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Oral verruciform xanthoma and erythroplakia associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease: a rare case report and review of the literature.
- Giorgia Capocasale,
- Vera Panzarella,
- Pietro Tozzo,
- Rodolfo Mauceri,
- Vito Rodolico,
- Dorina Lauritano,
- Giuseppina Campisi
BMC Res Notes 2017 Nov 28;10(1):631. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
Department of Surgical, Oncological and Oral Sciences, University of Palermo, Via del Vespro 129, 90127, Palermo, Italy.
Background: Oral verruciform xanthoma is an uncommon benign lesion. Although oral verruciform xanthoma occurs in healthy individuals, it has been also reported in association with some inflammatory conditions. The aim of this study is to report a case of oral verruciform xanthoma associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease and to review the literature on this topic. Read More
Case Rep Dermatol 2017 May-Aug;9(2):130-135. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
Department of Dermatology, Near East University Faculty of Medicine, Nicosia, Cyprus.
A non-smoking man in his seventh decade presented with a lesion he had had for about 5 years on the right external surface of the lip 1 mm from the vermilion border. On physical examination, a yellowish-coloured, non-tender, verrucous mass of 0.5 × 0. Read More
Natl J Maxillofac Surg 2017 Jan-Jun;8(1):78-80
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Dental College and Hospital, Sangli, Maharashtra, India.
Verruciform xanthoma is a benign, soft tissue lesion occurring on the orogenital mucosa. Presentation of oral lesions can be pink, yellow, or gray raised plaque or papule with granular, papillary, or verrucous in nature. There are many theories proposed for the etiopathogenesis of verruciform xanthoma. Read More
J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Dec 1;10(12):ZD07-ZD08. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Wakayama Medical University , Wakayama, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan .
Verruciform Xanthoma (VX) is a rare lesion of the oral cavity. Histologically, it is characterized by papillary or verrucous proliferation of squamous epithelium and numerous foam cells. VX arising in the tongue is comparatively rare, as most cases of VX in oral cavity occur in gingiva. Read More
Wart on fire: A rare entity of verruciform xanthoma arising on a lower leg in a setting of chronic lymphedema.
JAAD Case Rep 2017 Jan 25;3(1):36-38. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
Division of Dermatology, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
- Aldo Franco De Rose,
- Mattia Tosi,
- Guglielmo Mantica,
- Nataniele Piol,
- Carlo Toncini,
- Carlo Terrone
Arch Ital Urol Androl 2016 Dec 30;88(4):284-285. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
Department of Urology, IRCCS San Martino, University of Genova.
Verruciform xanthoma is a rare and benign condition predominantly affecting the oral cavity, but also skin and female anogenital mucosa. It can be flat, papular-warty or crateriform-cystic. Furthermore it can simulate HPV viral lesion such as condyloma and malignant neoplasia such as verrucous squamous cell carcinoma. Read More
- Alexandre Simões Garcia,
- Otávio Pagin,
- Paulo Sérgio da Silva Santos,
- Denise Tostes Oliveira
J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2016 Dec 27;42(6):383-387. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
Department of Surgery, Stomatology, Pathology and Radiology, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Bauru, Brazil.
Oral verruciform xanthoma (OVX) is an uncommon lesion that appears on the oral mucosa. The aim of this paper was to discuss the probable etiopathogenesis of OVX in the hard palate, reinforcing the importance of including this lesion in the differential diagnosis of verrucous lesions. A 43-year-old male smoker presented with a painless lesion with a verrucous surface and erythematous spots on the hard palate. Read More
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 04 25;216(4):422.e1-422.e2. Epub 2016 Nov 25.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ewha Womans University, School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2017 Mar 15;7(1):65-79. Epub 2016 Nov 15.
Department of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
Introduction: Verruciform xanthoma is a wart-like benign lesion. The classic histologic appearance consists of foamy histiocytes within elongated dermal papillae and epithelial acanthosis. The lesion most commonly occurs in the oral cavity, but has been reported in extra-oral sites such as the penis, scrotum, and vulva. Read More
Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Characteristics of Verruciform Xanthoma of the Lower Gingiva: A Case Report.
