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    22746 results match your criteria Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

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    Using "Mystery Patient" Drills to Assess Hospital Ebola Preparedness in New York City, 2014-2015.
    Health Secur 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    In response to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, rapid measures were taken to ensure readiness at frontline New York City (NYC) healthcare facilities, including mandating monthly EVD mystery patient drills to test screening protocols. This study analyzed after-action reports to describe the use of mystery patient drills to test rapid identification and isolation of potential EVD cases in NYC emergency departments. NYC hospitals were required to develop protocols for EVD screening and isolation, and to conduct drills with an actor presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of EVD. Read More

    Seroepidemiology and risk factors of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever among butchers and slaughterhouse workers in southeastern Iran.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Research Center for Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Boo-Ali Hospital, Zahedan, Iran.
    Objective: Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease. Butchers and slaughterhouse workers are considered to be high risk occupational groups for the disease. Sistan and Baluchistan province is an area in southeastern Iran, where is endemic for CCHF and the most confirmed cases of the disease are reported from this province. Read More

    Comparative transcriptomics highlights the role of the AP1 transcription factor in the host response to Ebolavirus.
    J Virol 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    CSIRO Health and Biosecurity/Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.
    Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus comprise two genera of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Despite considerable research efforts, the molecular events following Ebola virus (EBOV) infection are poorly understood. With the view of identifying host factors that underpin EBOV pathogenesis, we compared the transcriptomes of EBOV-infected human, pig and bat kidney cells using an RNAseq approach. Read More

    Predicting the mortality in geriatric patients with dengue fever.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Sep;96(37):e7878
    aDepartment of Emergency Medicine bDepartment of Occupational Medicine, Chi-Mei Medical Center cDepartment of Biotechnology, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology dBachelor Program of Senior Service eDepartment of Leisure, Recreation, and Tourism Management, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology fDepartment of Medical Research, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Liouying gDepartment of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University hDepartment of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Chi-Mei Medical Center iDepartment of Emergency Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Geriatric patients have high mortality for dengue fever (DF); however, there is no adequate method to predict mortality in geriatric patients. Therefore, we conducted this study to develop a tool in an attempt to address this issue.We conducted a retrospective case-control study in a tertiary medical center during the DF outbreak in Taiwan in 2015. Read More

    Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of dengue and other etiologic agents among patients with acute febrile illness, Puerto Rico, 2012-2015.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 13;11(9):e0005859. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Ponce Health Sciences University/Saint Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Ponce, Puerto Rico, United States of America.
    Identifying etiologies of acute febrile illnesses (AFI) is challenging due to non-specific presentation and limited availability of diagnostics. Prospective AFI studies provide a methodology to describe the syndrome by age and etiology, findings that can be used to develop case definitions and multiplexed diagnostics to optimize management. We conducted a 3-year prospective AFI study in Puerto Rico. Read More

    Implementation of a study to examine the persistence of Ebola virus in the body fluids of Ebola virus disease survivors in Sierra Leone: Methodology and lessons learned.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 11;11(9):e0005723. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    34 Military Hospital, Sierra Leone Ministry of Defence, Freetown, Sierra Leone.
    Background: The 2013-2016 West African Ebola virus disease epidemic was unprecedented in terms of the number of cases and survivors. Prior to this epidemic there was limited data available on the persistence of Ebola virus in survivors' body fluids and the potential risk of transmission, including sexual transmission.

    Methodology/principal Findings: Given the urgent need to determine the persistence of Ebola virus in survivors' body fluids, an observational cohort study was designed and implemented during the epidemic response operation in Sierra Leone. Read More

    Development of risk reduction behavioral counseling for Ebola virus disease survivors enrolled in the Sierra Leone Ebola Virus Persistence Study, 2015-2016.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 11;11(9):e0005827. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Connaught Hospital; Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, Freetown, Sierra Leone.
    Background: During the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic, the public health community had concerns that sexual transmission of the Ebola virus (EBOV) from EVD survivors was a risk, due to EBOV persistence in body fluids of EVD survivors, particularly semen. The Sierra Leone Ebola Virus Persistence Study was initiated to investigate this risk by assessing EBOV persistence in numerous body fluids of EVD survivors and providing risk reduction counseling based on test results for semen, vaginal fluid, menstrual blood, urine, rectal fluid, sweat, tears, saliva, and breast milk. This publication describes implementation of the counseling protocol and the key lessons learned. Read More

