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    Development and preliminary evaluation of a multiplexed amplification and next generation sequencing method for viral hemorrhagic fever diagnostics.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Nov 20;11(11):e0006075. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Highly Pathogenic Viruses, ZBS 1, Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: We describe the development and evaluation of a novel method for targeted amplification and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based identification of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) agents and assess the feasibility of this approach in diagnostics.

    Methodology: An ultrahigh-multiplex panel was designed with primers to amplify all known variants of VHF-associated viruses and relevant controls. The performance of the panel was evaluated via serially quantified nucleic acids from Yellow fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus, Ebola virus, Junin virus and Chikungunya virus in a semiconductor-based sequencing platform. Read More

    The challenges of detecting and responding to a Lassa fever outbreak in an Ebola-affected setting.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Ministry of Health Liberia, Congo Town,Tubman Boulevard, Monrovia, Montserrado, Liberia.
    Objectives: Lassa fever(LF), a priority emerging pathogen likely to cause major epidemics, is endemic in much of West Africa and difficult to distinguish from other viral haemorrhagic fevers including Ebola virus disease(EVD). Definitive diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation not widely available in affected settings. We report the public health action to contain a LF outbreak and challenges encountered in an EVD-affected setting. Read More

    Viral hemorrhagic fever in the tropics: Report from the task force on tropical diseases by the World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine.
    J Crit Care 2017 Nov 4. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    Global Health - Health Systems & Policy, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Critical Care Medicine, Bombay Hospital Institute of Medical Sciences, Mumbai, India. Electronic address:
    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses caused by four families of viruses namely Arenaviruses, Filoviruses, Bunyaviruses, and Flaviviruses. Humans are not the natural reservoir for any of these organisms and acquire the disease through vectors from animal reservoirs. In some conditions human to human transmission is possible increasing the risk to healthy individuals in the vicinity, more so to Health Care Workers (HCW). Read More

    Functional Analysis of Glycosylation of Zika Virus Envelope Protein.
    Cell Rep 2017 Oct;21(5):1180-1190
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; Sealy Center for Structural Biology & Molecular Biophysics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA. Electronic address:
    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection causes devastating congenital abnormities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The ZIKV envelope (E) protein is responsible for viral entry and represents a major determinant for viral pathogenesis. Like other flaviviruses, the ZIKV E protein is glycosylated at amino acid N154. Read More

    Rapid Field Response to a Cluster of Illnesses and Deaths - Sinoe County, Liberia, April-May, 2017.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Oct 27;66(42):1140-1143. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    On April 25, 2017, the Sinoe County Health Team (CHT) notified the Liberia Ministry of Health (MoH) and the National Public Health Institute of Liberia of an unknown illness among 14 persons that resulted in eight deaths in Sinoe County. On April 26, the National Rapid Response Team and epidemiologists from CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) in Liberia were deployed to support the county-led response. Measures were immediately implemented to identify all cases, ascertain the cause of illness, and control the outbreak. Read More

    Epistastic interactions within the Junín virus envelope glycoprotein complex provide an evolutionary barrier to reversion in the live-attenuated Candid#1 vaccine.
    J Virol 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Montana Biotechnology Center, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, United States of America
    The Candid#1 strain of Junín virus was developed using a conventional attenuation strategy of serial passage in non-host animals and cultured cells. The live-attenuated Candid#1 vaccine is used in Argentina to protect at-risk individuals against Argentine hemorrhagic fever, but has not been licensed in the United States. Recent studies have revealed that Candid#1 attenuation is entirely dependent on a phenylalanine-to-isoleucine substitution at position 427 in the fusion subunit (GP2) of the viral envelope glycoprotein complex (GPC), thereby raising concerns regarding the potential for reversion to virulence. Read More

    Reporting of False Data During Ebola Virus Disease Active Monitoring-New York City, January 1, 2015-December 29, 2015.
    Health Secur 2017 Sep/Oct;15(5):509-518
    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) began to actively monitor people potentially exposed to Ebola virus on October 25, 2014. Active monitoring was critical to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) response and mitigated risk without restricting individual liberties. Noncompliance with active monitoring procedures has been reported. Read More

    Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Ebola Virus Disease at the End of a National Epidemic - Guinea, August 2015.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Oct 20;66(41):1109-1115. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Health communication and social mobilization efforts to improve the public's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding Ebola virus disease (Ebola) were important in controlling the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in Guinea (1), which resulted in 3,814 reported Ebola cases and 2,544 deaths.* Most Ebola cases in Guinea resulted from the washing and touching of persons and corpses infected with Ebola without adequate infection control precautions at home, at funerals, and in health facilities (2,3). As the 18-month epidemic waned in August 2015, Ebola KAP were assessed in a survey among residents of Guinea recruited through multistage cluster sampling procedures in the nation's eight administrative regions (Boké, Conakry, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labé, Mamou, and Nzérékoré). Read More

    Reporting Deaths Among Children Aged <5 Years After the Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic - Bombali District, Sierra Leone, 2015-2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Oct 20;66(41):1116-1118. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Mortality surveillance and vital registration are limited in Sierra Leone, a country with one of the highest mortality rates among children aged <5 years worldwide, approximately 120 deaths per 1,000 live births (1,2). To inform efforts to strengthen surveillance, stillbirths and deaths in children aged <5 years from multiple surveillance streams in Bombali Sebora chiefdom were retrospectively reviewed. In total, during January 2015-November 2016, 930 deaths in children aged <5 years were identified, representing 73. Read More

    Developing a dengue forecast model using machine learning: A case study in China.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 16;11(10):e0005973. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, China.
    Background: In China, dengue remains an important public health issue with expanded areas and increased incidence recently. Accurate and timely forecasts of dengue incidence in China are still lacking. We aimed to use the state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms to develop an accurate predictive model of dengue. Read More

    Local, national, and regional viral haemorrhagic fever pandemic potential in Africa: a multistage analysis.
    Lancet 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:
    Background: Predicting when and where pathogens will emerge is difficult, yet, as shown by the recent Ebola and Zika epidemics, effective and timely responses are key. It is therefore crucial to transition from reactive to proactive responses for these pathogens. To better identify priorities for outbreak mitigation and prevention, we developed a cohesive framework combining disparate methods and data sources, and assessed subnational pandemic potential for four viral haemorrhagic fevers in Africa, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Ebola virus disease, Lassa fever, and Marburg virus disease. Read More

    Surveillance of Vector-Borne Infections (Chikungunya, Dengue, and Malaria) in Bo, Sierra Leone, 2012-2013.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Oct;97(4):1151-1154
    Mercy Hospital Research Laboratory, Bo, Sierra Leone.
    Malaria remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in West Africa, but the contribution of other vector-borne infections (VBIs) to the burden of disease has been understudied. We used rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for three VBIs to test blood samples from 1,795 febrile residents of Bo City, Sierra Leone, over a 1-year period in 2012-2013. In total, 24% of the tests were positive for malaria, fewer than 5% were positive for markers of dengue virus infection, and 39% were positive for IgM directed against chikungunya virus (CHIKV) or a related alphavirus. Read More

    Dengue Virus Serotypes 1 and 2 Responsible for Major Dengue Outbreaks in Nepal: Clinical, Laboratory, and Epidemiological Features.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Oct;97(4):1062-1069
    Virology Department, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Dengue virus (DENV) is expanding toward previously nonendemic areas. DENV has recently been introduced in Nepal with limited information. We report the clinical features and serotype distribution of DENV in Nepal during the 2010 outbreaks. Read More

    HoTResDB: Host Transcriptional Response Database for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers.
    Bioinformatics 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Bioinformatics Program, Boston University, 24 Cummington Mall, Boston MA, 02215, US.
    Summary: High-throughput screening of the host transcriptional response to various viral infections provides a wealth of data but utilization of microarray and next generation sequencing (NGS) data for analysis can be difficult. The Host Transcriptional Response DataBase (HoTResDB), allows visitors to access already processed microarray and NGS data from non-human primate models of viral hemorrhagic fever to better understand the host transcriptional response.

    Availability: HoTResDB is freely available at http://hotresdb. Read More

    A recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever Virus infection.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 13;11(10):e0006013. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    National Infection Service, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, United Kingdom.
    Background: Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever Virus (CCHFV) is a rapidly emerging vector-borne pathogen and the cause of a virulent haemorrhagic fever affecting large parts of Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia.