J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Jun 1;10(6):ZD05-6. Epub 2016 Jun 1.
Director, Department of Dentistry Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ogaki Municipal Hospital , 4-86 Minaminokawa-cho, Ogaki, Gifu, Japan .
Verruciform xanthoma (VX) is a rare benign lesion and mainly effects the oral mucosa. This slow-growing asymptomatic lesion typically develops along the gingival margin of the masticatory mucosa, followed by the hard palate, tongue, buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, alveolar mucosa, soft palate and junction between the hard and soft palate. Moreover, this lesion can also affect the skin and genital organs. Read More
J Dermatol 2017 May 23;44(5):604-605. Epub 2016 Jun 23.
Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
Indian Dermatol Online J 2016 May-Jun;7(3):180-2
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, DY Patil School of Dentistry, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Verruciform xanthoma (VX) is an uncommon, benign, asymptomatic mucocutaneous lesion of an unknown etiopathology. It usually presents as a papule or single plaque with a verrucous or a papillomatous surface and pale yellowish to red in color. It occurs primarily on the masticatory mucosa of middle-aged individuals. Read More
Verruciform Genital-Associated (Vegas) Xanthoma: report of a patient with verruciform xanthoma of the scrotum and literature review.
Dermatol Online J 2015 Aug 15;21(8). Epub 2015 Aug 15.
School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas.
Background: Verruciform xanthoma is a benign verrucous lesion characterized by epithelial acanthosis and lipid-laden foamy histiocytes in the connective tissue papillae. It typically presents as a papillomatous, polypoid, or sessile lesion. Verruciform xanthoma is most commonly observed within the oral cavity. Read More
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2016 Mar-Apr;82(2):208-9
Department of Dermatology, Guangdong Provincial Dermatology Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.
- Yoko Fuyuno,
- Chikage Mitoma,
- Saori Ito,
- Hiroshi Uchi,
- Masae Okura,
- Toshiharu Yamashita,
- Masutaka Furue
Eur J Dermatol 2015 Sep-Oct;25(5):509-10
Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences,, Research and Clinical Center for Yusho and Dioxin, Kyushu University, 1-1 Maidashi 3-chome, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.
J Dermatol 2015 Nov 27;42(11):1103-4. Epub 2015 Jul 27.
Department of Dermatology, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan.
- Edith Arzberger,
- Andre Oliveira,
- Rainer Hofmann-Wellenhof,
- Iris Zalaudek,
- Lorenzo Cerroni,
- Peter Komericki
J Am Acad Dermatol 2015 Jun;72(6):e147-9
Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
- Bruno A B de Andrade,
- Michelle Agostini,
- Fábio R Pires,
- Alicia Rumayor,
- Román Carlos,
- Oslei P de Almeida,
- Mário J Romañach
J Cutan Pathol 2015 Jul 4;42(7):489-95. Epub 2015 Jun 4.
Oral Pathology, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Pathology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Verruciform xanthoma of the oral cavity is an uncommon benign lesion that usually affects the palate and gingiva mainly as a well-circumscribed solitary yellowish to whitish plaque or nodule, which is promptly recognized microscopically by identification of sub-epithelial foamy macrophages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of 20 cases of oral verruciform xanthoma. All cases were evaluated by conventional hematoxylin/eosin staining and six of those were submitted to immunohistochemical reactions for CD68, CD63, CD163, syndecan-1 (CD138), S-100 protein and cytokeratins (CK) 8, 14 and 19. Read More
BMJ Case Rep 2015 Mar 27;2015. Epub 2015 Mar 27.
Department of Pathology, Bristol Dental Hospital, Bristol, UK.
