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    Weekly high-dose liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) in critically ill septic patients with multiple Candida colonization: The AmBiDex study.
    PLoS One 2017 22;12(5):e0177093. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Medical and Infectious Diseases ICU, Paris Diderot University/Bichat Hospital, Paris, France.
    Background: To demonstrate the feasibility and safety of weekly high-dose liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) (as a pre-emptive antifungal treatment) for 2 weeks in patients with septic shock and Candida colonization.

    Methods: Pilot, multicentre, open-label, prospective study conducted in seven French ICUs. Non-immunocompromised patients, receiving mechanical ventilation were eligible if they presented ICU-acquired severe sepsis requiring newly administered antibacterial agents and Candida colonization in at least two sites. Read More

    Harefuah 2016 Aug;155(8):482-484
    Department of Internal Medicine A, Barzilai Medical Center, Ashkelon, Ben Gurion University of the Negev.
    Background: Over recent years the number of mechanically ventilated patients in internal medicine departments has grown. These patients are elderly, mostly disabled and suffer from many chronic illnesses. Most of them require prolonged mechanical ventilation. Read More

    Harefuah 2017 Jan;156(1):8-13
    The Department of Internal Medicine B, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, affiliated with the Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Background: Due to increasing numbers of elderly, seriously ill patients and shortage of ICU beds, many hospitals have established monitoring units (MU) in their medical departments.

    Objectives: (1) To assess the national prevalence of MUs in medical departments; (2) to determine the outcome of consecutively admitted MU patients; (3) to evaluate patient/ family satisfaction with care.

    Methods: The case control study included all 123 patients hospitalized in the MU during a 5-month period, compared with two control groups: (1) 123 patients admitted to medical departments, matched at a ratio of 1:1 by gender, age±10 years and mechanical ventilation; (2) all 52 medical patients treated in the ICU. Read More

    Readmission to Intensive Care Unit: Incidence, Risk Factors, Resource Use and Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
    Ann Am Thorac Soc 2017 May 21. Epub 2017 May 21.
    Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, 37896, Intensive Care Unit, São Paulo, SP, Brazil ;
    Rationale: Readmission to intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with poor clinical outcomes, increased length of ICU and hospital stay and higher costs. Nevertheless, knowledge on epidemiology of ICU readmissions, risk factors and attributable outcomes are restricted to developed countries.

    Objectives: Determine the effect of ICU readmissions on in-hospital mortality, incidence of ICU readmissions, identify predictors of ICU readmissions and hospital mortality and compare resource use and outcomes between readmitted and nonreadmitted patients in a developing country. Read More

    Determination of the appropriate oropharyngeal airway size in adults: Assessment using ventilation and an endoscopic view.
    Am J Emerg Med 2017 Apr 14. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Size 9 and 8 airways for men and women, respectively, have been proposed as most appropriate based on endoscopy. However, a limitation of this guideline is that ventilation was not assessed.

    Methods: In this retrospective review of prospectively collected data, 149 patients requiring tracheal intubation for general anesthesia were included. Read More

    Experimental evaluation of four airway devices in anaesthetized New Zealand White rabbits.
    Vet Anaesth Analg 2017 Jan 11. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Division of Anaesthesiology, Equine Department, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Objective: To compare airway management during induction of anaesthesia, spontaneous ventilation (SV) and controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV), using an endotracheal tube (ETT), laryngeal mask (LM), rabbit-specific supraglottic airway device (v-gel) or facemask (FM).

    Study Design: Prospective randomized crossover experiment.

    Animals: Ten New Zealand White rabbits. Read More

    Intraoperative mechanical ventilation: state of the art.
    Minerva Anestesiol 2017 May 19. Epub 2017 May 19.
    IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy -
    Mechanical ventilation is a cornerstone of the intraoperative management of the surgical patient and is still mandatory in several surgical procedures. In the last decades, research focused on preventing postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), both improving risk stratification through the use of predictive scores and protecting the lung adopting so-called protective ventilation strategies. The aim of this review is to give an up-to-date overview of the currently suggested intraoperative ventilation strategies, along with their pathophysiologic rationale, with a focus on challenging conditions, such as obesity, one-lung ventilation and cardiopulmonary bypass. Read More

    Discriminative Accuracy of Physician and Nurse Predictions for Survival and Functional Outcomes 6 Months After an ICU Admission.
    JAMA 2017 May 21. Epub 2017 May 21.
    Palliative and Advanced Illness Research (PAIR) Center, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia5Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia6Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia11Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia12Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
    Importance: Predictions of long-term survival and functional outcomes influence decision making for critically ill patients, yet little is known regarding their accuracy.

