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    Intracranial pressure monitoring in severe blunt head trauma: does the type of monitoring device matter?
    J Neurosurg 2017 May 26:1-6. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Division of Acute Care Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.
    OBJECTIVE Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has become the standard of care in the management of severe head trauma. Intraventricular devices (IVDs) and intraparenchymal devices (IPDs) are the 2 most commonly used techniques for ICP monitoring. Despite the widespread use of these devices, very few studies have investigated the effect of device type on outcomes. Read More

    A Systematic Review of Alpha-2 Agonists for Sedation in Mechanically Ventilated Neurocritical Care Patients.
    Neurocrit Care 2017 May 25. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Clinical Epidemiology Program (CEP), Centre for Practice-Changing Research, The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute-General Campus, 501 Smyth Road, 201B, Ottawa, ON, K1H 8L6, Canada.
    The use of sedative medications is commonplace in intensive care units (ICUs) and an invaluable clinical tool for the intensive care physician. Sedation for critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients provides an opportunity to reduce anxiety, discomfort as well as ventilator intolerance and dyssynchrony. Alpha-2 agonists in particular have become increasingly popular for use in the neurocritical care population due to their proposed effectiveness in facilitating examinations and procedures as well as reducing the need for adjunctive agents. Read More

    Pediatric ARDS.
    Respir Care 2017 Jun;62(6):718-731
    Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.
    The Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference (PALICC) has provided the critical care community with the first pediatric-focused definition for ARDS. The PALICC recommendations provide guidance on conventional ventilator management, gas exchange goals, use of high-frequency ventilation, adjunct management approaches, and the application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for pediatric ARDS (PARDS). Although outcomes for PARDS have improved over the past decade, mortality and morbidity remain significant. Read More

    Noninvasive Respiratory Support in Infants and Children.
    Respir Care 2017 Jun;62(6):699-717
    Pediatric Respiratory Therapy, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
    CPAP and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) offer an alternative to intubation and mechanical ventilation in the treatment of acute and chronic respiratory disorders commonly encountered in infants and children. There are many distinct challenges associated with the application, management, and safety of CPAP and NIV in the pediatric population. This review attempts to identify indications, contraindications, management strategies, and safety measures associated with the application of CPAP or NIV delivery in children. Read More

    Recognition and treatment of sleep-disordered breathing: an important component of chronic disease management.
    J Transl Med 2017 May 25;15(1):114. Epub 2017 May 25.
    ResMed Science Center, Sydney, Australia.
    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a highly prevalent condition, and is associated with many debilitating chronic diseases. The role of untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in arterial hypertension has been recognized in international guidelines. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is associated with clinically-relevant reductions in blood pressure. Read More

    Obstructive sleep apnea in Down syndrome: Benefits of surgery and noninvasive respiratory support.
    Am J Med Genet A 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    AP-HP, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Pediatric Noninvasive Ventilation and Sleep Unit, Paris, France.
    Children with Down syndrome are at increased risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of the study was to describe the management of OSA in a large cohort of children with Down syndrome. A retrospective analysis of sleep studies and consequent management was performed for all consecutive Down syndrome patients evaluated between September 2013 and April 2016. Read More

    Prevalence of and risk factors for intraoperative gastroesophageal reflux and postanesthetic vomiting and diarrhea in dogs undergoing general anesthesia.
    J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Servei d'Anestèsia i Cirurgia, Fundació Hospital Clínic Veterinari and Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals.
    Objective: To determine the prevalence of intraoperative gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and postanesthetic vomiting and diarrhea, and to evaluate risk factors associated with these gastrointestinal disorders (GID) in dogs undergoing general anesthesia.

    Design: Prospective observational study.

    Setting: University teaching hospital. Read More

    Is survival improved by the use of NIV and PEG in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? A post-mortem study of 80 ALS patients.
    PLoS One 2017 23;12(5):e0177555. Epub 2017 May 23.
    ALS Clinic/Neuromuscular Diseases Unit, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Background: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) are guideline-recommended interventions for symptom management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Their effect on survival is controversial and the impact on causes of death is unknown.

