autophagy is an intracellular process that can lead to the degradation of malfunctioned proteins and damaged organelles to maintain homeostasis during cellular stress. Here, we evaluated the change in hepatitis B virus (HBV) production by regulating hepatic autophagy in HBV-producing cells. We examined focusing on a relation with a positive autophagy regulator, sirtuin1 (SIRT1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.04.031DOI Listing

N-terminal PreS1 Sequence Regulates Efficient Infection of Cell Culture-generated Hepatitis B Virus.

Hepatology 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.

Background & Aims: An efficient cell culture system for hepatitis B virus (HBV) is indispensable for research on viral characteristics and anti-viral reagents. Currently, for the HBV infection assay in cell culture, viruses derived from HBV genome-integrated cell lines of HepG2.2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31308DOI Listing

DDX3X inhibitors, an effective way to overcome HIV-1 resistance targeting host proteins.

Eur J Med Chem 2020 May 7;200:112319. Epub 2020 May 7.

Istituto di Genetica Molecolare "Luigi Luca Cavalli - Sforza", IGM-CNR, Via Abbiategrasso 207, I-27100, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

The huge resources that had gone into Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) research led to the development of potent antivirals able to suppress viral load in the majority of treated patients, thus dramatically increasing the life expectancy of people living with HIV. However, life-long treatments could result in the emergence of drug-resistant viruses that can progressively reduce the number of therapeutic options, facilitating the progression of the disease. In this scenario, we previously demonstrated that inhibitors of the human DDX3X helicase can represent an innovative approach for the simultaneous treatment of HIV and other viral infections such as Hepatitis c virus (HCV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2020.112319DOI Listing

To Eliminate Hepatitis C in People Who Inject Drugs, Stop Ignoring Drug User Health.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Division of Clinical Care and Research, Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa607DOI Listing

A Review on the Progress and Prospects of Dengue Drug Discovery Targeting NS5 RNA- Dependent RNA Polymerase.

Curr Pharm Des 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Chemistry, School of Science, GITAM (Deemed to be University), Hyderabad 502329, Telangana. India.

Dengue virus (DENV) infection threatens the health and wellbeing of almost 100 million people in the world. Vectored by mosquitoes, DENV may cause severe disease in human hosts called Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/Dengue shock syndrome (DSS), which are not preventable by any known drug. In the absence of a universally-accepted vaccine, a drug capable of inhibiting DENV multiplication is an urgent and unmet clinical need. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612826666200523174753DOI Listing

Prolonged cholestasis after acute viral hepatitis: successfully treated with oral steroid.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 May 21;13(5). Epub 2020 May 21.

Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

Cholestasis is a rare distinct complication of hepatitis A infection. Usually it runs a long indolent course with significant pruritus and malabsorption lasting for few months. A 9-year-old boy presented with yellowish discolouration of eye for 1 month. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-234430DOI Listing

Targeting Zero Infections in the Outpatient Dialysis Unit: Core Curriculum 2020.

Am J Kidney Dis 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

Although overall mortality rates in dialysis patients have improved during the last decade or so, infections remain a leading cause of death, second only to cardiovascular disease. In addition, infections account for a major share of hospitalizations in this patient population. Receiving hemodialysis treatments in an outpatient dialysis facility significantly contributes to patients' risks for infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2020.02.441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237370PMC

Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Apparently Healthy Individuals from Osun State, Nigeria.

Pathogens 2020 May 20;9(5). Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo PMB 4400, Nigeria.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a major public health concern in low-income countries, yet incidence and prevalence estimates are often lacking. Serum ( = 653) and faecal ( = 150) samples were collected from apparently healthy individuals using convenience sampling technique in six communities (Ore, Oke-Osun, Osogbo, Ede, Esa-Odo, and Iperindo) from Osun State, Nigeria. Serum samples were analysed for total anti-HEV IgG/IgM and anti-HEV IgM using commercially available HEV ELISA kits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050392DOI Listing