    Objective: To determine the discriminative accuracy of intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and nurses in predicting 6-month patient mortality and morbidity, including ambulation, toileting, and cognition.

    Design, Setting, And Participants: Prospective cohort study conducted in 5 ICUs in 3 hospitals in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and enrolling patients who spent at least 3 days in the ICU from October 2013 until May 2014 and required mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, or both. Read More

    Platelet hyperactivation, apoptosis and hypercoagulability in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.
    Thromb Res 2017 May 13;155:106-115. Epub 2017 May 13.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States. Electronic address:
    Changes in systemic redox balance can alter platelet activation and aggregation. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a systematic inflammatory disease associated with mechanical shear stress, increased thrombin, catecholamines, serotonin and hemolysis, which cumulatively can hyperactivate platelets and accelerate their turnover. We tested the hypothesis that platelets from patients with moderately severe PE will show hyperstimulation and a pre-apoptotic phenotype associated with microparticles (MPs) in plasma. Read More

    Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Perinatal Characteristics Predict 1-Year Respiratory Outcomes in Newborns Born at Extremely Low Gestational Age: A Prospective Cohort Study.
    J Pediatr 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Pediatrics/Pediatric Allergy, Immunology and Pulmonary Medicine and Center for Asthma Research, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.
    Objective: To assess the utility of clinical predictors of persistent respiratory morbidity in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs).

    Study Design: We enrolled ELGANs (<29 weeks' gestation) at ≤7 postnatal days and collected antenatal and neonatal clinical data through 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. We surveyed caregivers at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months' corrected age to identify postdischarge respiratory morbidity, defined as hospitalization, home support (oxygen, tracheostomy, ventilation), medications, or symptoms (cough/wheeze). Read More

    [Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients infected with Leptospira spp. treated at four hospitals in Medellín, Colombia, 2008-2013].
    Biomedica 2017 Jan 24;37(1):62-67. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Servicio de Microbiología Médica, Hospital Universitario de San Vicente Fundación, Medellín, Colombia Servicio de Microbiología Médica y Enfermedades Infecciosas, Centros Especializados de San Vicente Fundación, Medellín, Colombia.
    Introduction: Leptospirosis remains a significant health problem in tropical regions including Latin America, where its presentation is 100 times higher than that observed in other regions of the world. Mortality reaches 10% in severe cases. Its diagnosis is challenging because clinical manifestations during the initial phase are non-specific and because of limited availability of diagnostic tests. Read More

    Prognostic Indicators of Response to Plasmapheresis in Patients of Guillain Barre Syndrome.
    J Assoc Physicians India 2017 Apr;65(4):32-36
    Assistant Professor inNeurology, B.J. Government Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra.
    Introduction: Plasmapheresis is an important modality for the treatment of GBS. Moreover the response to this treatment modality is not same in all cases. We therefore studied the various prognostic indicators of response to plasmapheresis in patients of Guillain Barre Syndrome. Read More

    Significant Clinical Factors Associated with Long-term Mortality in Critical Cancer Patients Requiring Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.
    Sci Rep 2017 May 19;7(1):2148. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Studies about prognostic assessment in cancer patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) for post-intensive care are scarce. We retrospectively enrolled 112 cancer patients requiring PMV support who were admitted to the respiratory care center (RCC), a specialized post-intensive care weaning facility, from November 2009 through September 2013. The weaning success rate was 44. Read More

    Antimicrobial stewardship for hospitalized patients with viral respiratory tract infections.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Division of Microbiology and Virology, Providence Health Care, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Infection Prevention and Control, Providence Health Care, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Division of Infectious Diseases, Providence Health Care, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Background: The purpose of this study was to implement a targeted antimicrobial stewardship intervention for patients with a viral respiratory tract infection.