Verruciform xanthoma (VX) of the oral cavity is a benign mucosal growth that often presents as a pink, yellow or grey raised plaque or papule with granular, papillary or verrucous surface morphology. Intraorally this often presents on the masticatory mucosa and extraorally often involves the skin and anogenital mucosa. There are several proposed aetiological factors and the clinical features of VX can be misleading; clinically it can resemble malignancy. Read More
- Yonara Maria Freire Soares Marques,
- Cleverton Roberto de Andrade,
- Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado de Sousa,
- Cláudia Maria Navarro
Case Rep Pathol 2014 8;2014:641015. Epub 2014 Dec 8.
Department of Diagnosis and Surgery, Paulista State University (UNESP), 1680 Humaitá Street, 14801-903 Araraquara, SP, Brazil.
Oral verruciform xanthoma represents an uncommon entity, which affects mainly oral mucosa. This paper presents the major clinical and histological features of oral verruciform xanthoma and reports a case on the tongue. The differential diagnosis and a literature review are also provided in light of recent information. Read More
Clin Exp Dermatol 2015 Mar 5;40(2):156-9. Epub 2014 Dec 5.
Department of Dermatology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
We report three cases of verruciform xanthoma (VX) in male patients aged 82, 88 and 39 years, respectively. The clinical appearance was of a mulberry-like area consisting of small papillae, which is typical of and specific to VX, and the diagnosis were histologically confirmed in all cases. Dermoscopy revealed that each surface papilla contained linear or hairpin vessels, which were surrounded by a marginal whitish rim. Read More
Oral Health Dent Manag 2014 Sep;13(3):712-6
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Dr. Syamala Reddy Dental College, Hospital and Research Centre, Bangalore, India, e-mail:
A careful examination of lips is often neglected by the members of the medical and dental professions; yet the lips reveal a heterogeneous group of lesions ranging from congenital abnormalities to benign and malignant neoplasms. Verruciform Xanthoma (VX) is an uncommon benign inflammatory mucocutaneous condition that occurs in the oral cavity which was first described by Shafer in 1971. It is often associated with pre-existing epithelial and/or inflammatory disorder and is characterized histopathologically by papillary epithelial hyperplasia and the presence of foamy macrophages in connective tissue papillae. Read More
J Clin Diagn Res 2014 Jul 20;8(7):FD11-2. Epub 2014 Jul 20.
Senior Lecturer, Department of Oral Pathology & Microbiology, Dasmesh Institute of Research and Dental Sciences , Faridkot,India .
Verruciform xanthoma is an uncommon benign lesion of undetermined aetiology. It is a superficial normo-lipemic xanthoma, probably reflecting a multifactorial reactive and dystrophic process. Its clinical and pathological recognition and correct diagnosis is critical because it can occur in conjunction with other systemic and cutaneous inflammatory diseases; therefore, it necessitates further clinical assessment. Read More
- Susanne Gantner,
- Arno Rütten,
- Luis Requena,
- Gerhard Gassenmaier,
- Michael Landthaler,
- Christian Hafner
J Cutan Pathol 2014 Oct 18;41(10):787-90. Epub 2014 Oct 18.
Department of Dermatology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.
CHILD syndrome is an acronym signifying congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects. A 27-year-old woman presented with chronic verrucous and hyperkeratotic skin lesions involving the left genital area, left hand and left foot since childhood. The histopathologic findings were consistent with verruciform xanthoma. Read More
Cutis 2014 Jun;93(6):307-10
161 Ft Washington Ave, 12th Floor, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Verruciform xanthomas (VXs) are rare mucocutaneous lesions that can appear in isolation or in association with chronic inflammation, systemic diseases, or metabolic abnormalities. We report the case of a patient who presented with disseminated VX with oral, cutaneous, and genital involvement without an obvious underlying cause. Treatments including salicylic acid 40%, high-potency topical corticosteroids, antibiotics, and chlorhexidine failed to improve the lesions; however, the patient was satisfied with the cosmetic results of serial shave excisions. Read More
Australas J Dermatol 2015 Nov 1;56(4):e99-101. Epub 2014 Apr 1.
