7,511 results match your criteria Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia


A analysis of two Phase III trials showing efficacy and tolerability of ceftobiprole in East Asian patients.

Future Microbiol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ceftobiprole in patients from East Asia. A analysis was conducted of two randomized, double-blind, Phase III studies in patients with community- or hospital-acquired pneumonia. Findings for East Asian patients were consistent with the overall study populations. Read More

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Intravenous methylprednisolone with or without tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring oxygen support: A prospective comparison.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Jun 10;14(8):985-989. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Health Regulation Sector, Dubai Health Authority, United Arab Emirates. Electronic address:

Background: Cytokine storm is a marker of severity and severe mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Immunomodulatory treatments may reduce morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: To determine whether a 7-day course of methylprednisolone (MP) administered with and without tocilizumab improves outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia requiring oxygen therapy, relative to historical controls. Read More

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Narrowing antibiotic spectrum of activity for trauma-associated pneumonia through the use of a disease-specific antibiogram.

Trauma Surg Acute Care Open 2021 3;6(1):e000602. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Pharmacy Services, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

Background: Organism susceptibilities for trauma-associated pneumonia (TAP) differ from those in other patient populations, including the critically ill. The purpose of this study was to identify common organisms and their susceptibilities in the respiratory isolates of trauma patients diagnosed with pneumonia within the first 7 days of hospital admission, and to create a TAP-specific disease-state antibiogram to guide empiric antibiotic therapy in this patient population.

Methods: This study was a retrospective review of adult trauma patients with pneumonia admitted between September 1, 2015 and August 31, 2018. Read More

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Comprehensive nursing intervention combined with early activityactivity applied in ventilator-associated pneumonia and its influence on blood gas index.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(5):5647-5652. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Weifang People's Hospital Weifang 261000, Shandong Province, China.

Objective: To study the application effect of comprehensive nursing combined with early activityactivity in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and its influence on blood gas indexes of patients.

Methods: 100 patients with VAP admitted to our hospital from February 2018 to November 2019 were randomly selected and divided into control group and experimental group, with 50 patients in each group. Patients in the control group received routine nursing intervention with early activity, and patients in the experimental group received comprehensive nursing intervention with early activity. Read More

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Effect of all-in-one nursing model on ICU ventilator-associated pneumonia.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(5):5080-5086. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Cangzhou Central Hospital Cangzhou, P. R. China.

Objective: To study the effect of an all-in-one nursing model on ICU ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).

Methods: A total of 100 ICU patients needing ventilator assistance who were admitted to our hospital from March 2018 to December 2019 were equally randomized into two groups by a lottery system, with 50 cases in each group. Patients in the control group received routine nursing, and patients in the experimental group received all-in-one nursing. Read More

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Early tracheostomy for managing ICU capacity during the COVID-19 outbreak: a propensity-matched cohort study.

Chest 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital Virgen de la Salud. Toledo, Spain.

Background: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, shortages of ventilators and intensive care unit (ICU) beds overwhelmed healthcare systems. Whether early tracheostomy reduces the duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay is controversial.

Research Question: Can "failure-free days" outcomes focused on ICU resources could help decide the optimal timing of tracheostomy in overburdened healthcare systems during viral epidemics?

Study Design And Methods: This retrospective cohort study included consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia tracheostomized in 15 Spanish ICUs during the surge, when ICU occupancy modified clinicians criteria to perform tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients. Read More

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The incidence and characteristics of ventilator-associated pneumonia in a regional nontertiary Australian intensive care unit: A retrospective clinical audit study.

Aust Crit Care 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine and Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common complication of mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit. The incidence, patient characteristics, and outcomes have not been described in a regional Australian setting.

Objectives: Τhe primary objective was to establish the incidence of VAP in a regional intensive care unit using predetermined diagnostic criteria. Read More

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Effectiveness and safety of adjunctive inhaled antibiotics for ventilator-associated pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Crit Care 2021 Jun 15;65:133-139. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute of Pediatrics, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Introduction: The efficacy and safety of adjunctive inhaled antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) was systematically reviewed based on updated studies.

Methods: We searched four databases and four clinical trial registration platforms to identify relevant studies published prior to May 19, 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing adjunctive antibiotic inhalation treatment for VAP patients were eligible for this review. Read More

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Epidemiological and Clinical Characterization of Superinfections in Critically Ill Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients.

Crit Care Explor 2021 Jun 11;3(6):e0430. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

To describe the epidemiology of superinfections (occurring > 48 hr after hospital admission) and their impact on the ICU and 28-day mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 with acute respiratory distress syndrome, requiring mechanical ventilation.

Design: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected observational data.

