908,311 results match your criteria Viral Arthritis

Inferior cure rate in pilot study of four-week glecaprevir/pibrentasvir treatment with or without ribavirin of chronic hepatitis C.

Liver Int 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Background & Aims: Shortening the treatment duration for chronic hepatitis C may increase feasibility and reduce cost of cure. The aims of this study were to compare four weeks of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (GLE/PIB) treatment with and without ribavirin for patients with chronic hepatitis C and favorable baseline characteristics, and to monitor the development of resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) and re-treatment outcomes if treatment failed.

Methods: We performed an open-label single center randomized controlled trial, in which patients with chronic hepatitis C were randomized 1:1 to GLE/PIB +/- ribavirin, stratified by genotype 3. Read More

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The Prevalence of HIV-infected Patients with Virological Suppression but a CD4 T-cell Count of ≤ 200 Cells/mm after Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation: A Meta-analysis.

AIDS Rev 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

The First Clinical Medical School, Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Zhengzhou, China.

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) strongly inhibits HIV replication. However, many patients show suboptimal immune recovery (SIR), as defined by virological suppression (i.e. Read More

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Lack of active SARS-CoV-2 virus in a subset of PCR-positive COVID-19 congregate care patients.

J Clin Virol 2021 Jun 4;141:104879. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Departments of Immunology and Microbial Disease, Albany Medical Center, Albany, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) designed to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA are the standard of care for the diagnosis of COVID-19. However, the accuracy of these methods for the quantitation of active virus rather than non-infectious RNA fragments that can persist for extended periods of time has been unclear. This issue is particularly relevant for congregate care patients who are unable to return to their home residence until fully negative by NAATs. Read More

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Lyme neuroborreliosis-associated cerebrovascular events in the Finnish endemic area.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Jun 17;427:117544. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Departments of Neurology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Finland.

Objectives: Neuroborreliosis is a rare cause of cerebral vasculitis and stroke. The incidence of Lyme borreliosis in Finland has been increasing in the last 20 years, so we expect that Lyme neuroborreliosis-associated vasculitis can be a more common cause of stroke in the future.

Materials & Methods: We have retrospectively identified all adult patients (>16 years old) diagnosed with borreliosis (A69. Read More

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Quantitative measures of within-host viral genetic diversity.

Curr Opin Virol 2021 Jun 18;49:157-163. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering, ETH Zurich, Basel, 4058, Switzerland; SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Basel, 4058, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The genetic diversity of virus populations within their hosts is known to influence disease progression, treatment outcome, drug resistance, cell tropism, and transmission risk, and the study of dynamic changes of genetic heterogeneity can provide insights into the evolution of viruses. Several measures to quantify within-host genetic diversity capturing different aspects of diversity patterns in a sample or population are used, based on incidence, relative frequencies, pairwise distances, or phylogenetic trees. Here, we review and compare several of these measures. Read More

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New-onset refractory status epilepticus following the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Jun 7;357:577629. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Coronavirus is a novel human pathogen causing fulminant respiratory syndrome (COVID-19). Developing an effective and reliable vaccine was emergently pursued to control the dramatic spread of the global pandemic. The standard stages for vaccine development were unprecedentedly accelerated over a few months. Read More

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Stop helping pathogens: engineering plant susceptibility genes for durable resistance.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2021 Jun 18;70:187-195. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Plant-Microbe Interactions, Department of Biology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, Netherlands. Electronic address:

Alternatives to protect crops against diseases are desperately needed to secure world food production and make agriculture more sustainable. Genetic resistance to pathogens utilized so far is mostly based on single dominant resistance genes that mediate specific recognition of invaders and that is often rapidly broken by pathogen variants. Perturbation of plant susceptibility (S) genes offers an alternative providing plants with recessive resistance that is proposed to be more durable. Read More

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Norovirus passive surveillance as an alternative strategy for genetic diversity assessment in developing countries.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Jun 2;14(8):990-993. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Laboratory of Viral Gastroenteritis, INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán", Av. Vélez Sársfield 563, Buenos Aires 1281, Argentina.

