36,028 results match your criteria Viral Encephalitis


MAVS mediates a protective immune response in the brain to Rift Valley fever virus.

PLoS Pathog 2022 May 18;18(5):e1010231. Epub 2022 May 18.

Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, United States of America.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne virus capable of causing hepatitis, encephalitis, blindness, hemorrhagic syndrome, and death in humans and livestock. Upon aerosol infection with RVFV, the brain is a major site of viral replication and tissue damage, yet pathogenesis in this organ has been understudied. Here, we investigated the immune response in the brain of RVFV infected mice. Read More

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COVID-19 infection enhances susceptibility to oxidative-stress induced parkinsonism.

Mov Disord 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Neurology, Grossman School of Medicine, New York University, 222 East 41st St, 9th Floor, New York, NY, 10017.

Background: Viral induction of neurological syndromes has been a concern since parkinsonian-like features were observed in patients diagnosed with encephalitis lethargica subsequent to the 1918 influenza pandemic. Given the similarities in the systemic responses following SARS-CoV-2 infection with those observed after pandemic influenza, there is a question if a similar syndrome of post-encephalic parkinsonism could follow COVID-19 infection.

Objectives: To determine if prior infection with SARS-CoV-2 increased sensitivity to a mitochondrial toxin known to induce parkinsonism. Read More

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Anti-Cancer Virotherapy in Russia: Lessons from the Past, Current Challenges and Prospects for the Future.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Products of Russian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Other Viral Encephalitides, Poselok Instituta Poliomielita 8 bd 17, Poselenie Moskovskiy, Moscow, 108819, Russia.

The idea of using the lytic power of viruses against malignant cells has been entertained for many decades. However, oncolytic viruses gained broad attention as an emerging anti-cancer therapy only recently with the successful implementation of several oncolytic viruses to treat advanced melanoma. Here we review the history of oncolytic viruses in the Russian Federation and recent biotechnological advances in connection with the perspectives of their practical use against aggressive tumors such as glioblastoma or pancreatic cancer. Read More

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Evaluation of Intrathecal Injection of Modified Live Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine in Dogs with Canine Distemper Encephalitis.

J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2022 May;58(3):105-112

Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (A.G.K.), College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.

The neurological form of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection can occur concurrently with systemic signs or develop following apparent recovery. There are no specific antiviral or immunomodulatory therapies recognized for treatment of CDV infections, and the neurological form typically carries with it a high mortality rate. The intrathecal injection of a modified live Newcastle disease virus vaccine (NDV-MLV) has been proposed for the treatment of the neurological forms of CDV infections. Read More

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A Review of the Treatment of Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Encephalitis in Six Immunocompetent Patients.

Cureus 2022 Apr 13;14(4):e24129. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Infectious Disease, Cape Fear Valley Medical Center, Fayetteville, USA.

Introduction The optimal treatment regimen for herpes simplex-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis is ill-defined. Current guidelines recommend the initiation of acyclovir in all suspected cases of encephalitis; however, there is limited research regarding the details of acyclovir treatment or the adjuvant use of corticosteroids. Specifically, there is a paucity of evidence-based guidelines detailing the optimal management of HSV-1 encephalitis in immunocompetent patients. Read More

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Anti-dengue Potential of Mangiferin: Intricate Network of Dengue to Human Genes.

Rev Bras Farmacogn 2022 May 7:1-11. Epub 2022 May 7.

Department of Botany, Sri Kaliswari College (Autonomous), Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu 626123 India.

Dengue fever has become one of the deadliest infectious diseases and requires the development of effective antiviral therapies. It is caused by members of the Flaviviridae family, which also cause various infections in humans, including dengue fever, tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile fever, and yellow fever. In addition, since 2019, dengue-endemic regions have been grappling with the public health and socio-economic impact of the ongoing coronavirus disease 19. Read More

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Persistence of antibodies, boostability, and interchangeability of Japanese encephalitis vaccines: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

Vaccine 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

UQ Centre for Clinical Research, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: The burden of Japanese encephalitis (JE) is substantial and is arguably one of the most serious viral encephalitic diseases with high case fatality and no specific treatment. JE vaccines are the only available mean to prevent the disease; however, the long-term persistence of antibodies, boostability, and interchangeability between different vaccine classes are not well understood.

Methods: To summarise the evidence, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL were systematically searched from their inception to March 2021. Read More

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Molecular Characterization of Herpesviral Encephalitis in Cetaceans: Correlation with Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Findings.