Setting: University-affiliated adult ICU. Read More

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Biofilm Formation by Pathogens Causing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia at Intensive Care Units in a Tertiary Care Hospital: An Armor for Refuge.

Biomed Res Int 2021 28;2021:8817700. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: Emerging threat of drug resistance among pathogens causing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) has resulted in higher hospital costs, longer hospital stays, and increased hospital mortality. Biofilms in the endotracheal tube of ventilated patients act as protective shield from host immunity. They induce chronic and recurrent infections that defy common antibiotics. Read More

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Characteristics, management, and clinical outcomes of patients with hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia: a multicenter cohort study in Korea.

Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul) 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are significant public health issues in the world, but domestic epidemiological data remain limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics, management and clinical outcomes of HAP/VAP in Korea.

Methods: This study is a multicenter retrospective cohort study. Read More

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Combination of toothbrushing and chlorhexidine compared with exclusive use of chlorhexidine to reduce the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2021;76:e2659. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Area de Patologia, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Uberlandia, MG, BR.

This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of 0.12% chlorhexidine alone and 0.12% chlorhexidine in combination with toothbrushing to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients. Read More

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[Risk factors for the first ventilator weaning failure in preterm infants receiving invasive mechanical ventilation].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jun;23(6):569-574

Department of Neonatology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China.

Objective: To study the risk factors for the first ventilator weaning failure and the relationship between the weaning failure and prognosis in preterm infants receiving invasive mechanical ventilation.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the preterm infants who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Peking University Third Hospital and received mechanical ventilation within 72 hours after birth. According to whether reintubation was required within 72 hours after the first weaning, the infants were divided into a successful weaning group and a failed weaning group. Read More

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An Overview of Cilastatin + Imipenem + Relebactam as a Therapeutic Option for Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia: Evidence to Date.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are prevalent nosocomial infections with a worrisomely increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant causative organisms, including those with resistance to carbapenems. The addition of relebactam, a β-lactamase inhibitor, to imipenem treatment restores the antimicrobial activity against the most of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, including some carrying β-lactamase enzyme-type carbapenemases.: The aim of this article is to summarize the current evidence regarding imipenem/relebactam for the treatment of HAP/VAP. Read More

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Predicting Potential Prevention Effects on Hospital Burden of Nosocomial Infections: A Multistate Modeling Approach.

Value Health 2021 Jun 13;24(6):830-838. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Institute of Medical Biometry and Statistics, Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Objectives: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) place a substantial burden on health systems. Tools are required to quantify the change in this burden as a result of a preventive intervention. We aim to estimate how much a reduction in the rate of hospital-acquired infections translates into a change in hospital mortality and length of stay. Read More

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Etiology, incidence, and outcomes of patient-ventilator asynchrony in critically-ill patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12390. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st St SW, Rochester, MN, 55902, USA.

Patient-ventilator asynchrony (PVA) is commonly encountered during mechanical ventilation of critically ill patients. Estimates of PVA incidence vary widely. Type, risk factors, and consequences of PVA remain unclear. Read More

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Non-Ventilator Associated Hospital Acquired Pneumonia Incidence and Health Outcomes Among U.S. Veterans from 2016-2020.

Am J Infect Control 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Research and Development, Salem VA Medical Center, Salem, VA, USA. Electronic address:

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Predicting ventilator-associated pneumonia with machine learning.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e26246

Dascena, Inc., Houston, TX, United States.

Abstract: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common and fatal nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). Existing methods for identifying VAP display low accuracy, and their use may delay antimicrobial therapy. VAP diagnostics derived from machine learning (ML) methods that utilize electronic health record (EHR) data have not yet been explored. Read More

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Systematic review of studies investigating ventilator associated pneumonia diagnostics in intensive care.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 Jun 9;21(1):196. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Translational Healthcare Technologies Group, Centre for Inflammation Research, Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important diagnosis in critical care. VAP research is complicated by the lack of agreed diagnostic criteria and reference standard test criteria. Our aim was to review which reference standard tests are used to evaluate novel index tests for suspected VAP. Read More

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Lung ultrasound score as a tool to monitor disease progression and detect ventilator-associated pneumonia during COVID-19-associated ARDS.

Heart Lung 2021 May 31;50(5):700-705. Epub 2021 May 31.

Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Service de Médecine Intensive-Réanimation, F-69437, Lyon, France; Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Faculté de médecine Lyon-Est, F-69373, Lyon, France.

Background: Lung ultrasound can accurately detect pandemic coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pulmonary lesions. A lung ultrasound score (LUS) was developed to improve reproducibility of the technique.

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical value of LUS monitoring to guide COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) management. Read More

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Acute Necrotic Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis related to COVID-19: a report of two cases.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Radiology Department. Brookhaven Memorial Hospital Medical Center in Patchogue, NY, US.