    Objective: To investigate the effect of NIV and PEG on survival and causes of death in ALS patients. Read More

    Virtual Spirometry and Activity Monitoring Using Multichannel Electrical Impedance Plethysmographs in Ambulatory Settings.
    IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Continuous monitoring of respiratory patterns and physical activity levels can be useful for remote health management of patients with conditions such as heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In a clinical setting, spirometers serve as the gold standard for monitoring respiratory patterns such as breathing rate and changes in lung volume. However, direct measurements using a spirometer requires placement of a sensor in the patient's airway and is thus infeasible for continuous monitoring in nonclinical, ambulatory settings. Read More

    The effectiveness of myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion versus observation in post-radiation otitis media with effusion.
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, 1873 Rama 4 Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.
    To compare the effectiveness of myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion versus observation in post-radiation otitis media with effusion (OME) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). NPC patients who finished radiotherapy and had persistent OME were randomized to myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion and observation groups. The resolution rate of OME and hearing outcomes were evaluated. Read More

    [Anesthesia management in robotic-assisted esophagectomy with triple incisions: analysis of 53 cases].
    Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2017 May;37(5):712-714
    Department of Anesthesiology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center/State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China/Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou 510060, China.E-mail:
    Between March, 2016 and January, 2017, 53 patients underwent robotic-assisted esophagectomy with triple incisions. All the patients were intubated with Double lumen endotracheal tub with one-lung ventilation and CO2 pneumoperitoneum, and CO2 pneumothorax was used in 7 cases. Most of the patients could tolerate OLV and CO2 pneumoperitoneum, and 4 patients with CO2 pneumothorax had hypoxemia and required double-lung ventilation or high frequency ventilation; 15 patients developed postoperative pulmonary complications and were transferred to ICU. Read More

    Nasal high flow in management of children with status asthmaticus: a retrospective observational study.
    Ann Intensive Care 2017 Dec 22;7(1):55. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Réanimation pédiatrique, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69500, Bron, France.
    Background: Asthma is the most common obstructive airway disease in children and adults. Nasal high flow (NHF) is a recent device that is now used as a primary support for respiratory distress. Several studies have reported use of NHF as a respiratory support in status asthmaticus; however, there are no data to recommend such practice. Read More

    How do disturbances and climate effects on carbon and water fluxes differ between multi-aged and even-aged coniferous forests?
    Sci Total Environ 2017 May 18;599-600:1583-1597. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3100, USA.
    Disturbances and climatic changes significantly affect forest ecosystem productivity, water use efficiency (WUE) and carbon (C) flux dynamics. A deep understanding of terrestrial feedbacks to such effects and recovery mechanisms in forests across contrasting climatic regimes is essential to predict future regional/global C and water budgets, which are also closely related to the potential forest management decisions. However, the resilience of multi-aged and even-aged forests to disturbances has been debated for >60years because of technical measurement constraints. Read More

    Difficult Management of a Double-Lumen Endotracheal Tube and Difficult Ventilation during Robotic Thymectomy with Carbon Dioxide Insufflation.
    Case Rep Surg 2017 26;2017:3403045. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan.
    Robotic surgery with carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation to the thorax is frequently performed to gain a better operative field of view, although its intraoperative complications have not yet been discussed in detail. We treated two patients with difficult ventilation caused by distal migration of a double-lumen endotracheal tube (DLT) during robotic thymectomy. In the first case, migration of the DLT during one-lung ventilation (OLV) occurred after CO2 insufflation to the bilateral thoraxes was started. Read More

    Determination of the appropriate oropharyngeal airway size in adults: Assessment using ventilation and an endoscopic view.
    Am J Emerg Med 2017 Apr 14. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Size 9 and 8 airways for men and women, respectively, have been proposed as most appropriate based on endoscopy. However, a limitation of this guideline is that ventilation was not assessed.

    Methods: In this retrospective review of prospectively collected data, 149 patients requiring tracheal intubation for general anesthesia were included. Read More

    Experimental evaluation of four airway devices in anaesthetized New Zealand White rabbits.
    Vet Anaesth Analg 2017 Jan 11. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Division of Anaesthesiology, Equine Department, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Objective: To compare airway management during induction of anaesthesia, spontaneous ventilation (SV) and controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV), using an endotracheal tube (ETT), laryngeal mask (LM), rabbit-specific supraglottic airway device (v-gel) or facemask (FM).

    Study Design: Prospective randomized crossover experiment.