Animals (Basel) 2022 Apr 29;12(9). Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Atlantic Cetacean Research Center, Veterinary Histology and Pathology, Institute of Animal Health (IUSA), Veterinary School, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), Trasmontaña, s/n, 35413 Arucas, Las Palmas, Spain.

Herpesviruses are causative agents of meningitis and encephalitis in cetaceans, which are among the main leading known natural causes of death in these species. Brain samples from 103 stranded cetaceans were retrospectively screened for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the brain. Molecular detection of Cetacean Morbillivirus was performed in HV positive brain cases. Read More

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Assessment of the Costs Related to West Nile Virus Monitoring in Lombardy Region (Italy) between 2014 and 2018.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 May 3;19(9). Epub 2022 May 3.

Center for Health Economics, Social and Health Care Management, LIUC-Università Cattaneo, Corso Matteotti 22, 21053 Castellanza, Italy.

In Italy, the West Nile Virus surveillance plan considers a multidisciplinary approach to identify the presence of the virus in the environment (entomological, ornithological, and equine surveillance) and to determine the risk of infections through potentially infected donors (blood and organ donors). The costs associated with the surveillance program for the Lombardy Region between 2014 and 2018 were estimated. The costs of the program were compared with a scenario in which the program was not implemented, requiring individual blood donation nucleic acid amplification tests (NAT) to detect the presence of WNV in human samples throughout the seasonal period of vector presence. Read More

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Non-granulomatous inflammatory lesions of CNS: Approach to diagnosis.

Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2022 May;65(Supplement):S135-S145

Department of Neuropathology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Infections constitute an important and common category of diseases, particularly in less developed countries. Infections present with a broad spectrum of clinical and radiologic features dictated by the cell and tissue tropism and host response elicited, posing a considerable diagnostic challenge. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in preventing mortality and morbidity. Read More

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Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Masquerading as Schizophrenia: An Example of Diagnostic Overshadowing in Neuropsychiatry.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2022 May 12;24(3). Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

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Comparison of plaque reduction and focus reduction neutralization tests for the measurement of neutralizing antibody titers against japanese encephalitis virus.

J Virol Methods 2022 May 10;306:114540. Epub 2022 May 10.

Division of Infectious Diseases Vaccine Research, National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency, CheongJu, Chungcheongbuk-do, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Japanese encephalitis is prevalent throughout the temperate and tropical regions of Asia and is caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne viral pathogen. The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is currently recommended as the gold standard test for detecting human antibodies against JEV. The plaque assay is the most widely used method for detecting infectious virions and involves counting discrete plaques in cells. Read More

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Z-DNA binding protein 1 mediates necroptotic and apoptotic cell death pathways in murine astrocytes following herpes simplex virus-1 infection.

J Neuroinflammation 2022 May 13;19(1):109. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC, 28223, USA.

Background: The mechanisms by which glia respond to viral central nervous system (CNS) pathogens are now becoming apparent with the demonstration that microglia and astrocytes express an array of pattern recognition receptors that include intracellular RNA and DNA sensors. We have previously demonstrated that glia express Z-DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1) and showed that this cytosolic nucleic acid sensor contributes to the inflammatory/neurotoxic responses of these cells to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). However, the relative contribution made by ZBP1- to HSV-1-mediated cell death in glia has not been determined. Read More

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Influenza A H3N2-Associated Meningoencephalitis in an Older Adult With Viral RNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid: Case Report.

Front Neurol 2022 25;13:874078. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cerebrovascular and of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Tianjin Dementia Institute, Department of Neurology, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is most frequently observed in young children, but less reported in adults. Diagnosis of IAE is difficult, as clinical presentations vary significantly and the influenza virus is rarely detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Herein, we described the case of an older adult presenting with acute meningoencephalitis due to an influenza A (H3N2) infection and the influenza A (H3N2) RNA is detected in cerebrospinal fluid. Read More

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Safety and dose-sparing effect of Japanese encephalitis vaccine administered by microneedle patch in uninfected, healthy adults (MNA-J): a randomised, partly blinded, active-controlled, phase 1 trial.

Lancet Microbe 2022 Feb 16;3(2):e96-e104. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

FUJIFILM Corporation, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: It is unclear whether microneedle vaccinations of Japanese encephalitis virus can induce sufficient neutralising antibodies and reduce the amount of vaccine needed. We aimed to assess the safety and dose-sparing effect of a microneedle vaccine patch against Japanese encephalitis in healthy individuals who are naive to both the vaccine and natural infection.