In developing countries, the acute gastroenteritis outbreaks submitted for viral testing are limited due to deficient surveillance programs. The aim of this study was to analyze a passive surveillance strategy for monitoring the molecular epidemiology of norovirus (NV) and counterbalance the genetic diversity data gap. Laboratory-confirmed rotavirus negative sporadic stool samples (N = 523) collected between 2010 and 2017 from children were selected from our archival collection and were tested for NV and sequencing was performed on the positive samples. Read More

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Detection of possible Nipah virus infection in Rousettus leschenaultii and Pipistrellus Pipistrellus bats in Maharashtra, India.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Jun 11;14(8):1010-1012. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Microbial Containment Complex, Sus Road, Pashan, Pune 411 021, India.

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Immunization with recombinant E-LTB fusion protein elicits protective immune responses against bovine viral diarrhea virus.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Apr 24;259:109084. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a major infectious pathogen and is associated with major economic losses and significant impact on animal welfare worldwide. Here, recombinant E-LTB protein vaccine containing MF59 adjuvant was prepared and assessed using a mouse model. The recombinant plasmid (pET32a-E-LTB) was constructed and transformed into BL21 (DE3) cells to produce E-LTB protein. Read More

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Phase I dose-escalation study of endoscopic intratumoral injection of OBP-301 (Telomelysin) with radiotherapy in oesophageal cancer patients unfit for standard treatments.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jun 18;153:98-108. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

Purpose: OBP-301 (Telomelysin) is an attenuated type-5 adenovirus that contains the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter to regulate viral replication. OBP-301 sensitises human cancer cells to ionising radiation by inhibiting DNA repair, and radiation enhances coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor-mediated OBP-301 infection on the contrary. We assessed OBP-301 with radiotherapy in oesophageal cancer patients unfit for standard chemoradiation treatments. Read More

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Genetic polymorphisms of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 gene associated with hepatitis B virus infection in a Chinese Han population.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 18;98:107888. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) has been recently shown to be associated with inflammatory diseases. However, the association between the genetic variation of this gene and the susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unclear, especially in children. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between CXCL10 polymorphisms and the risk of chronic HBV infection in a Chinese Han population. Read More

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In silico virtual screening of potent inhibitor to hamper the interaction between HIV-1 integrase and LEDGF/p75 interaction using E-pharmacophore modeling, molecular docking, and dynamics simulations.

Comput Biol Chem 2021 May 21;93:107509. Epub 2021 May 21.

Computer Aided Drug Design and Molecular Modelling Lab, Department of Bioinformatics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, 630 004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

The rapid increase of HIV-1 infection throughout the globe has a high demand for a superior drug with lesser side effects. LEDGF/p75, the human Lens Epithelium-Derived Growth Factor is identified as a promising cellular cofactor with integrase in facilitating the viral replication in an early stage by acting as a tethering factor in the pre-integration to the chromatin. Therefore, the present study was designed to identify a potent inhibitor by applying an E-pharmacophore based virtual screening, molecular docking, and dynamics simulation approaches. Read More

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Influence of sexual risk behaviour and STI co-infection dynamics on the evolution of HIV set point viral load in MSM.

Epidemics 2021 Jun 10;36:100474. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

I-BioStat, Data Science Institute, Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium; Centre for Health Economics Research and Modelling Infectious Diseases, Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

HIV viral load (VL) is an important predictor of HIV progression and transmission. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has been reported to reduce HIV transmission by lowering VL. However, apart from this beneficial effect, increased levels of population mean set-point viral load (SPVL), an estimator for HIV virulence, have been observed in men who have sex with men (MSM) in the decade following the introduction of ART in The Netherlands. Read More

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Molecular and biological characterization of influenza A viruses isolated from human fecal samples.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Jun 18:104972. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar; Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences-QU Health, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar. Electronic address:

Human influenza viruses are occasionally detected in the stools of influenza patients.

Objectives: Here, we investigated the molecular and biological characteristics of intestinal influenza viruses and their potential role in virus transmission.