    Methods: This was a quasi-experimental before and after audit and feedback intervention of adult inpatients with a positive polymerase chain reaction for a respiratory virus in 2 acute care hospitals in Vancouver, Canada. Audit and feedback was implemented based on 2 criteria: microbiology (no positive bacterial cultures) and chest imaging (absence of pneumonia or consolidation on radiology dictation). Read More

    Proof of concept non-invasive estimation of peripheral venous oxygen saturation.
    Biomed Eng Online 2017 May 19;16(1):60. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Centre for Bioengineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, 8140, New Zealand.
    Background: Pulse oximeters continuously monitor arterial oxygen saturation. Continuous monitoring of venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) would enable real-time assessment of tissue oxygen extraction (O2E) and perfusion changes leading to improved diagnosis of clinical conditions, such as sepsis.

    Methods: This study presents the proof of concept of a novel pulse oximeter method that utilises the compliance difference between arteries and veins to induce artificial respiration-like modulations to the peripheral vasculature. Read More

    Comparison of the effect of oral care with four different antiseptics to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults: protocol for a network meta-analysis.
    Syst Rev 2017 May 19;6(1):103. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Evidence-Based Medicine Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.
    Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as the occurrence of pneumonia in patients receiving mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h after endotracheal intubation. The implementation of effective oral care with antiseptics may reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. However, previous studies have been unclear about the best antiseptic for this purpose. Read More

    Analgesic Choice in Management of Rib Fractures: Paravertebral Block or Epidural Analgesia?
    Anesth Analg 2017 Jun;124(6):1906-1911
    From the Department of Surgery, Section of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, Pennsylvania.
    Background: Rib fractures are commonly encountered in the setting of trauma. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the clinical outcome of rib fracture and epidural analgesia (EA) versus paravertebral block (PVB) using the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB).

    Methods: Using the 2011 and 2012 versions of the NTDB, we retrieved completed records for all patients above 18 years of age who were admitted with rib fractures. Read More

    Is There a Preinterventional Mechanical Ventilation Time Limit for Candidates of Adult Respiratory Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.
    ASAIO J 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    From the *Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; †Department of Thoracic Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; ‡Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; and §Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is a useful life support in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although prolonged mechanical ventilation (MV) before institution of ECMO is known to be a poor prognostic factor for outcomes of VV-ECMO, a reasonable deadline for this period has not been defined yet. To discover the answer, we reviewed a 9 year institutional experience of adult respiratory ECMO in VV configuration and investigate the relationship between the MV time before ECMO and in-hospital mortality. Read More

    [Predictive value of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on mechanical ventilation weaning].
    Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2017 May;29(5):413-418
    Department of Surgery Critical Care Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China (Wang H, Chen DS, Li Gang, Wang SP, Duan J); Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China (Xia JG); Department of Plastic and Cosmetology, Beijing Haidian Hospital, Beijing 100080, China (Ma M). Corresponding author: Duan Jun, Email:
    Objective: To investigate the predictive value of left ventricular diastolic function on mechanical ventilation weaning in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) > 0.50.

    Methods: A retrospective case control study was conducted. Read More

    [Effect of chest physiotherapy in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation: a prospective randomized controlled trial].
    Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2017 May;29(5):403-406
    Second Department of Critical Care Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003, Guizhou, China. Corresponding author: Chen Miao, Email:
    Objective: To investigate the effect of chest physiotherapy (CPT) on patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV).

    Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. Sixty-eight adult patients undergoing invasive MV over 48 hours admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College from December 2014 to October 2016 were enrolled, and they were divided into CPT group (n = 37) and control group (n = 31) by random number table. Read More

    Evaluation of height-dependent and height-independent methods of estimating baseline serum creatinine in critically ill children.
    Pediatr Nephrol 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, 1001 Blvd Decarie, Room BRC.6168, Montreal, QC, H4A 3J1, Canada.
    Background: Baseline serum creatinine (bSCr) is required for diagnosing acute kidney injury (AKI). In children, bSCr is commonly defined as the lowest measurement within 3 months of admission. Measured values are often missing and estimating bSCr using height-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) equations is problematic when height is unavailable. Read More

    Risk Factors, Clinical Presentation, and Outcome of Acinetobacter baumannii Bacteremia.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 4;7:156. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Saint George Hospital University Medical Center and University of BalamandBeirut, Lebanon.
    Infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii (AB), an increasingly prevalent nosocomial pathogen, have been associated with high morbidity and mortality. We conducted this study to analyze the clinical features, outcomes, and factors influencing the survival of patients with AB bacteremia. We retrospectively examined the medical records of all patients developing AB bacteremia during their hospital stay at a tertiary care hospital in Beirut between 2010 and 2015. Read More

    Predictors of length of stay and duration of tracheal intubation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.
    J Thorac Dis 2017 Apr;9(4):1012-1022
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
    Background: While short-term outcomes for patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have long been studied, there is very little data on their predictors. We aimed to identify the predictors of outcomes, such as intensive care unit (ICU) and in-hospital length of stay (LOS), duration of postoperative intubation and in-hospital mortality, after TAVI procedures.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 162 consecutive patients with aortic valve disease, who were admitted to a tertiary hospital of Liverpool for TAVI, during a five-year period. Read More

    Severe neurological symptoms following synthetic cannabinoid intoxication.
    Neth J Med 2017 May;75(4):158-160
    1Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Synthetic cannabinoids are becoming increasingly popular as substances of abuse. However, in the Netherlands synthetic cannabinoid intoxications are rare. We report a 16-year-old male who became deeply comatose and was admitted to the intensive care unit for invasive mechanical ventilation after a buse of aninitially unknown drug. Read More

    Current practice of closed-loop mechanical ventilation modes on intensive care units - a nationwide survey in the Netherlands.
    Neth J Med 2017 May;75(4):145-150
    Department of Intensive Care and Anesthesiology, Catharina Hospital Eindhoven, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Background: The most recent modes for mechanical ventilation are closed-loop modes, which are able to automatically adjust certain respiratory settings. Although closed-loop modes have been investigated in various clinical trials, it is unclear to what extent these modes are actually used in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine closed-loop ventilation practice on intensive care units (ICUs) in the Netherlands, and to explore reasons for not applying closed-loop ventilation. Read More

    Functional assessment of the diaphragm by speckle tracking ultrasound during inspiratory loading.
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 2017 May 18:jap.00095.2017. Epub 2017 May 18.
    University Hospital RWTH Aachen.
    Background: Assessment of diaphragmatic effort is challenging especially in critically ill patients in the phase of weaning. Fractional thickening during inspiration assessed by ultrasound has been used to estimate diaphragm effort. It is unknown whether more sophisticated ultrasound techniques such as speckle tracking are superior in the quantification of inspiratory effort. Read More

    Anti-Inflammatory Effects of OxPAPC Involve Endothelial Cell Mediated Generation of LXA4.
    Circ Res 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Anesthesiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine
    Rationale: Oxidation of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine generates a group of bioactive oxidized phospholipid products (OxPAPC) with a broad range of biological activities. Barrier-enhancing and anti-inflammatory effects of OxPAPC on pulmonary endothelial cells (EC) are critical for prevention of acute lung injury caused by bacterial pathogens or excessive mechanical ventilation. Anti-inflammatory properties of OxPAPC are associated with its antagonistic effects on toll-like receptors and suppression of RhoA GTPase signaling. Read More

    Immune plasma for the treatment of severe influenza: an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 randomised study.
    Lancet Respir Med 2017 May 15. Epub 2017 May 15.
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Background: Influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality despite available treatments. Anecdotal reports suggest that plasma with high antibody titres to influenza might be of benefit in the treatment of severe influenza.