Methods: The MNA-J study was a randomised, partly blinded, active-controlled, phase 1 clinical trial at Hokkaido University (Sapporo, Japan) that enrolled healthy adults aged 20-34 years with no history of Japanese encephalitis vaccination nor of infection as confirmed by seronegativity. Read More

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February 2022

Eastern equine encephalitis virus rapidly infects and disseminates in the brain and spinal cord of cynomolgus macaques following aerosol challenge.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 May 9;16(5):e0010081. Epub 2022 May 9.

Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is mosquito-borne virus that produces fatal encephalitis in humans. We recently conducted a first of its kind study to investigate EEEV clinical disease course following aerosol challenge in a cynomolgus macaque model utilizing the state-of-the-art telemetry to measure critical physiological parameters. Here, we report the results of a comprehensive pathology study of NHP tissues collected at euthanasia to gain insights into EEEV pathogenesis. Read More

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Dengue Encephalitis and Dengue Hepatitis in an Infant.

Neurol India 2022 Mar-Apr;70(2):790-791

Department of Pediatrics, Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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Development of HEK-293 Cell Lines Constitutively Expressing Flaviviral Antigens for Use in Diagnostics.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 May 9:e0059222. Epub 2022 May 9.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Preventiongrid.416738.f, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

Flaviviruses are important human pathogens worldwide. Diagnostic testing for these viruses is difficult because many of the pathogens require specialized biocontainment. To address this issue, we generated 39 virus-like particle (VLP)- and nonstructural protein 1 (NS1)-secreting stable cell lines in HEK-293 cells of 13 different flaviviruses, including dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, St. Read More

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A Rare Case of Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody-Associated Transverse Myelitis in a 40-Year-Old Patient With COVID-19.

Cureus 2022 Apr 6;14(4):e23877. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Infectious Disease, Saint Peter's University Hospital, New Brunswick, USA.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) includes an extensive spectrum of clinical manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Previous studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 often exhibits central nervous system (CNS) manifestations, including encephalitis, meningitis, and spinal cord pathologies. To date, few cases of COVID-19-associated transverse myelitis (TM) have been described. Read More

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JEV Infection Induces M-MDSC Differentiation Into CD3 Macrophages in the Brain.

Front Immunol 2022 21;13:838990. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is one of the most important members of the flavivirus family. It is a typical zoonotic pathogen that has caused substantial social and economic losses worldwide. The relation between JEV-induced immunosuppression and inflammatory responses has not been thoroughly investigated. Read More

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LGI1 antibody-associated encephalitis without evidence of inflammation in CSF and brain MRI.

Acta Neurol Belg 2022 May 8. Epub 2022 May 8.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, No.45 ChangChun Street, XiCheng District, Beijing, 100053, China.

Objective: This study aimed to explore the frequency and distinct characteristics of adult patients with LGI1 antibody-associated encephalitis in the absence of inflammatory abnormalities in both routine CSF analysis and brain MRI.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of adult patients with antibodies targeting LGI1 and then screened patients with no evidence of inflammation in brain MRI and normal results in routine CSF analysis, including white blood cell count, protein concentration, IgG, and oligoclonal bands.

Results: Among 80 patients with LGI1 antibody-associated encephalitis in our center, 31 (38. Read More

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Survival and Release of 5 American Crows () Naturally Infected With West Nile Virus.

J Avian Med Surg 2022 May;36(1):85-91

Janet L. Swanson Wildlife Hospital and the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

West Nile virus (WNV) has had a significant effect on avian populations in the United States since being first identified in 1999. Avian species in WNV endemic areas do not suffer the same level of mortality that has been reported in birds within the United States since the virus was first identified in North America. Because of their unique susceptibility, American crows () are often used to monitor the spread and severity of WNV in North America. Read More

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Autoimmune Encephalitis and Other Neurological Syndromes With Rare Neuronal Surface Antibodies in Children: A Systematic Literature Review.