    How a mild influenza B infection can kill: A case of pulmonary hemorrhage.
    Lung India 2017 Sep-Oct;34(5):452-456
    Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Environmental and Sleep Medicine, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke Memorial Hospital, Roanoke, VA, USA.
    Viral influenza is a seasonal infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Rapidly fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia has been described in previously healthy individuals with β-hemolytic Streptococcus pneumoniae in a small series of patients, but it is not common in patients coinfected with influenza B and β-hemolytic Streptococcus, particularly since influenza B is considered less pathogenic than influenza A. However, despite being uncommon, this coinfection seems to be associated with high morbidity and mortality, particularly in healthy individuals. Read More

    A Case of Human Lassa Virus Infection With Robust Acute T-Cell Activation and Long-Term Virus-Specific T-Cell Responses.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Jun;215(12):1862-1872
    CDC Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Atlanta, Georgia.
    A nurse who acquired Lassa virus infection in Togo in the spring of 2016 was repatriated to the United States for care at Emory University Hospital. Serial sampling from this patient permitted the characterization of several aspects of the innate and cellular immune responses to Lassa virus. Although most of the immune responses correlated with the kinetics of viremia resolution, the CD8 T-cell response was of surprisingly high magnitude and prolonged duration, implying prolonged presentation of viral antigens. Read More

    Characterization of Dengue Virus Infections Among Febrile Children Clinically Diagnosed With a Non-Dengue Illness, Managua, Nicaragua.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Jun;215(12):1816-1823
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine.
    Background: We sought to characterize dengue virus (DENV) infections among febrile children enrolled in a pediatric cohort study who were clinically diagnosed with a non-dengue illness ("C cases").

    Methods: DENV infections were detected and viral load quantitated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in C cases presenting between January 2007 and January 2013.

    Results: One hundred forty-one of 2892 C cases (4. Read More

    Community effectiveness of indoor spraying as a dengue vector control method: A systematic review.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 31;11(8):e0005837. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Institute of Public Health, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background: The prevention and control of dengue rely mainly on vector control methods, including indoor residual spraying (IRS) and indoor space spraying (ISS). This study aimed to systematically review the available evidence on community effectiveness of indoor spraying.

    Methods: A systematic review was conducted using seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, Web of Science, WHOLIS, Cochrane, and Google Scholar) and a manual search of the reference lists of the identified studies. Read More

    The elimination of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, from Brisbane, Australia: The role of surveillance, larval habitat removal and policy.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 28;11(8):e0005848. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Mosquito Control Laboratory, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane City, Australia.
    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a highly invasive mosquito whose global distribution has fluctuated dramatically over the last 100 years. In Australia the distribution of Ae. Read More

    Symptomatic dengue infection during pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth in Brazil, 2006-12: a matched case-control study.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Sep;17(9):957-964
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK; Center of Data and Knowledge Integration for Health (CIDACS), Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
    Background: Maternal infections during pregnancy can increase the risk of fetal death. Dengue infection is common, but little is known about its role in fetal mortality. We aimed to investigate the association between symptomatic dengue infection during pregnancy and fetal death. Read More

    Elucidating Transmission Patterns From Internet Reports: Ebola and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome as Case Studies.
    J Infect Dis 2016 Dec;214(suppl_4):S421-S426
    Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
    The paucity of traditional epidemiological data during epidemic emergencies calls for alternative data streams to characterize the key features of an outbreak, including the nature of risky exposures, the reproduction number, and transmission heterogeneities. We illustrate the potential of Internet data streams to improve preparedness and response in outbreak situations by drawing from recent work on the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa and the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in South Korea. We show that Internet reports providing detailed accounts of epidemiological clusters are particularly useful to characterize time trends in the reproduction number. Read More

    Assessment of risk of dengue and yellow fever virus transmission in three major Kenyan cities based on Stegomyia indices.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 17;11(8):e0005858. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Dengue (DEN) and yellow fever (YF) are re-emerging in East Africa, with contributing drivers to this trend being unplanned urbanization and increasingly adaptable anthropophilic Aedes (Stegomyia) vectors. Entomological risk assessment of these diseases remains scarce for much of East Africa and Kenya even in the dengue fever-prone urban coastal areas. Focusing on major cities of Kenya, we compared DEN and YF risk in Kilifi County (DEN-outbreak-prone), and Kisumu and Nairobi Counties (no documented DEN outbreaks). Read More