    Methodology/principle Findings: An isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay was successfully developed for molecular detection of CCHFV. The assay showed rapid (under 10 minutes) detection of viral extracts/synthetic virus RNA of all 7 S-segment clades of CCHFV, with high target specificity. Read More

    Mechanisms of human cytomegalovirus infection with a focus on epidermal growth factor receptor interactions.
    Rev Med Virol 2017 Nov 11;27(6). Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ananindeua, Pará, Brazil.
    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread opportunistic herpesvirus that causes severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals. It has a high prevalence worldwide that is linked with socioeconomic factors. Similar to other herpesviruses, HCMV has the ability to establish lifelong persistence and latent infection following primary exposure. Read More

    Phase 2 Placebo-Controlled Trial of Two Vaccines to Prevent Ebola in Liberia.
    N Engl J Med 2017 10;377(15):1438-1447
    From the Liberian Ministry of Health, Monrovia, Liberia (S.B.K., F.B., M.K., M.B., M.J., F.K., T.N.); the University of Minnesota, Division of Biostatistics, Minneapolis (G.G., B.G., J.W., J.D.N.); GlaxoSmithKline, Rockville (R.B.), and National Institutes of Health (R.E., D.F., L.H., E.H., M.N., H.C.L.) and AbViro (E.S.), Bethesda - all in Maryland; Merck, Kenilworth, NJ (M.F., S.G.); Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (K.J., J.L., J.M., E.S.); International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, New York (M.F., S.G., T.M.); and GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium (F.R.).
    Background: The safety and efficacy of vaccines to prevent Ebola virus disease (EVD) were unknown when the incidence of EVD was peaking in Liberia.

    Methods: We initiated a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of the chimpanzee adenovirus 3 vaccine (ChAd3-EBO-Z) and the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine (rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP) in Liberia. A phase 2 subtrial was embedded to evaluate safety and immunogenicity. Read More

    Risk of venous thromboembolism following hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: A self-controlled case series study.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Sep 4. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Unit of Infectious Diseases, Dept. of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Background: Bleeding is associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers; however, thromboembolic complications has received less attention. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a mild viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Puumala hantavirus. We previously identified HFRS as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke, but the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is unknown. Read More

    Management of a Lassa fever outbreak, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, 2016.
    Euro Surveill 2017 Sep;22(39)
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Hospitals, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Due to rapid diagnosis and isolation of imported cases, community outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are considered unlikely in industrialised countries. In March 2016, the first documented locally acquired case of Lassa fever (LF) outside Africa occurred, demonstrating the disease's potential as a cross-border health threat. We describe the management surrounding this case of LF in Rhineland-Palatinate - the German federal state where secondary transmission occurred. Read More

    Sex practices and awareness of Ebola virus disease among male survivors and their partners in Guinea.
    BMJ Glob Health 2017 25;2(3):e000412. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Section of Epidemic Intelligence and Response, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, Stockholms Län, Sweden.
    Introduction: Towards the end of the 2013-2016 West African outbreak, sexually-transmitted Ebola virus re-emerged from Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in all three hardest hit countries. We explore sex practices and awareness of the risk of Ebola virus transmission among EVD survivors and their partners.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited a convenience sample of study participants aged >15 years who were male EVD survivors, their sexual partners and a comparison group. Read More

    Analysing published global Ebola Virus Disease research using social network analysis.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 9;11(10):e0005747. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Introduction: The 2014/2015 West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak attracted global attention. Numerous opinions claimed that the global response was impaired, in part because, the EVD research was neglected, although quantitative or qualitative studies did not exist. Our objective was to analyse how the EVD research landscape evolved by exploring the existing research network and its communities before and during the outbreak in West Africa. Read More

    A Primary Human Liver Cell Culture Model for Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses.
    Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1604:291-302
    Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 7835 Perry Rd., Baltimore, MD, 21236, USA.
    Viral hemorrhagic fevers affect liver functions such as important metabolic processes and the replacement of new blood cells, coagulation factors, and growth factors. Typically, multi-organ diseases such as viral hemorrhagic fevers are studied in an organism, but it is also possible to derive information about the molecular events involved in disease processes by focusing on liver cell culture. Here we describe a multi-cell culture system that is capable of replicating the arenavirus LCMV-WE, a virus that can cause hemorrhagic fever in primates, as a model for liver infection by a hemorrhagic fever virus. Read More