South East Dermatology, Belmont Specialist Centre, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
We present a case of verruciform xanthoma ((VX) of the penis in an elderly man in whom an asymptomatic papule on his foreskin was noted during a routine clinical examination. VX is a rare, benign condition with a predilection for the oral cavity and clinically presents as isolated, painless mucosal lesions with a verrucoid surface. Accurate diagnosis is important in avoiding aggressive surgical management of this relatively rare condition. Read More
J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2013 Sep;17(3):392-6
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeshwara Dental College and Hospital (A Constituent College of Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeshwara University), Mysore, Karnataka, India.
Verruciform xanthoma is a very uncommon papillary growth seen chiefly in the oral mucosa. The presence of foam cells in the connective tissue papillae between the epithelial rete ridges forms the hallmark in its diagnosis. There has been wide speculation and various hypotheses put forth in explaining the etiopathogenesis of verruciform xanthoma and the origin of foam cells. Read More
J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2013 Dec 23;39(6):292-6. Epub 2013 Dec 23.
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.
Verruciform xanthoma (VX) is a rare, benign lesion that presents in the oral cavity, skin, or genital organs as a verrucous, papillomatous, or flat papule with varying colors. VX has indistinct clinical features, making histopathological examination necessary for a definitive diagnosis. Histologically, VX is characterized by parakeratosis, rete ridges with uniform depth, and an accumulation of the foam cells, which are also known as the "xanthoma cells". Read More
Dermatol Online J 2014 Jan 15;20(1):21253. Epub 2014 Jan 15.
Baylor College of Medicine.
A 50-year-old man presented with a several month history of a polypoid papule on the scrotum. A dense accumulation of macrophages with foamy cytoplasm was exhibited in the biopsy specimen leading to a diagnosis of verruciform xanthoma. Read More
Case Rep Dent 2013 16;2013:528967. Epub 2013 Dec 16.
Sri Rajiv Gandhi College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Cholanagar, RT Nagar, Bangalore 560032, India.
Verruciform xanthoma is a benign mucocutaneous, uncommon, nonsymptomatic lesion of uncertain etiopathology, which occurs mostly on the oral mucosa of middle-aged individuals. Histopathologically, VX is diagnosed by presence of lipid-laden foam cells in papillary region of connective tissue. A 60-year-old male patient presented with a painless growth on the left buccal mucosa. Read More
Successful treatment of scrotal verruciform xanthoma with shave debulking and fractionated carbon dioxide laser therapy.
Dermatol Surg 2014 Feb 10;40(2):214-7. Epub 2013 Dec 10.
Department of Dermatology, University of California, Sacramento, California.
[Anal verruciform xanthoma in a transplant background for primary hyperoxaluria. Anal verruciform xanthoma after a combined hepato-renal transplantation].
Ann Pathol 2013 Oct 23;33(5):335-8. Epub 2013 Oct 23.
Service d'anatomie et cytologie pathologiques, hôpitaux universitaires Est-Parisiens, hôpital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP, 184, rue du Faubourg-Saint-Antoine, 75012 Paris, France.
We report a case of anal verruciform xanthoma in a patient who underwent a combined liver and kidney transplantation for primary hyperoxaluria. Verruciform xanthoma is a rare and benign lesion arising in oral cavity and genital mucosa. It is characterized pathologically by papillary epithelial hyperplasia and aggregates of foamy macrophages in connective tissue papillae. Read More
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2014 Jan 19;52(1):e1-3. Epub 2013 Oct 19.
Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Shandong University, 44-1 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012, Shandong Province, China; Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, 44-1 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012, Shandong Province, China. Electronic address:
We present an unusual case of multiple verruciform xanthomas in the gingiva of a patient with no systemic diseases. Read More
Multiple verruciform xanthomas in the setting of congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defects syndrome.
Pediatr Dermatol 2015 Jan-Feb;32(1):135-7. Epub 2013 Oct 22.
Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Nanjing, China.
Congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defects (CHILD) syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant disease characterized by peculiar cutaneous presentations and skeletal abnormalities. Verruciform xanthoma (VX)-like histologic changes occasionally occur in CHILD syndrome, but typical VX-like lesions coexisting with CHILD syndrome are rare. In this study we report a rare case of multiple, coexisting VXs on the vulva and left lower limb of an 11-year-old Chinese girl who also exhibited the typical clinical presentations and limb defects of CHILD syndrome. Read More
J Clin Diagn Res 2013 Aug 19;7(8):1799-801. Epub 2013 Jul 19.
