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    Ceramides in tracheal aspirates of preterm infants: Marker for bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
    PLoS One 2018 18;13(1):e0185969. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Background: In an experimental mouse model we showed that ceramides play a role in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and are a potential target for therapeutic intervention. We investigated whether ceramides are detectable in tracheal aspirates (TAs) of preterm infants and differ between infants with or without BPD.

    Methods: Infants born ≤ 32 weeks of gestational age in need of mechanical ventilation in the first week of life were included. Read More

    Dexmedetomidine Impairs Diaphragm Function and Increases Oxidative Stress but Does Not Aggravate Diaphragmatic Atrophy in Mechanically Ventilated Rats.
    Anesthesiology 2018 Jan 18. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    From the Department of Anesthesiology (T.B., C.B., R.R., J.G., H.D., C.S.B.), the Department of Intensive and Intermediate Care (T.B., G.M., C.S.B.), and the Institute of Neuropathology (J.W.), Rheinisch-Westfalian Technical University Aachen, Aachen, Germany; and the Laboratory of Pneumology, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium (A.D., G.G.-R.).
    Background: Anesthetics in ventilated patients are critical as any cofactor hampering diaphragmatic function may have a negative impact on the weaning progress and therefore on patients' mortality. Dexmedetomidine may display antioxidant and antiproteolytic properties, but it also reduced glucose uptake by the muscle, which may impair diaphragm force production. This study tested the hypothesis that dexmedetomidine could inhibit ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction. Read More

    Reclassifying Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Jan 18. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    University of Göttingen, Department of Anaesthesiology, Emergency and Intensive Care Medicine, Göttingen, Germany ;
    Rationale: The ratio of PaO2 to FiO2 (P/F) defines ARDS severity and suggests appropriate therapies.

    Objectives: We investigated 1) whether a 150 mmHg P/F threshold within the range of moderate ARDS (100-200 mmHg) would define two, more homogeneous subgroups, 2) which criteria led the clinicians to apply ECMO in severe ARDS. Methods & Measurements: At 150 mmHg P/F threshold, moderate patients were split in mild-moderate (n=50) and moderate-severe (n=55). Read More

    Early Versus Late Tracheostomy in Trauma Patients: A Propensity-Matched Cohort Study of 5 Years' Data at a Single Institution in Korea.
    World J Surg 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Division of Trauma Surgery, Department of Surgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164 World Cup-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, 16499, Korea.
    Background: Although there have been many studies dealing with tracheostomy timing in trauma patients, the optimal timing is still being debated. This study aimed to compare outcomes between early tracheostomy (ET) and late tracheostomy (LT) in trauma populations to estimate the optimal timing of tracheostomy after intubation.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the 5 years' data of trauma patients who underwent tracheostomy during their acute intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Read More

    Association between palliative care and life-sustaining treatments for patients with dementia: A nationwide 5-year cohort study.
    Palliat Med 2018 Jan 1:269216317751334. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    2 Division of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Background: The association between palliative care and life-sustaining treatments for patients with dementia is unclear in Asian countries.

    Aim: To analyse the use of palliative care and its association with aggressive treatments based on Taiwanese national data.

    Design: A matched cohort study was conducted. Read More

    Prognosis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Patients With Hematological Malignancies.
    J Intensive Care Med 2018 Jan 1:885066617753566. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    2 Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Introduction: The intensive care unit (ICU) admission of patients with hematologic malignancies is gradually increasing. Life-threatening events are common, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most critical conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of ARDS in patients with hematological malignancies admitted to the ICU. Read More

    [A study on the effects and safety of sequential humidified high flow nasal cannula oxygenation therapy on the COPD patients after extubation].
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2018 Jan;98(2):109-112
    Emergency Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 321000, China.
    Objective: To investigate and compare the effect and safety of nasal high-flow oxygen therapy (HFNCO) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) therapy after extubation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: All COPD patients subjected to mechanical ventilation in the Emergency Intensive Unit of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University during January 2015 to June 2016 were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups after extubation and HFNCO and NIV were adopted on each group respectively. Read More