    Methods: In this randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial, 29 academic medical centres in the USA assessed the safety and efficacy of anti-influenza plasma with haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres of 1:80 or more to the infecting strain. Read More

    Effect of early supplemental parenteral nutrition in the paediatric ICU: a preplanned observational study of post-randomisation treatments in the PEPaNIC trial.
    Lancet Respir Med 2017 May 15. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Clinical Division and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine, Department Cellular and Molecular Medicine, KU Leuven University Hospital, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Background: Large randomised controlled trials have shown that early supplemental parenteral nutrition in patients admitted to adult and paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) is harmful. Overdosing of energy with too little protein was suggested as a potential reason for this. This study analysed which macronutrient was associated with harm caused by early supplemental parenteral nutrition in the Paediatric Early versus Late Parenteral Nutrition In Critical Illness (PEPaNIC) randomised trial. Read More

    Use of High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation to Expand Organ Donor Pool.
    J Intensive Care Med 2017 Jan 1:885066617709969. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    2 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, New York-Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, NY, USA.
    A 34-year-old woman was brought in to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident. She had signs of traumatic head injury with Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3, and her neurological examination was consistent with brain death. She was persistently hypoxic on conventional mechanical ventilation and high-frequency percussive ventilation was initiated. Read More

    Relationship between Body Mass Index and Outcomes among Hospitalized Patients with Community-acquired Pneumonia.
    J Infect Dis 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Background: The effect of body mass index (BMI) on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity is unclear.

    Methods: We investigated the relationship between BMI and CAP outcomes [hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation] in hospitalized CAP patients from the CDC Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, adjusting for age, demographics, underlying conditions, and smoking status (adults only).

    Results: Compared with normal weight children, odds of ICU admission were higher in children who were overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1. Read More

    Prophylactic sustained inflation is just one step to preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
    Acta Paediatr 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    NICU "V.Buzzi Children's hospital", ASST FBF-Sacco, Milan, Italy.
    I am glad to see that the Sustained Lung Inflation (SLI) trial (1) still draws a great deal of attention and I would like to clarify some aspects of the trial, in response to the comments by Gupta and Argarwal (2) in Acta Paediatrica. A meta-analysis carried out in 2016 demonstrated that starting non-invasive respiratory support from birth could reduce the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and death. However, about 50% of very low birth weight infants who are initially on nasal continuous positive airway pressure need subsequent intubation and mechanical ventilation. Read More

    Cerebral air embolism associated with penetrating lung injury: a case report and review of the literature.
    Acute Med Surg 2017 Apr 10;4(2):213-216. Epub 2016 Nov 10.
    Department of Diagnostic RadiologySapporo Medical UniversitySapporoHokkaidoJapan.
    Case: A 44-year-old man intentionally stabbed himself in the anterior neck and left thorax with a fruit knife. Physical examination revealed two open wounds entering the thoracic cavity in the front chest, and a stab wound entering the trachea at the neck. Two chest tubes were initially inserted for the left lung injury with open hemopneumothorax. Read More

    Respiratory functional status after conventional and minimally invasive aortic valve replacement surgery - a propensity score analysis.
    Kardiochir Torakochirurgia Pol 2017 Mar 31;14(1):5-9. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Cardiovascular Surgery and Transplantation, Jagiellonian University, Pope John Paul II Krakow Specialist Hospital, Kraków, Poland.
    Introduction: Reports describing respiratory function of patients after conventional or minimally invasive cardiac surgery are infrequent.

    Aim: To compare pulmonary functional status after conventional (AVR) and after minimally invasive, through right anterior minithoracotomy, aortic valve replacement (RT-AVR).

    Material And Methods: This was an observational analysis of 212 patients scheduled for RT-AVR and 212 for AVR between January 2011 and December 2014 selected using propensity score matching. Read More

    Influence of Admission Source on the Outcome of Patients in an Intensive Care Unit.
    Indian J Crit Care Med 2017 Apr;21(4):213-217
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Govind Ballabh Pant Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, New Delhi, India.
    Aim Of The Study: The admission in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) occurs from various sources, and the outcome depends on a complex interplay of various factors. This observational study was undertaken to describe the epidemiology and compare the differences among patients admitted in a tertiary care ICU directly from the emergency room, wards, and ICUs of other hospitals.