    Testing Experimental Therapies in a Guinea Pig Model for Hemorrhagic Fever.
    Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1604:269-278
    Special Pathogens Program, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Hemorrhagic fever viruses are among the deadliest pathogens known to humans, and often, licensed medical countermeasures are unavailable to prevent or treat infections. Guinea pigs are a commonly used animal for the preclinical development of any experimental candidates, typically to confirm data generated in mice and as a way to validate and support further testing in nonhuman primates. In this chapter, we use Sudan virus (SUDV), a lethal filovirus closely related to Ebola virus, as an example of the steps required for generating a guinea pig-adapted isolate that is used to test a monoclonal antibody-based therapy against viral hemorrhagic fevers. Read More

    Epidemiological Surveillance of Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers With Emphasis on Clinical Virology.
    Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1604:55-78
    Linea de Zoonosis Emergentes y Re-emergentes, Grupo Centauro, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín, Colombia.
    This article will outline surveillance approaches for viral hemorrhagic fevers. Specific methods for surveillance of clinical samples will be emphasized. Separate articles will describe methods for surveillance of rodent-borne viruses (roboviruses) and arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Read More

    Global Spread of Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses: Predicting Pandemics.
    Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1604:3-31
    Orion Integrated Biosciences, 265 Centre Avenue, Suite 1, New Rochelle, NY, 10805-2426, USA.
    As successive epidemics have swept the world, the scientific community has quickly learned from them about the emergence and transmission of communicable diseases. Epidemics usually occur when health systems are unprepared. During an unexpected epidemic, health authorities engage in damage control, fear drives action, and the desire to understand the threat is greatest. Read More

    Safety and immunogenicity of rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP Ebola vaccine in adults and children in Lambaréné, Gabon: A phase I randomised trial.
    PLoS Med 2017 Oct 6;14(10):e1002402. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné, Lambaréné, Gabon.
    Background: The rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP vaccine prevented Ebola virus disease when used at 2 × 107 plaque-forming units (PFU) in a trial in Guinea. This study provides further safety and immunogenicity data.

    Methods And Findings: A randomised, open-label phase I trial in Lambaréné, Gabon, studied 5 single intramuscular vaccine doses of 3 × 103, 3 × 104, 3 × 105, 3 × 106, or 2 × 107 PFU in 115 adults and a dose of 2 × 107 PFU in 20 adolescents and 20 children. Read More

    Epidemic hemorrhagic fever complicated with late pregnancy: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Oct;96(40):e8137
    aDepartment of Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan bDepartment of Respiratory Disease (Taishan Scholar Position), Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, China.
    Rationale: Hantaviruses cause two forms of diseases in humans, namely hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Hantavirus infections can occur in pregnant women, and could influence the maternal and fetal outcomes, although this is a rare finding, even in endemic areas.

    Patient Concerns: In this report, we describe anunusual case involving a pregnant woman with HFRS who was in a state of shock. Read More

    Effectiveness of a fluid chart in outpatient management of suspected dengue fever: A pilot study.
    PLoS One 2017 4;12(10):e0183544. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Department of Primary Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Introduction: Dengue infection is the fastest spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. One of the complications of dengue is dehydration which, if not carefully monitored and treated, may lead to shock, particularly in those with dengue haemorrhagic fever. WHO has recommended oral fluid intake of five glasses or more for adults who are suspected to have dengue fever. Read More

    Socio-demographic, ecological factors and dengue infection trends in Australia.
    PLoS One 2017 2;12(10):e0185551. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    School of Public Health and Social Work, Institute of Health & Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia. This study has explored the spatio-temporal trends of dengue and potential socio- demographic and ecological determinants in Australia. Data on dengue cases, socio-demographic, climatic and land use types for the period January 1999 to December 2010 were collected from Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, and Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, respectively. Read More

    Oxidation-sensitive polymersomes as vaccine nanocarriers enhance humoral responses against Lassa virus envelope glycoprotein.
    Virology 2017 Dec 28;512:161-171. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Institute of Microbiology, Lausanne University Hospital. Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Lassa virus (LASV) causes severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality, yet no vaccine currently exists. Antibodies targeting viral attachment proteins are crucial for protection against many viral infections. However, the envelope glycoprotein (GP)-1 of LASV elicits weak antibody responses due to extensive glycan shielding. Read More