    [Optimal energy supply in different age groups of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation].
    Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2018 Jan;56(1):39-42
    Department of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100045, China.
    Objective: To analyze the resting energy expenditure and optimal energy supply in different age groups of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods: Patients on mechanical ventilation hospitalized in PICU of Beijing Children's Hospital from March 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled prospectively. Resting energy expenditure of patients was calculated by US Med Graphic company critical care management (CCM) energy metabolism test system after mechanical ventilation. Read More

    Pulmonary Dead Space Fraction and Extubation Success in Children After Cardiac Surgery.
    Pediatr Crit Care Med 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Department of Child Health, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.
    Objectives: 1) Determine the correlation between pulmonary dead space fraction and extubation success in postoperative pediatric cardiac patients; and 2) document the natural history of pulmonary dead space fractions, dynamic compliance, and airway resistance during the first 72 hours postoperatively in postoperative pediatric cardiac patients.

    Design: A retrospective chart review.

    Setting: Cardiac ICU in a quaternary care free-standing children's hospital. Read More

    New Modalities for the Administration of Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Intensive Care Units After Cardiac Surgery or for Neonatal Indications: A Prospective Observational Study.
    Anesth Analg 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Background: Nitric oxide (NO) has a well-known efficacy in pulmonary hypertension (PH), with wide use for 20 years in many countries. The objective of this study was to describe the current use of NO in real life and the gap with the guidelines.

    Methods: This is a multicenter, prospective, observational study on inhaled NO administered through an integrated delivery and monitoring device and indicated for PH according to the market authorizations. Read More

    Internal jugular vein variability predicts fluid responsiveness in cardiac surgical patients with mechanical ventilation.
    Ann Intensive Care 2018 Jan 16;8(1). Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, No. 180 Fenglin Road, Shanghai, 200032, Xuhui District, People's Republic of China.
    Background: To evaluate the efficacy of using internal jugular vein variability (IJVV) as an index of fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac surgery.

    Methods: Seventy patients were assessed after cardiac surgery. Hemodynamic data coupled with ultrasound evaluation of IJVV and inferior vena cava variability (IVCV) were collected and calculated at baseline, after a passive leg raising (PLR) test and after a 500-ml fluid challenge. Read More

    Orotracheal tube as a risk factor for lower respiratory tract infection: preliminary data from a randomised trial.
    Wien Klin Wochenschr 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    In-Medico-Research & Development, Mestni trg 11, Metlika, Slovenia.
    Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate whether polyurethane (PU) endotracheal tubes, continuous measurements of cuff pressure and aspiration of the subglottic space as a bundle of parameters could reduce patients' risk for developing ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP).

    Methods: Two groups of patients that differed only in terms of endotracheal tubes and intubation intervention were compared. Group A was ventilated using PU tubes a with conical cuff; they also had continuous cuff pressure measurement and continuous subglottic aspiration. Read More

    Safety criteria to start early mobilization in intensive care units. Systematic review.
    Rev Bras Ter Intensiva 2017 Oct-Dec;29(4):509-519
    Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina - Araranguá, (SC), Brasil.
    Mobilization of critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units should be performed based on safety criteria. The aim of the present review was to establish which safety criteria are most often used to start early mobilization for patients under mechanical ventilation admitted to intensive care units. Articles were searched in the PubMed, PEDro, LILACS, Cochrane and CINAHL databases; randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials, cohort studies, comparative studies with or without simultaneous controls, case series with 10 or more consecutive cases and descriptive studies were included. Read More

    Length of Stay and Hospital Revisit After Bacterial Tracheostomy-Associated Respiratory Tract Infection Hospitalizations.
    Hosp Pediatr 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Divisions of Hospital Medicine and.
    Objectives: To identify factors associated with longer length of stay (LOS) and higher 30-day hospital revisit rates for children hospitalized with bacterial tracheostomy-associated respiratory tract infections (bTARTIs).

    Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study using administrative data from the Pediatric Health Information System database between 2007 and 2014 of patients 30 days to 17 years old with a principal discharge diagnosis of bTARTI or a principal discharge diagnosis of bTARTI symptoms with a secondary diagnosis of bTARTI. Primary outcomes of LOS (in days) and 30-day all-cause revisit rates (inpatient, observation, or emergency department visit) were analyzed by using a 3-level hierarchical regression model (discharges within patients within hospital). Read More

    Renal function and outcome after heart transplantation.
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2017 Dec 14. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Transplant Institute, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:
    Objectives: To investigate whether measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) is a risk factor for death and/or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) after heart transplantation (HTx).