    Materials And Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 153 consecutive patients admitted from various sources in a tertiary care ICU between July 2014 and December 2015. Read More

    Acute Kidney Injury Following Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Children - Risk Factors and Outcomes.
    Circ J 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine.
    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common and most serious complication following heart surgery. We aimed to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, AKI following pediatric cardiac surgery.Methods and Results:We retrospectively analyzed 135 patients aged ≤18 years who underwent cardiac surgery for congenital heart defects; by RACHS-1 category, 58 patients (43%) had an operative risk score ≥3. Read More

    Impact of physician education and availability of parameters regarding esophageal pressure and transpulmonary pressure on clinical decisions involving ventilator management.
    J Crit Care 2017 Apr 18;41:112-118. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, St. Marianna University Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan.
    Purpose: This study investigated the effects of physician education and the availability of Peso and PL data on physicians' decisions regarding ventilator management during specific simulated clinical conditions.

    Materials And Methods: The study was a prospective, before-after study using a case scenario-based questionnaire and a case simulator device comprising an Avea ventilator and an artificial lung and esophagus, which was connected to a Series 1101 Electronic Breathing Simulator. The 99 physicians participating in the study were provided with five simulated cases with on-time ventilator graphics without Peso and PL and completed a questionnaire on decisions they would make regarding ventilator management of the cases. Read More

    Guillain-Barré Syndrome, variants & forms fruste: Reclassification with new criteria.
    Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2017 May 4;158:114-118. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Department of Neurology, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of various distinctive classical and localised Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) subtypes.

    Patients And Methods: Clinical characteristics and electrophysiological data of sixty-one consecutive patients admitted between 2012 and 2015 were systematically analysed and reclassified according to the new GBS clinical classification. Neurophysiology was evaluated with Hadden et al. Read More

    Development and validation of a mortality risk model for pediatric sepsis.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 May;96(20):e6923
    aHunan Children's Hospital, Ziyuan RD bDepartment of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan cBeijing Center for Diseases Prevention and Control, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Pediatric sepsis is a burdensome public health problem. Assessing the mortality risk of pediatric sepsis patients, offering effective treatment guidance, and improving prognosis to reduce mortality rates, are crucial.We extracted data derived from electronic medical records of pediatric sepsis patients that were collected during the first 24 hours after admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of the Hunan Children's hospital from January 2012 to June 2014. Read More

    Right ventricular pressure elevated in one-kidney, one clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats.
    Clin Exp Hypertens 2017 May 17:1-6. Epub 2017 May 17.
    c Department of Phamacology, School of Medicine , Shiraz University of Medical Sciences , Shiraz , Iran.
    Both renal and respiratory diseases are common with high mortality rate around the world. This study was the first to compare effects of two kidneys, one clip (2K1C) and one-kidney, one clip (1K1C) Goldblatt hypertension on right ventricular pressure during normal condition and mechanical ventilation with hypoxia gas. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to control, 2K1C, or 1K1C groups. Read More

    Application of end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring via distal gas samples in ventilated neonates.
    Pediatr Neonatol 2017 Apr 12. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.
    Background: Previous research has suggested correlations between the end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2) and the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in mechanically ventilated patients, but both the relationship between PETCO2 and PaCO2 and whether PETCO2 accurately reflects PaCO2 in neonates and infants are still controversial. This study evaluated remote sampling of PETCO2 via an epidural catheter within an endotracheal tube to determine the procedure's clinical safety and efficacy in the perioperative management of neonates.

    Methods: Abdominal surgery was performed under general anesthesia in 86 full-term newborns (age 1-30 days, weight 2. Read More

    Clinical Profile and Outcome of Newborns with Acute Kidney Injury in a Level 3 Neonatal Unit in Western India.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Mar 1;11(3):SC01-SC04. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Professor, Department of Paediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Gujarat, India.
    Introduction: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a serious condition in neonatal care. It complicates the management necessitating the restrictive use of medications.