    The Bridges and Blockades to Evolutionary Convergence on the Road to Predicting Chikungunya Virus Evolution.
    Annu Rev Virol 2017 Sep;4(1):181-200
    Biosecurity Research Institute and Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506; email:
    Chikungunya virus, first isolated in the 1950s, has since reemerged to cause several epidemics and millions of infections throughout the world. What was once blurred and confused with dengue virus in both diagnosis and name has since become one of the best-characterized arboviral diseases. In this review, we cover the history of this virus, its evolution into distinct genotypes and lineages, and, most notably, the convergent evolution observed in recent years. Read More

    Immune status alters the probability of apparent illness due to dengue virus infection: Evidence from a pooled analysis across multiple cohort and cluster studies.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 27;11(9):e0005926. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Dengue Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, San Juan, PR.
    Dengue is an important vector-borne pathogen found across much of the world. Many factors complicate our understanding of the relationship between infection with one of the four dengue virus serotypes, and the observed incidence of disease. One of the factors is a large proportion of infections appear to result in no or few symptoms, while others result in severe infections. Read More

    A lethal model of disseminated dengue virus type 1 infection in AG129 mice.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Oct 27;98(10):2507-2519. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    3​Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.
    The mosquito-borne disease dengue is caused by four serologically and genetically related flaviviruses termed DENV-1 to DENV-4. Dengue is a global public health concern, with both the geographical range and burden of disease increasing rapidly. Clinically, dengue ranges from a relatively mild self-limiting illness to a severe life-threatening and sometimes fatal disease. Read More

    The 117 call alert system in Sierra Leone: from rapid Ebola notification to routine death reporting.
    BMJ Glob Health 2017 7;2(3):e000392. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Ministry of Health and Sanitation, Freetown, Sierra Leone.
    A toll-free, nationwide phone alert system was established for rapid notification and response during the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone. The system remained in place after the end of the epidemic under a policy of mandatory reporting and Ebola testing for all deaths, and, from June 2016, testing only in case of suspected Ebola. We describe the design, implementation and changes in the system; analyse calling trends during and after the Ebola epidemic; and discuss strengths and limitations of the system and its potential role in efforts to improve death reporting in Sierra Leone. Read More

    Germline bias dictates cross-serotype reactivity in a common dengue-virus-specific CD8(+) T cell response.
    Nat Immunol 2017 Nov 25;18(11):1228-1237. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Adaptive immune responses protect against infection with dengue virus (DENV), yet cross-reactivity with distinct serotypes can precipitate life-threatening clinical disease. We found that clonotypes expressing the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) β-chain variable region 11 (TRBV11-2) were 'preferentially' activated and mobilized within immunodominant human-leukocyte-antigen-(HLA)-A*11:01-restricted CD8(+) T cell populations specific for variants of the nonstructural protein epitope NS3133 that characterize the serotypes DENV1, DENV3 and DENV4. In contrast, the NS3133-DENV2-specific repertoire was largely devoid of such TCRs. Read More

    Space-time epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Iran.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Arboviruses and Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (National Reference Laboratory), Pasteur Institute of Iran, Iran.
    Iran, as an endemic country of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), has been suffering from severe health issues and substantial economic burdens imposed by the disease. We analyzed monthly and yearly spatial and temporal distributions of CCHF to better understand the epidemiology of the disease in Iran. A cross-sectional survey was performed on 1027 recorded cases between 2000 and 2014. Read More

    A single-dose live-attenuated vaccine prevents Zika virus pregnancy transmission and testis damage.
    Nat Commun 2017 Sep 22;8(1):676. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, 77555, USA.
    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital abnormities or fetal demise. The persistence of Zika virus in the male reproductive system poses a risk of sexual transmission. Here we demonstrate that live-attenuated Zika virus vaccine candidates containing deletions in the 3' untranslated region of the Zika virus genome (ZIKV-3'UTR-LAV) prevent viral transmission during pregnancy and testis damage in mice, as well as infection of nonhuman primates. Read More

    Household costs of hospitalized dengue illness in semi-rural Thailand.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 22;11(9):e0005961. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Division of Social Science, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
    Background: Dengue-related illness is a leading cause of hospitalization and death in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries, imposing a major economic burden on households, health systems, and governments. This study aims to assess the economic impact of hospitalized dengue cases on households in Chachoengsao province in eastern Thailand.