    Methods: All adult patients (n = 416) who underwent HTx between 1988 and 2010 were included. mGFR was performed both preoperatively and postoperatively as annual follow-up. Read More

    Comparing of two different epidemic seasons of bronchiolitis.
    Ital J Pediatr 2018 Jan 16;44(1):11. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    NICU Casilino General Hospital, Rome, Italy.
    Acute bronchiolitis is the most common cause of hospitalizations in infants < 12 months of age and preventive efforts remain the most important strategy to date. Recently prophylaxis with palivizumab (PLV) was limited to preterm infants with < 29 weeks gestational age (wGA).We performed a single center analysis in preterm infants (GA between 30 and 32 weeks) and age < 12 months to compare prophylaxis with PLV and frequency and characteristics of bronchiolitis and bronchiolitis-related hospitalization in two consecutive epidemic seasons (S1 vs S2). Read More

    Incidence, risk factors and impact of protocolised care on exposure keratopathy in critically ill adults: a two-phase prospective cohort study.
    Crit Care 2018 Jan 16;22(1). Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Critical Care Unit, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust, Treliske, Truro, TR1 3LJ, UK.
    Background: Exposure keratopathy (EK) has a high incidence in critically ill patients. We aimed to determine the rate of EK in patients admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU), identify risk factors for developing EK and ascertain the effectiveness of a protocol to prevent EK.

    Methods: We undertook a two-phase prospective cohort single-centre study in a general adult ICU. Read More

    The impact of prehabilitation on post-surgical complications in patients undergoing non-urgent cardiovascular surgical intervention: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Eur J Prev Cardiol 2018 Jan 1:2047487317752373. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    1 Department of Surgery and Physiology of the Faculty of Medicine of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Introduction Cardiac surgery is an aggressive procedure, inducing a great level of stress and disturbance to the homeostasis of the organism and underlying several postoperative complications. Surgical prehabilitation comprises pre-operative physical conditioning designed to improve the physiological and functional capacities of the individual, prepare the organism for surgical stress and reduce the risk of postoperative morbidity. Aim This systematic review and meta-analysis is aimed at evaluating the ability of prehabilitation to prevent post-surgical complications in cardiac patients. Read More

    Organ Support Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit and Return to Work in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Survivors-a Nationwide Cohort Study.
    Resuscitation 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark; Clinical Institute, Aalborg University, Denmark; Clinical Institute, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Aim: With increased survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), impact of the post-resuscitation course has become important. Among 30-day OHCA survivors, we investigated associations between organ support therapy in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and return to work.

    Methods: This Danish nationwide cohort-study included 30-day-OHCA-survivors who were employed prior to arrest. Read More

    Is early tracheostomy better for severe traumatic brain injury? A meta-analysis.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 3 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Electronic address:
    Objective: Tracheotomy have been proven to be benefit for the patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. However, whether early tracheotomy (less than 10 days) could also improve the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patient (GCS≤8) remains controversial. The aim of this study was trying to clarify this question. Read More

    Hospital Readmissions in Children with Pulmonary Hypertension: A Multi-Institutional Analysis.
    J Pediatr 2018 Jan 12. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX.
    Objective: To assess the rate of and risk factors for 30-day hospital readmission in children with pulmonary hypertension.

    Study Design: The Pediatric Health Information System database was analyzed for patients ≤18 years old with pulmonary hypertension (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnosis codes of 416.0, 416. Read More

    A randomized controlled trial comparing the myocardial protective effects of isoflurane with propofol in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass, assessed by changes in N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide.
    Ann Card Anaesth 2018 Jan-Mar;21(1):34-40
    Department of Anaesthesia, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Objective: The objective of the study is to compare the myocardial protective effects of isoflurane with propofol in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the cardio protection been assessed by changes in N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT proBNP). Methodology and Design: This study is designed as a participant blinded, prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Setting: Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, India. Read More