    Aim: To evaluate clinical profile, identify associated and prog-nostic factors in newborns with AKI. Read More

    The impact of frailty on noninvasive mechanical ventilation in elderly medical intensive care unit patients.
    Aging Clin Exp Res 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Department of Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care Unit, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
    Aim: Many factors affecting noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in critically ill patients have been reported in the literature, but there is no study about the effect of frailty. With this study, the frailty prevalence was evaluated with two different frailty scores among the NIV population of a medical intensive care unit (ICU). Besides, the impact of frailty on NIV success and mortality and its association with NIV application problems were evaluated. Read More

    Mechanical ventilation in the acute respiratory distress syndrome.
    Hosp Pract (1995) 2017 May 23:1-11. Epub 2017 May 23.
    b Division of Cardiology , Westchester Medical Center, New York Medical College , Valhalla , NY , USA.
    The management of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patient is fundamental to the field of intensive care medicine, and it presents unique challenges owing to the specialized mechanical ventilation techniques that such patients require. ARDS is a highly lethal disease, and there is compelling evidence that mechanical ventilation itself, if applied in an injurious fashion, can be a contributor to ARDS mortality. Therefore, it is imperative for any clinician central to the care of ARDS patients to understand the fundamental framework that underpins the approach to mechanical ventilation in this special scenario. Read More

    To What Extent Does ABCDEF Bundle Improve Hospital Survival and Reduce Brain Dysfunction of 1,438 Patients With Mechanical Ventilation in Seven California Community Hospitals?
    Crit Care Med 2017 Jun;45(6):e617
    Division of Rehabilitation, Department of Clinical Practice and Support, Hiroshima University Hospital, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, Japan; Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Kameda Medical Center, Kamogawa, Chiba, Japan.

    Validation of the efficacy of the prognostic factor score in the Japanese severity criteria for severe acute pancreatitis: A large multicenter study.
    United European Gastroenterol J 2017 Apr 27;5(3):389-397. Epub 2016 Sep 27.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Background: The Japanese severity criteria for acute pancreatitis (AP), which consist of a prognostic factor score and contrast-enhanced computed tomography grade, have been widely used in Japan.

    Objective: This large multicenter retrospective study was conducted to validate the predictive value of the prognostic factor score for mortality and complications in severe AP patients in comparison to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score.

    Methods: Data of 1159 patients diagnosed with severe AP according to the Japanese severity criteria for AP were retrospectively collected in 44 institutions. Read More

    Impact of antenatal oxytocin infusion on neonatal respiratory morbidity associated with elective cesarean section.
    Arch Med Sci 2017 Apr 20;13(3):629-634. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
    Introduction: This study was designed to estimate respiratory morbidity associated with elective cesarean section (ECS) and to determine the effect of antenatal oxytocin exposure on this morbidity.

    Material And Methods: Nine hundred and sixty-five neonates ≥ 37 weeks' gestation delivered by cesarean section during 1 year were included in this retrospective study and classified into two groups according to oxytocin exposure before cesarean deliveries. Respiratory morbidity for each group was recorded and statistically analyzed. Read More

    Investigation of the pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary bypass using rodent extracorporeal life support model.
    BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2017 May 15;17(1):123. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Hsin-Chu Branch, NO. 25, Lane 442, Sec. 1, Jingguo Rd., Hsin-Chu, 30059, Taiwan.
    Background: Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) systems are life-saving devices used for treating patients with severe cardiopulmonary failure. In this study, we implemented a rat model of ECLS without the administration of inotropes or vasopressors.

    Methods: The rats underwent 5 min of untreated asphyxial cardiac arrest and were resuscitated by ECLS for 30 min. Read More

    [Weaning Unit of the University Medicine Greifswald - Institutional Structure and Weaning Results from Prolonged Ventilation over 10 years].
    Pneumologie 2017 May 15. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Universitätsmedizin Greifswald, Klinik für Innere Medizin B.
    The increasing importance of intensive care medicine including mechanical ventilation has been accompanied by the demand of weaning opportunities for patients undergoing prolonged mechanical ventilation. Consequently, specialised clinical institutions, focusing on the weaning from mechanical ventilation, have been established since the 1980 s.The present article illustrates the structural development and results of such a specialised institution at the University Medicine Greifswald, using data of 616 patients collected within the past ten years (2006 - 2015). Read More

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