    [Severe Yellow fever vaccine-associated disease: a case report and current overview].
    Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2017 Aug 15;142(16):1219-1222. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Tropenklinik Paul-Lechler-Krankenhaus, Tübingen.
    History and physical examination A 56-year-old man developed high fever with severe headaches, fatigue, impaired concentration skills, and an exanthema 5 days after a yellow fever (YF) vaccination. Laboratory tests Liver enzymes and YF antibody titers were remarkably elevated. YF vaccine virus was detected in urine by PCR. Read More

    An economic evaluation of vector control in the age of a dengue vaccine.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 14;11(8):e0005785. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Introduction: Dengue is a rapidly emerging vector-borne Neglected Tropical Disease, with a 30-fold increase in the number of cases reported since 1960. The economic cost of the illness is measured in the billions of dollars annually. Environmental change and unplanned urbanization are conspiring to raise the health and economic cost even further beyond the reach of health systems and households. Read More

    What We Are Watching-Top Global Infectious Disease Threats, 2013-2016: An Update from CDC's Global Disease Detection Operations Center.
    Health Secur 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Kira A. Christian, DVM, is a Veterinary Medical Epidemiologist, and Ray R. Arthur, PhD, is Director; both in the Global Disease Detection Operations Center, Emergency Response and Recovery Branch, Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA. A. Danielle Iuliano, PhD, is a Senior Research Epidemiologist, and Timothy M. Uyeki, MD, is a Medical Epidemiologist; both in the Epidemiology and Prevention Branch, Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA. Eric D. Mintz, MD, is a Medical Epidemiologist, Waterborne Diseases Prevention Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Enteric Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA. Stuart T. Nichol, PhD, is Chief, and Pierre Rollin, MD, is Team Lead; both in the Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA. J. Erin Staples, MD, PhD, is Medical Officer, Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, Ft. Collins, CO. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    To better track public health events in areas where the public health system is unable or unwilling to report the event to appropriate public health authorities, agencies can conduct event-based surveillance, which is defined as the organized collection, monitoring, assessment, and interpretation of unstructured information regarding public health events that may represent an acute risk to public health. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Global Disease Detection Operations Center (GDDOC) was created in 2007 to serve as CDC's platform dedicated to conducting worldwide event-based surveillance, which is now highlighted as part of the "detect" element of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA). The GHSA works toward making the world more safe and secure from disease threats through building capacity to better "Prevent, Detect, and Respond" to those threats. Read More

    Advancing Preparedness for Highly Hazardous Contagious Diseases: Admitting 10 Simulated Patients with MERS-CoV.
    Health Secur 2017 Jul/Aug;15(4):432-439. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016 highlighted the need for the development of a more robust healthcare infrastructure in the United States to provide isolation care for patients infected with a highly hazardous contagious disease. Routine exercises and skills practice are required to effectively and safely prepare care teams to confidently treat this special population of patients. The Nebraska Biocontainment Unit (NBU) at Nebraska Medicine in Omaha has been conducting exercises since 2005 when the unit was opened. Read More

    Development of a set of community-informed Ebola messages for Sierra Leone.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 7;11(8):e0005742. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Medical Research Centre (MRC), 5 Frazier Davis Drive, Freetown, Sierra Leone.
    The West African Ebola epidemic of 2013-2016 was by far the largest outbreak of the disease on record. Sierra Leone suffered nearly half of the 28,646 reported cases. This paper presents a set of culturally contextualized Ebola messages that are based on the findings of qualitative interviews and focus group discussions conducted in 'hotspot' areas of rural Bombali District and urban Freetown in Sierra Leone, between January and March 2015. Read More

    Direct cost of dengue hospitalization in Zhongshan, China: Associations with demographics, virus types and hospital accreditation.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 3;11(8):e0005784. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Zhongshan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhongshan, China.
    Background: Zhongshan City of Guangdong Province (China) is a key provincial and national level area for dengue fever prevention and control. The aim of this study is to analyze how the direct hospitalization costs and the length of stay of dengue hospitalization cases vary according to associated factors such as the demographics, virus types and hospital accreditation.