    Trends in narcotics and sedative use during mechanical ventilation of preterm infants in Canadian neonatal intensive care units.
    • Authors:
    Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2018 Jan;20(1):5-11
    Objective: Mechanical ventilation (MV) in preterm infants (PTI) causes discomfort. Whether it causes pain is controversial. Meta analysis reviews of published work on PTI during MV have shown no clinically significant impact of opioids on pain scales, and hence not recommended for routine use in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Read More

    Dexmedetomidine prevents acute kidney injury after adult cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    BMC Anesthesiol 2018 Jan 15;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    Department of Intensive care unit, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 10, Tieyi Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100038, China.
    Background: Dexmedetomidine has been shown to confer direct renoprotection by stabilizing the sympathetic system, exerting anti-inflammatory effects and attenuating ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in preclinical studies. Results from clinical trials of dexmedetomidine on acute kidney injury (AKI) following adult cardiac surgery are controversial.

    Methods: We searched EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the renal effect of dexmedetomidine versus placebo or other anesthetic drugs in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Read More

    Morbidity in congenital heart surgery in a public hospital in Argentina.
    Arch Argent Pediatr 2018 Feb;116(1):e14-e18
    Servicio de Cirugía Cardiovascular,Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan", Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Objective: To describe the complications associated with heart surgery, compare them to a reference population, and identify mortality risk factors.

    Patients And Methods: Retrospective and descriptive study. All patients who underwent surgery at Hospital Garrahan in the 2013-2015 period were included. Read More

    Factors associated with waiting time on the liver transplant list: an analysis of the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database.
    Ann Gastroenterol 2018 Jan-Feb;31(1):84-89. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.
    Background: Liver transplantation (LT) is an important treatment for acute liver failure and end-stage liver disease. In 2002, the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was incorporated to prioritize patients awaiting LT. Although there is data on how the MELD score affects waiting times, there is a paucity of literature regarding other components. Read More

    Potential factors that impact the radon level and the prediction of ambient dose equivalent rates of indoor microenvironments.
    Sci Total Environ 2018 Jan 11;626:1-10. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Centre for Tropical Climate Change System, Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
    This study aimed to measure the equilibrium equivalent radon (EECRn) concentration in an old building (Building-1) and a new building (Building-2) with mechanical ventilation and a natural ventilation system, respectively. Both buildings were located at the campus of University Kebangsaan Malaysia. The concentration of indoor radon was measured at 25 sampling stations using a radon detector model DOSEman PRO. Read More

    Predictors of severe postoperative hyperglycemia after cardiac surgery in infants: a single-center, retrospective, observational study.
    J Anesth 2018 Jan 12. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Anesthesiology, Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama, Japan.
    Purpose: Hyperglycemia is a common issue in infants after cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease. Poor glycemic control is suspected to be associated with adverse postoperative outcomes. This study was performed to investigate clinical factors contributing to hyperglycemia in the perioperative period in infats. Read More

    Predicting Extubation Outcomes-A Model Incorporating Heart Rate Characteristics Index.
    J Pediatr 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Singleton Hospital, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Objective: To test the hypothesis that in neonates on mechanical ventilation, heart rate characteristics index (HRCi) can be combined with a clinical model for predicting extubation outcomes in neonates.

    Study Design: HRCi and clinical data for all intended intubation-extubation events (episodes) were retrospectively analyzed between June 2014 and January 2015. Each episode started 6 hours pre-extubation or at the time of primary intubation if ventilation duration was shorter than 6 hours (baseline). Read More

    Prognostic factors of noninvasive mechanical ventilation in lung cancer patients with acute respiratory failure.
    PLoS One 2018 12;13(1):e0191204. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Introduction: Few studies have reported outcomes of lung cancer patients with acute respiratory failure (RF) using noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors in these patients.

    Materials And Methods: This retrospective observational study included all hospitalized lung cancer patients who received NIPPV for acute RF. Read More

    A Systematic Review of Risk Factors Associated With Cognitive Impairment After Pediatric Critical Illness.
    Pediatr Crit Care Med 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
    Objectives: To identify risk factors associated with cognitive impairment as assessed by neuropsychologic tests in neurotypical children after critical illness.

    Data Sources: For this systematic review, we searched the Cochrane Library, Scopus, PubMed, Ovid, Embase, and CINAHL databases from January 1960 to March 2017.