Senior lecturer, Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology, Kamineni Institute of Dental Sciences , Narketpally, Nalgonda (dt), Andhra Pradesh, India .
Verruciform Xanthoma (VX) is a relatively rare benign mucocutaneous lesion of unknown aetiology. VX occurs predominantly in oral cavity which also occasionally affects skin and genital mucosa. It was first reported in the oral cavity in 1971. Read More
J Am Acad Dermatol 2013 Oct;69(4):e184-6
Department of Dermatovenereology, Northwest Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
Am J Dermatopathol 2014 Mar;36(3):276-8
Department of Pathology, Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León, León (Castilla y León), Spain †Deceased.
Cutis 2013 Apr;91(4):198-202
Department of Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
Verruciform xanthoma (VX) is an uncommon mucocutaneous lesion of uncertain etiology. Originally thought to be limited to the oral mucosa, its occurrence in other mucosal and nonmucosal sites also has been documented. Histologically, VX is characterized by subepithelial foamy histiocytes associated with papillomatosis, parakeratosis, and dyskeratosis. Read More
Verruciform xanthoma developing in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa: A sheep in wolf's clothing.
- Laia Curto-Barredo,
- Sonia Segura,
- Carlos Barranco,
- Beatriz Bellosillo,
- Josep Lloreta,
- Agustí Toll,
- Onofre Sanmartín,
- Ramon M Pujol
Am J Dermatopathol 2014 Jun;36(6):506-9
Departments of *Dermatology †Pathology, Hospital del Mar., Parc de Salut Mar., Barcelona, Spain; ‡Department of Dermatology, Instituto Valenciano de Oncología., Valencia, Spain.
A 23-year-old male affected of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa presented with a 2-month history of a growing verrucous plaque on the right flank. The clinical features and evolution suggested the diagnosis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Histopathological examination showed hyperkeratosis, parakeratossis, and verrucous acanthosis and numerous large xanthoma cells in the papillary dermis. Read More
Actas Dermosifiliogr 2013 Jun 8;104(5):445-6. Epub 2013 May 8.
Verruciform xanthoma of the upper-extremity in the absence of chronic skin disease or syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.
J Cutan Pathol 2013 Aug 9;40(8):745-52. Epub 2013 May 9.
Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.
Verruciform xanthoma is a rare, benign lesion classically presenting on the oral mucosa or genital area. The etiology is not yet completely understood; however, verruciform xanthoma is often associated with (a) conditions of chronic inflammation or trauma, such as lichen sclerosis, recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, and pemphigus vulgaris, as well as in a setting of (b) chronic lymphedema, (c) chronic graft versus host disease, or (d) congenital epidermal nevi, such as those associated with the Congenital Hemidysplasia with Ichthyosiform nevus and Limb Defects (CHILD) syndrome. We report a case of a solitary verruciform xanthoma on the forearm of an 82-year-old man without history of chronic dystrophic skin disease or syndrome. Read More
Indian J Dermatol 2012 Nov;57(6):479-82
Consultant Dermatologist and Dermatopathologist, PD Hinduja Hospital, Mahim, Mumbai, India.
We describe five cases of verruciform xanthoma (VX). The patients, all males, presented with single warty verrucous lesions of 0.5-2 cm size that had been diagnosed clinically as viral warts (four cases) and leukoplakia (one case). Read More
Contemp Clin Dent 2012 Sep;3(Suppl 2):S257-9
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, Padmashree Dr. D Y Patil Dental College and Hospital, Sector 7, Nerul, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Verruciformxanthoma (VX) is an uncommon benign mucocutaneous lesion of unknown etiology. It appears as a papule or single plaque with verrucous or papillomatous surface and variable color from reddish pink to gray. It occurs primarily in the masticatory mucosa. Read More