Methods: Fecal samples were first screened for the presence of influenza viral RNA using RT-qPCR. Read More

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Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus at 27.

Tumour Virus Res 2021 Jun 18:200223. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 02111. Electronic address:

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) was discovered 27 years ago and its link to several pathologies - Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and the B cell variant of Multicentric Castleman disease - is now well established. However, many questions remain about how KSHV causes tumors. Here, I will review studies from the last few years (primarily 2019-2021) that report new information about KSHV biology and tumorigenesis, including new results about KSHV proteins implicated in tumorigenesis, genetic and environmental variability in KSHV-related tumor development, and potential vulnerabilities of KSHV-caused tumors that could be novel therapeutic targets. Read More

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Inactivated infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) vaccine and E.coli-expressed recombinant IPNV-VP2 subunit vaccine afford protection against IPNV challenge in rainbow trout.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Virology, Samsun/TURKEY.

Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is a highly contagious disease causing high mortality in juvenile trouts. Since there is no effective way to treatment against IPNV, early diagnosis and prevention play an important role in combating the disease. The different types of IPNV vaccines (inactive, live, recombinant, DNA, etc) have been produced from local isolates and have been used in developed countries. Read More

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The association of polymorphisms (rs2227981 and rs10204525) of PDCD1 gene with susceptibility to human T-cell leukemia virus type 1.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jun 18:105049. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Tehran, Iran.

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the first retrovirus as the causative agent of two serious diseases in human is known. Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is a regulatory protein that has an important role in immune system response and created exhaustion phenotype in T cells at chronic infections; therefore, it can impair anti-viral responses. Since the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in PD-1gene may influence infection with HTLV-1virus, so in this research, association between SNPs in exon 5 of PD-1 gene with susceptibility to HTLV-1 infection and proviral load (PVL) in Iran's population studied. Read More

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A systematic review and meta-analysis on the global status of Trichomonas vaginalis virus in Trichomonas vaginalis.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jun 18:105058. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: The small (4.5-5kbp), double-stranded Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV) that inhabits in the T. vaginalis parasite has been potentially associated to parasite virulence or its drug resistance. Read More

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Coronaviruses, cholesterol and statins: Involvement and application for Covid-19.

Biochimie 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Endocrinology and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases, Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition (ICAN), La Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, Paris, France. Electronic address:

The infectious power of coronaviruses is dependent on cholesterol present in the membranes of their target cells. Indeed, the virus enters the infected cell either by fusion or by endocytosis, in both cases involving cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains. These membrane domains can be disorganized in-vitro by various cholesterol-altering agents, including statins that inhibit cell cholesterol biosynthesis. Read More

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Soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein participates in multiple diseases via protein-protein interactions.

Biochimie 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Blood Transfusion, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan Province 410008, China; NHC Key Laboratory of Cancer Proteomics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan Province 410008, China. Electronic address:

Soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein (sorcin), a 22 kDa penta-EF-hand protein, has been intensively studied in cancers and multidrug resistance over a prolonged period. Sorcin is widely distributed in tissues and participates in the regulation of Ca homeostasis and Ca-dependent signaling. Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are essential for regulating protein functions in almost all biological processes. Read More

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Loss of regulatory capacity in T regulatory cells upon rhinovirus infection.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Respiratory infections with rhinoviruses (RV) are strongly associated with the development and exacerbations of asthma and pose an additional health risk for allergic subjects.

Objective: How RV infections and chronic allergic diseases are linked, and which role RV plays in the breaking of tolerance in T regulatory cells (Tregs) is unknown. Therefore this study aims to investigate the effects of RV on Tregs. Read More

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Shelter from the cytokine storm: Healthy living is a vital preventative strategy in the COVID-19 era.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Healthy Living for Pandemic Event Protection (HL - PIVOT) Network, Chicago, IL, United States; Department of Kinesiology & Health Sciences, College of Humanities & Sciences, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States; VCU Pauley Heart Center, Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to have a devastating effect on a global scale. COVID-19 variants continue to arise and counteract vaccination efficacy. As such, preventative health measures, such as social distancing and stay at home mandates, will continue for the foreseeable future. Read More

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Biogenesis of a Bacteriophage Long Non-Contractile Tail.