    Method: This study is based on retrospective census data from the Chinese National Disease Surveillance Reporting System. Read More

    Increasing airline travel may facilitate co-circulation of multiple dengue virus serotypes in Asia.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 3;11(8):e0005694. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.
    The incidence of dengue has grown dramatically in recent decades worldwide, especially in Southeast Asia and the Americas with substantial transmission in 2014-2015. Yet the mechanisms underlying the spatio-temporal circulation of dengue virus (DENV) serotypes at large geographical scales remain elusive. Here we investigate the co-circulation in Asia of DENV serotypes 1-3 from 1956 to 2015, using a statistical framework that jointly estimates migration history and quantifies potential predictors of viral spatial diffusion, including socio-economic, air transportation and maritime mobility data. Read More

    Detection of selected arboviral infections in patients with history of persistent fever in Pakistan.
    Acta Trop 2017 Jul 25;176:34-38. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Naval Medical Research Unit, Cairo, Egypt.
    Surveillance is a valuable tool for understanding prevailing and previously undiagnosed infections in a geographic area. We examined 480 archived serum samples from patients with history of persistent fever (>40°C, 60-72h) who were referred to hospitals in Rawalpindi/Islamabad, Lahore, and Faisalabad districts for dengue antibody detection in 2014-15. Each sample was processed for detection of antigens and seroconversion, using real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, against dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) virus serotypes 1-4, West Nile virus fever (WNVF), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), and Chikungunya virus (CGV). Read More

    Amino acid metabolic signaling influences Aedes aegypti midgut microbiome variability.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 28;11(7):e0005677. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.
    The mosquito midgut microbiota has been shown to influence vector competence for multiple human pathogens. The microbiota is highly variable in the field, and the sources of this variability are not well understood, which limits our ability to understand or predict its effects on pathogen transmission. In this work, we report significant variation in female adult midgut bacterial load between strains of A. Read More

    Dengue subgenomic flaviviral RNA disrupts immunity in mosquito salivary glands to increase virus transmission.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Jul 28;13(7):e1006535. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore.
    Globally re-emerging dengue viruses are transmitted from human-to-human by Aedes mosquitoes. While viral determinants of human pathogenicity have been defined, there is a lack of knowledge of how dengue viruses influence mosquito transmission. Identification of viral determinants of transmission can help identify isolates with high epidemiological potential. Read More

    Update: Temporary Total Depletion of U.S. Licensed Yellow Fever Vaccine for Civilian Travelers Addressed by Investigational New Drug Use of Imported Stamaril Vaccine.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Jul 28;66(29):780. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC.
    Sanofi Pasteur, the manufacturer of the only yellow fever vaccine (YF-VAX) licensed in the United States, has announced that their stock of YF-VAX is totally depleted as of July 24, 2017. YF-VAX for civilian use will be unavailable for ordering from Sanofi Pasteur until mid-2018, when their new manufacturing facility is expected to be completed. However, YF-VAX might be available at some clinics for several months, until remaining supplies at those sites are exhausted. Read More

    Risk of exposure to potential vector mosquitoes for rural workers in Northern Lao PDR.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 25;11(7):e0005802. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Department of Medical Entomology & Biology of Disease Vectors, Institut Pasteur du Laos, Vientiane, Lao PDR.
    Background: One major consequence of economic development in South-East Asia has been a rapid expansion of rubber plantations, in which outbreaks of dengue and malaria have occurred. Here we explored the difference in risk of exposure to potential dengue, Japanese encephalitis (JE), and malaria vectors between rubber workers and those engaged in traditional forest activities in northern Laos PDR.

    Methodology/principal Findings: Adult mosquitoes were collected for nine months in secondary forests, mature and immature rubber plantations, and villages. Read More

    Wetlands, wild Bovidae species richness and sheep density delineate risk of Rift Valley fever outbreaks in the African continent and Arabian Peninsula.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 25;11(7):e0005756. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia.
    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging, vector-borne viral zoonosis that has significantly impacted public health, livestock health and production, and food security over the last three decades across large regions of the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula. The potential for expansion of RVF outbreaks within and beyond the range of previous occurrence is unknown. Despite many large national and international epidemics, the landscape epidemiology of RVF remains obscure, particularly with respect to the ecological roles of wildlife reservoirs and surface water features. Read More