    Methods: We conducted a prospective cost-of-illness study of hospitalized pediatric and adult dengue patients at three public hospitals. Read More

    Using "Mystery Patient" Drills to Assess Hospital Ebola Preparedness in New York City, 2014-2015.
    Health Secur 2017 Sep/Oct;15(5):500-508. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    In response to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, rapid measures were taken to ensure readiness at frontline New York City (NYC) healthcare facilities, including mandating monthly EVD mystery patient drills to test screening protocols. This study analyzed after-action reports to describe the use of mystery patient drills to test rapid identification and isolation of potential EVD cases in NYC emergency departments. NYC hospitals were required to develop protocols for EVD screening and isolation, and to conduct drills with an actor presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of EVD. Read More

    Seroepidemiology and risk factors of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever among butchers and slaughterhouse workers in southeastern Iran.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Nov 19;64:85-89. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Infectious Disease and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Boo-Ali Hospital, Zahedan, Iran.
    Objective: Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease. Butchers and slaughterhouse workers are considered to be high risk occupational groups for the disease. Sistan and Baluchistan province is an area in southeastern Iran which is endemic for CCHF, and the most confirmed cases of the disease are reported from this province. Read More

    Comparative Transcriptomics Highlights the Role of the Activator Protein 1 Transcription Factor in the Host Response to Ebolavirus.
    J Virol 2017 Dec 14;91(23). Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    CSIRO Health and Biosecurity/Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.
    Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus comprise two genera of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Despite considerable research efforts, the molecular events following Ebola virus (EBOV) infection are poorly understood. With the view of identifying host factors that underpin EBOV pathogenesis, we compared the transcriptomes of EBOV-infected human, pig, and bat kidney cells using a transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) approach. Read More

    Risk analysis of inter-species reassortment through a Rift Valley fever phlebovirus MP-12 vaccine strain.
    PLoS One 2017 19;12(9):e0185194. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America.
    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The causative agent, Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV), belongs to the genus Phlebovirus in the family Phenuiviridae and causes high rates of abortions in ruminants, and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or blindness in humans. Viral maintenance by mosquito vectors has led to sporadic RVF outbreaks in ruminants and humans in endemic countries, and effective vaccination of animals and humans may minimize the impact of this disease. Read More

    A DNA vaccine for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever protects against disease and death in two lethal mouse models.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 18;11(9):e0005908. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Headquarters Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America.
    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus capable of causing a severe hemorrhagic fever disease in humans. There are currently no licensed vaccines to prevent CCHFV-associated disease. We developed a DNA vaccine expressing the M-segment glycoprotein precursor gene of CCHFV and assessed its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in two lethal mouse models of disease: type I interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR-/-) mice; and a novel transiently immune suppressed (IS) mouse model. Read More

    Metabolomics analyses identify platelet activating factors and heme breakdown products as Lassa fever biomarkers.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 18;11(9):e0005943. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America.
    Lassa fever afflicts tens of thousands of people in West Africa annually. The rapid progression of patients from febrile illness to fulminant syndrome and death provides incentive for development of clinical prognostic markers that can guide case management. The small molecule profile of serum from febrile patients triaged to the Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Ward at Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone was assessed using untargeted Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Read More

    Incidence and risk factors for Dengue virus (DENV) infection in the first 2 years of life in a Brazilian prospective birth cohort.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Oct 18;145(14):2971-2979. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Aggeu Magalhães Research Center,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation,Recife,Brazil.
    This study assessed the incidence and risk factors for dengue virus (DENV) infection among children in a prospective birth cohort conducted in the city of Recife, a hyperendemic dengue area in Northeast Brazil. Healthy pregnant women (n = 415) residing in Recife who agreed to have their children followed were enrolled. Children were followed during their first 24 months of age (May/2011-June/2014), before the 2015 Zika virus outbreak. Read More

    Predicting the mortality in geriatric patients with dengue fever.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Sep;96(37):e7878
    aDepartment of Emergency Medicine bDepartment of Occupational Medicine, Chi-Mei Medical Center cDepartment of Biotechnology, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology dBachelor Program of Senior Service eDepartment of Leisure, Recreation, and Tourism Management, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology fDepartment of Medical Research, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Liouying gDepartment of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University hDepartment of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Chi-Mei Medical Center iDepartment of Emergency Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Geriatric patients have high mortality for dengue fever (DF); however, there is no adequate method to predict mortality in geriatric patients. Therefore, we conducted this study to develop a tool in an attempt to address this issue.We conducted a retrospective case-control study in a tertiary medical center during the DF outbreak in Taiwan in 2015. Read More

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