J Mol Biol 2021 Jun 18:167112. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Unité de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, Centre de Recherche de Gif, CNRS UPR 3296 and IFR115, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, CNRS, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Electronic address:

Siphoviruses are main killers of bacteria. They use a long non-contractile tail to recognize the host cell and to deliver the genome from the viral capsid to the bacterial cytoplasm. Here, we define the molecular organization of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 ∼6. Read More

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Distinct antiretroviral mechanisms elicited by a viral mutagen.

J Mol Biol 2021 Jun 18:167111. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Institute for Molecular Virology, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA; Division of Basic Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA; Comparative Molecular Biosciences Graduate Program, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA; Veterinary Medicine Graduate Program, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA; Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA; Center for Drug Design, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. Electronic address:

5-aza-cytidine (5-aza-C) has been shown to be a potent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mutagen that induces G-to-C hypermutagenesis by incorporation of the reduced form (i.e., 5-aza-dC, 5-aza-dCTP). Read More

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Safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in HIV infection: a single-arm substudy of a phase 2/3 clinical trial.

Lancet HIV 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine and Oxford Vaccine Group, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Data on vaccine immunogenicity against SARS-CoV-2 are needed for the 40 million people globally living with HIV who might have less functional immunity and more associated comorbidities than the general population. We aimed to explore safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine in people with HIV.

Methods: In this single-arm open-label vaccination substudy within the protocol of the larger phase 2/3 trial COV002, adults aged 18-55 years with HIV were enrolled at two HIV clinics in London, UK. Read More

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Utility of telemedicine in the treatment of patients with chronic HCV infection using DAAs in remote areas with limited resources.

Liver Int 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Endemic medicine and hepatology department, Cairo, Egypt.

Telemedicine is a novel tool that could assist in the delivery of medical care, therefore, we aimed to assess the utility of using telemedicine in the Egyptian hepatitis C (HCV) treatment program to provide care to patients in remote areas. A telemedicine viral hepatitis treatment center was established in the Bahariya Oases, a remote area in the Egyptian western desert. We enrolled 208 HCV patients who were eligible to be treated using direct acting antivirals. Read More

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Ferredoxin 1 is downregulated by the accumulation of abscisic acid in an ABI5-dependent manner to facilitate rice stripe virus infection in Nicotiana benthamiana and rice.

Plant J 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-products, Key Laboratory of Biotechnology in Plant Protection of MOA of China and Zhejiang Province, Institute of Plant Virology, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, China.

Ferredoxin 1 (FD1) accepts and distributes electrons in the electron transfer chain of plants. Its expression is universally downregulated by viruses and its roles in plant immunity have been brought into focus over the past decade. However, the mechanism by which viruses regulate FD1 remains to be defined. Read More

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Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) in Pakistani children: A description of the phenotypes and comparison with historical cohorts of children with Kawasaki disease and myocarditis.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(6):e0253625. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

Objectives: To determine clinical, laboratory features and outcomes of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in children (MIS-C) and its comparison with historic Kawasaki Disease (KD) and Viral Myocarditis (VM) cohorts.

Methods: All children (1 month- 18 years) who fulfilled the World Health Organization criteria of MIS-C presenting to two tertiary care centers in Karachi from May 2020 till August 31st were included. KD and VM admitted to one of the study centers in the last five years prior to this pandemic, was compared to MIS-C. Read More

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Spatial distribution of Culex mosquito abundance and associated risk factors in Hanoi, Vietnam.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 21;15(6):e0009497. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Hanoi, Vietnam.

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the major cause of viral encephalitis (VE) in most Asian-Pacific countries. In Vietnam, there is no nationwide surveillance system for JE due to lack of medical facilities and diagnoses. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex vishnui, and Culex quinquefasciatus have been identified as the major JE vectors in Vietnam. Read More

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