    Study Selection: Included were studies with subjects 3-18 years old at the time of post PICU follow-up evaluation and use of an objective standardized neuropsychologic test with at least one cognitive functioning dimension. Read More

    Severe peri-ictal respiratory dysfunction is common in Dravet syndrome.
    J Clin Invest 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe childhood-onset epilepsy commonly due to mutations of the sodium channel gene SCN1A. DS patients have a high risk of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP), believed to be due to cardiac mechanisms. Here we show that DS patients have peri-ictal respiratory dysfunction. Read More

    Man behind the laryngoscopy is important.
    J Perioper Pract 2017 Mar;27(3):49-53
    Furness General Hospital, Barrow-in-Furness, UK.
    Tracheal intubation is the most fundamental and effective resuscitation skill in many emergency situations. It is also performed to facilitate various surgical procedures and mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients. Tracheal intubation is also one of the most commonly taught clinical skills. Read More

    Variability in Tidal Volume Affects Lung and Cardiovascular Function Differentially in a Rat Model of Experimental Emphysema.
    Front Physiol 2017 18;8:1071. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Laboratory of Pulmonary Investigation, Carlos Chagas Filho Biophysics Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    In experimental elastase-induced emphysema, mechanical ventilation with variable tidal volumes (VT) set to 30% coefficient of variation (CV) may result in more homogenous ventilation distribution, but might also impair right heart function. We hypothesized that a different CV setting could improve both lung and cardiovascular function. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different levels of VT variability on cardiorespiratory function, lung histology, and gene expression of biomarkers associated with inflammation, fibrogenesis, epithelial cell damage, and mechanical cell stress in this emphysema model. Read More

    Use of Dexmedetomidine in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia.
    J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2017 Dec 2. Epub 2017 Dec 2.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón. (IiSGM), Madrid, Spain.
    Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective α2-adrenergic agonist with analgesic and sedative properties. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of the drug for short-lasting sedation (24 h) in intensive care units (ICUs) in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation and endotracheal intubation. In October 2008, the Food and Drug Administration extended use of the drug for the sedation of nonintubated patients before and during surgical and nonsurgical procedures. Read More

    Single-Center Experience With Venovenous ECMO for Influenza-Related ARDS.
    J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Shock Trauma Critical Care, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.
    Objectives: This study was designed to determine whether venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) reduced mortality in patients with influenza-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

    Design: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Baseline characteristics of participants were compared and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare survival at last medical center follow-up. Read More

    Characteristics and outcomes of children with ductal-dependent congenital heart disease and esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula: A multi-institutional analysis.
    Surgery 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Section of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Extracardiac birth defects are associated with worse outcomes in congenital heart disease (CHD). The impact of esophageal atresia/trachea-esophageal fistula (EA/TEF) on outcomes after surgery for ductal-dependent CHD is unknown.

    Methods: Retrospective matched cohort study using the Pediatric Health Information System database from 07/2004 to 06/2015. Read More

    Induced hypothermia in patients with septic shock and respiratory failure (CASS): a randomised, controlled, open-label trial.
    Lancet Respir Med 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Centre of Excellence in Immunity and Infection/Centre of Excellence for Personalised Medicine of Infectious Complications in Immune Deficiency, Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Respiratory Medicine Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark. Electronic address:
    Background: Animal models of serious infection suggest that 24 h of induced hypothermia improves circulatory and respiratory function and reduces mortality. We tested the hypothesis that a reduction of core temperature to 32-34°C attenuates organ dysfunction and reduces mortality in ventilator-dependent patients with septic shock.

    Methods: In this randomised, controlled, open-label trial, we recruited patients from ten intensive care units (ICUs) in three countries in Europe and North America. Read More

    High frequency percussive ventilation increases alveolar recruitment in early acute respiratory distress syndrome: an experimental, physiological and CT scan study.
    Crit Care 2018 Jan 11;22(1). Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Departement de Médecine Périopératoire (MPO), Hôpital Estaing, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Clermont-Ferrand, 1 place Lucie Aubrac, Clermont-Ferrand, F-63003, France.
    Background: High frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) combines diffusive (high frequency mini-bursts) and convective ventilation patterns. Benefits include enhanced oxygenation and hemodynamics, and alveolar recruitment, while providing hypothetic lung-protective ventilation. No study has investigated HFPV-induced changes in lung aeration in patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Read More