    Insecticide resistance is mediated by multiple mechanisms in recently introduced Aedes aegypti from Madeira Island (Portugal).
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 24;11(7):e0005799. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Background: Aedes aegypti is a major mosquito vector of arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. In 2005, Ae. aegypti was identified for the first time in Madeira Island. Read More

    ANTI-VIRAL EFFECTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF DENGUE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.
    Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2017 7;14(4 Suppl):33-40. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Laboratório de Vibrações Mecânicas e Práticas Integrativas e Complementares, Departamento de Biofísica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 20551-030, RJ, Brasil.
    Background: Dengue is considered as an important arboviral disease. Safe, low-cost, and effective drugs that possess inhibitory activity against dengue virus (DENV) are mostly needed to try to combat the dengue infection worldwide. Medicinal plants have been considered as an important alternative to manage several diseases, such as dengue. Read More

    Analysis of patient data from laboratories during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Liberia, April 2014 to March 2015.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 21;11(7):e0005804. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Monrovia, Liberia.
    An outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Liberia began in March 2014 and ended in January 2016. Epidemiological information on the EVD cases was collected and managed nationally; however, collection and management of the data were challenging at the time because surveillance and reporting systems malfunctioned during the outbreak. EVD diagnostic laboratories, however, were able to register basic demographic and clinical information of patients more systematically. Read More

    Drivers for Rift Valley fever emergence in Mayotte: A Bayesian modelling approach.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 21;11(7):e0005767. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Centre for the Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a major zoonotic and arboviral hemorrhagic fever. The conditions leading to RVF epidemics are still unclear, and the relative role of climatic and anthropogenic factors may vary between ecosystems. Here, we estimate the most likely scenario that led to RVF emergence on the island of Mayotte, following the 2006-2007 African epidemic. Read More

    Advances in using Internet searches to track dengue.
    PLoS Comput Biol 2017 Jul 20;13(7):e1005607. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Computational Health Informatics Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that threatens over half of the world's population. Despite being endemic to more than 100 countries, government-led efforts and tools for timely identification and tracking of new infections are still lacking in many affected areas. Multiple methodologies that leverage the use of Internet-based data sources have been proposed as a way to complement dengue surveillance efforts. Read More

    Co-circulation and co-infections of all dengue virus serotypes in Hyderabad, India 2014.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Sep 20;145(12):2563-2574. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics,School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad,Hyderabad, Telangana State,India.
    The burden of dengue virus infections increased globally during recent years. Though India is considered as dengue hyper-endemic country, limited data are available on disease epidemiology. The present study includes molecular characterization of dengue virus strains occurred in Hyderabad, India, during the year 2014. Read More

    A seroprevalence study to determine the frequency of hantavirus infection in people exposed to wild and pet fancy rats in England.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Sep 20;145(12):2458-2465. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Public Health England,Porton Down, Wiltshire,UK.
    Recent cases of acute kidney injury due to Seoul hantavirus infection from exposure to wild or pet fancy rats suggest this infection is increasing in prevalence in the UK. We conducted a seroprevalence study in England to estimate cumulative exposure in at-risk groups with contact with domesticated and wild rats to assess risk and inform public health advice. From October 2013 to June 2014, 844 individual blood samples were collected. Read More

    Temperature modulates dengue virus epidemic growth rates through its effects on reproduction numbers and generation intervals.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 19;11(7):e0005797. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Department of Biological Sciences and Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, United States of America.
    Epidemic growth rate, r, provides a more complete description of the potential for epidemics than the more commonly studied basic reproduction number, R0, yet the former has never been described as a function of temperature for dengue virus or other pathogens with temperature-sensitive transmission. The need to understand the drivers of epidemics of these pathogens is acute, with arthropod-borne virus epidemics becoming increasingly problematic. We addressed this need by developing temperature-dependent descriptions of the two components of r-R0 and the generation interval-to obtain a temperature-dependent description of r. Read More

    The natural history of acute Ebola Virus Disease among patients managed in five Ebola treatment units in West Africa: A retrospective cohort study.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 19;11(7):e0005700. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    International Medical Corps, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.
    Introduction: Previous studies of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) have focused on clinical symptoms and Ebola virus (EBOV) cycle threshold (CT) values recorded at patient triage. Our study explores EVD symptoms and EBOV CT values from onset of illness to recovery or death in a diverse population of patients.