Front Pediatr 2022 20;10:866074. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Paediatric Neurology and Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Women's and Children's Health, University Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Neuronal surface antibody syndromes (NSAS) are an expanding group of autoimmune neurological diseases, whose most frequent clinical manifestation is autoimmune encephalitis (AE). Anti-NMDAR, anti-LGI1, and anti-CASPR2 autoimmunity represent the most described forms, while other NSAS are rarer and less well-characterized, especially in children. We carried out a systematic literature review of children with rare NSAS (with antibodies targeting D2R, GABAAR, GlyR, GABABR, AMPAR, amphiphysin, mGluR5, mGluR1, DPPX, IgLON5, and neurexin-3alpha) and available individual data, to contribute to improve their clinical characterization and identification of age-specific features. Read More

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West Nile Virus and Other Domestic Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022 May 6;71(18):628-632. Epub 2022 May 6.

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV), mainly transmitted by Culex species mosquitos, is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States (1). Other arboviruses cause sporadic cases of disease and occasional outbreaks. Read More

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Analysis of evolutionary and genetic patterns in structural genes of primate lentiviruses.

Genes Genomics 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Laboratory of Computational Virology & Viroinformatics, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, Korea.

Background: Primate lentiviruses (HIV1, HIV2, and Simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) cause immune deficiency, encephalitis, and infectious anemia in mammals such as cattle, cat, goat, sheep, horse, and puma.

Objective: This study was designed and conducted with the main purpose of confirming the overall codon usage pattern of primate lentiviruses and exploring the evolutionary and genetic characteristics commonly or specifically expressed in HIV1, HIV2, and SIV.

Methods: The gag, pol, and env gene sequences of HIV1, HIV2, and SIV were analyzed to determine their evolutionary relationships, nucleotide compositions, codon usage patterns, neutrality, selection pressure (influence of mutational pressure and natural selection), and viral adaptation to human codon usage. Read More

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[Tick-borne meningoencephalitis: situation in Switzerland and impact of the Covid pandemic].

Rev Med Suisse 2022 May;18(780):894-897

Service de médecine tropicale et humanitaire, Département de médecine de premier recours, Hôpitaux universitaires de Genève, 1211 Genève 14.

The year 2020 witnessed a record number of reported cases of tick-borne encephalitis in Switzerland. This unprecedented rate of cases, largely explained by the decrease in travel outside of Switzerland as well as favorable conditions for outdoor activities, highlights this severe disease for which there is no treatment yet. Tick-borne ence-phalitis has been progressing in Switzerland for more than 30 years both geographically and in terms of the number of reported cases. Read More

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Serum and cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit as a marker of neuroaxonal damage in tick-borne encephalitis.

J Gen Virol 2022 05;103(5)

Department of Infectious Diseases and Preventive Medicine, Veterinary Research Institute, CZ-62100 Brno, Czechia.

Extensive axonal and neuronal loss is the main cause of severe manifestations and poor outcomes in tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit (pNF-H) is an essential component of axons, and its detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum can indicate the degree of neuroaxonal damage. We examined the use of pNF-H as a biomarker of neuroaxonal injury in TBE. Read More

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Dancing with My : A Self-Portrait History of a Healing Process Through Dance.

Am J Dance Ther 2022 Apr 27:1-28. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Embodied Education Institute of Chicago, Chicago, USA.

Where does the seed of recovery from trauma, from illness, from injury find ground, sink roots, and start to grow? Can one find empowerment in a body, subjected to illness, trauma and disability? In this autobiographical article, the authors takes us on a journey into illness, where despair threatens her very will to live. In fact, she becomes to herself something foreign, grotesque, and completely other. And yet, hope sprouts. Read More

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[West Nile virus unexpectedly in the Netherlands].

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2022 03 28;166. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Nederlandse Voedsel en Warenautoriteit, Centrum Monitoring Vectoren, Wageningen.

West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in birds, mosquitoes and subsequently in humans in the Netherlands in 2020. In 2016 , we had discussed the factors that influence the introduction, establishment and dissemination of WNV in the Netherlands and considered the probability that each of these three phases could occur in the Netherlands, and cause West Nile fever in humans, still relatively small. In the current article we evaluate on the basis of our reasoning at the time, whether we have missed important factors and/or whether new factors have appeared on the horizon. Read More

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Seizure along with gastroenteritis: An atypical manifestation of appendicitis- A case report.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2022 Apr 28;76:103535. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Sina Hospital, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction And Importance: Appendicitis is a common cause of acute abdomen in children. Due to its distinct clinical manifestations, often, its diagnosis is not very challenging. At younger age cases with atypical manifestations of appendicitis have been reported in the literature. Read More

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