    Effects of underwater bubble CPAP on very-low-birth-weight preterm newborns in the delivery room and after transport to the neonatal intensive care unit.
    J Child Health Care 2018 Jan 1:1367493517752500. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    4 Augusto Motta University Center, Avenida Paris, Bonsucesso, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    The development of less invasive ventilatory strategies in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm newborns has been a growing concern in recent decades. This study aimed to measure differences in the clinical progression of preterm newborns using two distinct periods in a university hospital: before and after using underwater bubble continuous positive airway pressure (ubCPAP). This is a retrospective study of VLBW preterm newborns with gestational ages less than or equal to 32 weeks admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Read More

    Effects of pressure support ventilation on ventilator-induced lung injury in mild acute respiratory distress syndrome depend on level of positive end-expiratory pressure.
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    From the Laboratory of Pulmonary Investigation, Carlos Chagas Filho Biophysics Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (PAFM, GAP, LM, CLS, LAM, CLB, PRMR, PLS), Graduate Program in Maternal and Child Health, Professor Fernando Figueira Institute of Comprehensive Medicine, Recife, Pernambuco (PAFM, MCMBD, LBA), Faculty of Medicine, Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (CLS, AS), Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (VLC), Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Therapy, Pulmonary Engineering Group, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus (RH, MGA), Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany (RH, MGA) and Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy (PP).
    Background: Harmful effects of spontaneous breathing have been shown in experimental severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, in the clinical setting, spontaneous respiration has been indicated only in mild ARDS. To date, no study has compared the effects of spontaneous assisted breathing with those of fully controlled mechanical ventilation at different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on lung injury in ARDS. Read More

    Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Refractory Severe Respiratory Failure in Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.
    Artif Organs 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Emergency and Intensive Care Medicine, Centro Hospitalar S. João, Porto, Portugal.
    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) is a rare idiopathic interstitial lung disease with rapid progressive respiratory failure and high mortality. In the present report, three cases of AIP complicated by refractory respiratory failure supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are presented. One male and two female patients (ages 27-59) were included. Read More

    Are platelet volume indices related to mortality in hospitalized children on mechanical ventilation?
    J Int Med Res 2018 Jan 1:300060517737211. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    1 Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, 37066 The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine , Hangzhou, China.
    Objectives To investigate platelet volume indices and in-hospital mortality in children on mechanical ventilation. Methods This retrospective study included children aged <16 years on mechanical ventilation, and compared parameters, measured on admission, between survivors and non-survivors. Dynamic platelet volume indices over the first 7 days were visualized. Read More

    Do the Risk Factors Determine the Severity and Outcome of Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis?
    Transl Stroke Res 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Raebareli Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 226014, India.
    We report the burden of risk factors in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) and its relationship with the clinical severity, extent of MRI and MRV abnormality, and outcome. One hundred and twenty-eight consecutive patients with CVST were included. Their demographic, presenting symptoms and neurological findings were noted and risk factors of CVST were evaluated. Read More

    Increased Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase Activity Is Associated With Poor Clinical Outcome in Adults Hospitalized With Influenza in the INSIGHT FLU003Plus Study.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Jan 25;5(1):ofx228. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
    Background: Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) mediated tryptophan (TRP) depletion has antimicrobial and immuno-regulatory effects. Increased kynurenine (KYN)-to-TRP (KT) ratios, reflecting increased IDO activity, have been associated with poorer outcomes from several infections.

    Methods: We performed a case-control (1:2; age and sex matched) analysis of adults hospitalized with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with protocol-defined disease progression (died/transferred to ICU/mechanical ventilation) after enrollment (cases) or survived without progression (controls) over 60 days of follow-up. Read More

    Desquamative interstitial pneumonia complicated by diffuse alveolar haemorrhage.
    Respirol Case Rep 2018 Feb 22;6(2):e00291. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Neurology, Respirology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MiyazakiMiyazakiJapan.
    We report a rare case of desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) with diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH). A 56-year-old man diagnosed with DIP by surgical lung biopsy 2 years ago was admitted to our hospital because of severe acute respiratory failure. The DIP had progressed despite smoking cessation. Read More

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