    Methodology/principal Findings: We analyzed clinical care data from EBOV positive patients admitted to five Ebola treatment units in West Africa from 2014-2015. Read More

    Differences in Mortality and Clinical Manifestations of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Taiwan in Different Years: A Comparison for Cases in 2014 and 2015 Epidemics.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Aug 19;97(2):361-368. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Department of Biological Science and Technology, College of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.
    People in southern Taiwan experienced two major dengue outbreaks in 2014 and 2015. The mortality and clinical features were very different between these 2 years. Dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1) caused epidemic outbreak in 2014 and DENV-2 was predominant in 2015. Read More

    From one to the other: responding to Ebola cases on either side of the line.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 28;27(Suppl 1):12. Epub 2017 May 28.
    International Border Team, Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, USA.
    This case study is adapted from events that occurred along the Sierra Leone and Guinea land border during the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa. The response activities involved Sierra Leone and Guinea officials, along with assistance from U.S. Read More

    Contact tracing following outbreak of Ebola virus disease in urban settings in Nigeria.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 28;27(Suppl 1). Epub 2017 May 28.
    Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Training Program, Abuja, Nigeria.
    An outbreak of Ebola virus disease occurred in Nigeria between July and September 2014. Contact tracing commenced in Lagos, and extended to Port Harcourt and Enugu as the outbreak continued to spread. A total of 899 contacts were traced. Read More

    Unexplained haemorrhagic fever in Rural Ethiopia.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 28;27(Suppl 1). Epub 2017 May 28.
    Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, USA.
    This case study was written based on events of an outbreak investigation of an unfamiliar disease in Ethiopia during October-December 2012. Ethiopia did not have reports of similar cases in the 50 years prior to this outbreak. In this case study, we recapitulate and analyse this outbreak investigation based on data gathered from the community, health facility, and laboratory systems. Read More

    Dengue prediction by the web: Tweets are a useful tool for estimating and forecasting Dengue at country and city level.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 18;11(7):e0005729. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Departamento de Bioquimica e Imunologia do Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
    Background: Infectious diseases are a leading threat to public health. Accurate and timely monitoring of disease risk and progress can reduce their impact. Mentioning a disease in social networks is correlated with physician visits by patients, and can be used to estimate disease activity. Read More

    Rift Valley Fever Seroprevalence in Coastal Kenya.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jul;97(1):115-120
    Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California.
    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes severe disease in both animals and humans, resulting in significant economic and public health damages. The objective of this study was to measure RVFV seroprevalence in six coastal Kenyan villages between 2009 and 2011, and characterize individual-, household-, and community-level risk factors for prior RVFV exposure. Sera were tested for anti-RVFV IgG via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Read More

    Climate Influence on Emerging Risk Areas for Rift Valley Fever Epidemics in Tanzania.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jul;97(1):109-114
    Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania.
    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a climate-related arboviral infection of animals and humans. Climate is thought to represent a threat toward emerging risk areas for RVF epidemics globally. The objective of this study was to evaluate influence of climate on distribution of suitable breeding habitats for Culex pipiens complex, potential mosquito vector responsible for transmission and distribution of disease epidemics risk areas in Tanzania. Read More

    Analysis of Clinical and Laboratory Alterations Related to Dengue Case Severity: Comparison between Serotypes 2 and 4 in Brazil.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jul;97(1):137-145
    Viral Immunology Laboratory, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    The increase in severe dengue (SD) cases has caused great impact on public health and has concerned authorities of countries where the disease is endemic and epidemics reach high proportions. The recognition of progression signs of this severe disease during the initial febrile phase can be difficult, since the symptoms are often indistinguishable from other febrile diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in patients from two dengue outbreaks and their association with the disease. Read More

    A Fatal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Misdiagnosed as Dengue: An Investigation into the First Reported Case in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jul;97(1):125-129
    Laboratório de Hantaviroses e Rickettsioses, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
    We report the results of an investigation into a fatal case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, where the disease had not been reported previous to 2015. Following the notification of an HPS case, serum samples were collected from the household members and work contacts of the HPS patient and tested for antibody to hantaviruses. Seroprevalence of 22% (10/45) was indicated for hantavirus out of 45 human samples tested. Read More

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