Acute necrotic hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (ANHLE) is a sub-form of acute disseminating leukoencephalitis which is a post viral or vaccination uncommon disease with poor prognosis. Radiological findings include multiple or diffuse lesions involving the white matter and sparing the cortex with or without rim enhancement. In addition to areas of hemorrhages with possible involvement of basal ganglia and thalami. Read More

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Nonventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia: A call to action.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2021 Jun 9:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston.

In 2020 a group of U.S. healthcare leaders formed the National Organization to Prevent Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (NOHAP) to issue a call to action to address non-ventilator-associated hospital-acquired pneumonia (NVHAP). Read More

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Heparin-binding protein in lower airway samples as a biomarker for pneumonia.

Respir Res 2021 Jun 8;22(1):174. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Objectives: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is difficult to diagnose using clinical criteria and no biomarkers have yet been proved to be sufficiently accurate. The use of the neutrophil-derived Heparin-binding protein (HBP) as a biomarker for pneumonia was investigated in this exploratory case-control study in two intensive care units at a tertiary referral hospital.

Methods: Patients with clinical signs of pneumonia were recruited and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or bronchial wash (BW) samples were collected. Read More

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Staphylococcus aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with COVID-19: clinical features and potential inference with lung dysbiosis.

Crit Care 2021 06 7;25(1):197. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Dipartimento Di Scienze Biotecnologiche Di Base, Cliniche Intensivologiche E Perioperatorie, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

Background: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and requiring mechanical ventilation are at risk of ventilator-associated bacterial infections secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study aimed to investigate clinical features of Staphylococcus aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia (SA-VAP) and, if bronchoalveolar lavage samples were available, lung bacterial community features in ICU patients with or without COVID-19.

Methods: We prospectively included hospitalized patients with COVID-19 across two medical ICUs of the Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Read More

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Outcomes of Adult Patients in the Intensive Care Unit with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia Who Received an Active Anti-Pseudomonal β-Lactam: Does "S" Equal Success in the Presence of Resistance to other Anti-Pseudomonal β-Lactams?

Pharmacotherapy 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Kaiser Permanente Southern California Department of Research & Evaluation, Pasadena, CA, USA.

Background: The most commonly prescribed antibiotics for patients with hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP) and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (VABP) due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the conventional anti-pseudomonal β-lactams (APBLs) (i.e., ceftazidime, cefepime, meropenem, or piperacillin-tazobactam). Read More

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Population Pharmacokinetics of Meropenem and Vaborbactam Based on Data from Non-Infected Subjects and Infected Patients.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Jun 7:AAC0260620. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute for Clinical Pharmacodynamics, Inc. Schenectady, NY.

Meropenem-vaborbactam is a broad-spectrum carbapenem-beta-lactamase inhibitor combination approved in the USA and Europe to treat patients with complicated urinary tract infections and in Europe, other serious bacterial infections, including hospital- acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Population pharmacokinetic (PK) models were developed to characterize the time-course of meropenem and vaborbactam using pooled data from two Phase 1 and two Phase 3 studies. Multi-compartment disposition model structures with linear elimination processes were fit to the data using NONMEM 7. Read More

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Protective ventilation and outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19: a cohort study.

Ann Intensive Care 2021 Jun 7;11(1):92. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Divisao de Pneumologia, Instituto Do Coracao, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Approximately 5% of COVID-19 patients develop respiratory failure and need ventilatory support, yet little is known about the impact of mechanical ventilation strategy in COVID-19. Our objective was to describe baseline characteristics, ventilatory parameters, and outcomes of critically ill patients in the largest referral center for COVID-19 in Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the first surge of the pandemic.

Methods: This cohort included COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of an academic hospital with 94 ICU beds, a number expanded to 300 during the pandemic as part of a state preparedness plan. Read More

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Implementation of an experiential learning strategy to reduce the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill adult patients.

J Intensive Care Soc 2020 Nov 13;21(4):320-326. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Medical School, Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Objective: We evaluated the impact of an experiential learning strategy on both the adherence to the use of bundles and the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill adult patients.

Methods: Longitudinal, quasi-experimental interrupted time-series study in a tertiary teaching hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Successive measurements were made before and after the intervention was implemented between January 2016 and December 2018. Read More

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November 2020

Incidence of Device Associated-Healthcare Associated Infections from a Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Center: A Retrospective Analysis.

Anesth Essays Res 2020 Jul-Sep;14(3):454-460. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Neurosurgery, Amrita school of Medicine, AIMS, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India.

Background: Deviceassociated infections (DAIs) increase the morbidity and mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). Studies from the neurosurgical ICU in developing countries are sparse.

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of device-associated healthcare associated infections, pathogens isolated, antibiotic resistance, and mortality in neurosurgical ICU. Read More

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