    Animals: Ten New Zealand White rabbits. Read More

    Intraoperative mechanical ventilation: state of the art.
    Minerva Anestesiol 2017 May 19. Epub 2017 May 19.
    IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy -
    Mechanical ventilation is a cornerstone of the intraoperative management of the surgical patient and is still mandatory in several surgical procedures. In the last decades, research focused on preventing postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), both improving risk stratification through the use of predictive scores and protecting the lung adopting so-called protective ventilation strategies. The aim of this review is to give an up-to-date overview of the currently suggested intraoperative ventilation strategies, along with their pathophysiologic rationale, with a focus on challenging conditions, such as obesity, one-lung ventilation and cardiopulmonary bypass. Read More

    [Selective lobar blockade with a Coopdech blocker combined with a double-lumen endotracheal tube for lung metastases resection by laser].
    Rev Bras Anestesiol 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Departamento de Anestesiología, Madrid, Espanha.
    In recent years, laser resection of lung metastases has been established as the standard procedure worldwide. To avoid airway fire, it is necessary to collapse the surgical lung. The selective lobar bronchial blockade is a technique that allows one-lung ventilation while the operated lobe is collapsed in patients with previous pulmonary resection requiring subsequent resection or with limited pulmonary reserve. Read More

    Analgesic Choice in Management of Rib Fractures: Paravertebral Block or Epidural Analgesia?
    Anesth Analg 2017 Jun;124(6):1906-1911
    From the Department of Surgery, Section of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, Pennsylvania.
    Background: Rib fractures are commonly encountered in the setting of trauma. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the clinical outcome of rib fracture and epidural analgesia (EA) versus paravertebral block (PVB) using the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB).

    Methods: Using the 2011 and 2012 versions of the NTDB, we retrieved completed records for all patients above 18 years of age who were admitted with rib fractures. Read More

    An International Survey on Ventilator Practices Among Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Centers.
    ASAIO J 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    From the *Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; †Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas; ‡Children's Medical Center at Dallas part of Children's HealthSM, Dallas, Texas; §University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas; and ¶University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas.
    Although the optimal ventilation strategy is unknown for patients placed on extracorporeal support, there are increasing reports of extubation being used. Our objective is to describe the change in ventilation strategies and use of tracheostomy and bronchoscopy practices among extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) centers across the world. A descriptive, cross-sectional 22 item survey of neonatal, pediatric, and adult ECMO centers was used to evaluate ventilator strategies, extubation, bronchoscopy, and tracheostomy practices. Read More

    Penetrating Craniomaxillofacial Injury Caused by a Pneumatic Nail Gun.
    Craniomaxillofac Trauma Reconstr 2017 Jun 27;10(2):159-161. Epub 2016 Jun 27.
    Division of Plastic, Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.
    Craniomaxillofacial injuries can be complex, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. The primary survey is always the first step in trauma management prior to proceeding with further evaluation and treatment. A 26-year-old man presented with a penetrating nail gun injury through the oral and nasal cavities. Read More

    Cerebral air embolism associated with penetrating lung injury: a case report and review of the literature.
    Acute Med Surg 2017 Apr 10;4(2):213-216. Epub 2016 Nov 10.
    Department of Diagnostic RadiologySapporo Medical UniversitySapporoHokkaidoJapan.
    Case: A 44-year-old man intentionally stabbed himself in the anterior neck and left thorax with a fruit knife. Physical examination revealed two open wounds entering the thoracic cavity in the front chest, and a stab wound entering the trachea at the neck. Two chest tubes were initially inserted for the left lung injury with open hemopneumothorax. Read More

    Effect of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus infection on leaf photosynthetic characteristics and resource-use efficiency of Pinus massoniana.
    Ecol Evol 2017 May 6;7(10):3455-3463. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Beijing Key Laboratory for Forest Pest ControlBeijing Forestry UniversityBeijingChina.
    Pine wilt disease (PWD) is considered as the most destructive forest-invasive alien species in China. We measured gas exchange parameters and foliar carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) of different infection phases of Masson pine in order to investigate the effect of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus infection on photosynthetic responses and resource-use efficiency. The results showed that net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (T), stomatal conductance (gs), and internal CO 2 concentrations (Ci) decreased in the infested trees at photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) levels from 0 to 2,000 μmol m(-2) s(-1) compared with controls. Read More

    Lung function imaging methods in Cystic Fibrosis pulmonary disease.
    Respir Res 2017 May 17;18(1):96. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, 3800, Australia.
    Monitoring of pulmonary physiology is fundamental to the clinical management of patients with Cystic Fibrosis. The current standard clinical practise uses spirometry to assess lung function which delivers a clinically relevant functional readout of total lung function, however does not supply any visible or localised information. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is a well-established current 'gold standard' method for monitoring lung anatomical changes in Cystic Fibrosis patients. Read More

    Impact of physician education and availability of parameters regarding esophageal pressure and transpulmonary pressure on clinical decisions involving ventilator management.
    J Crit Care 2017 Apr 18;41:112-118. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, St. Marianna University Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan.
    Purpose: This study investigated the effects of physician education and the availability of Peso and PL data on physicians' decisions regarding ventilator management during specific simulated clinical conditions.

    Materials And Methods: The study was a prospective, before-after study using a case scenario-based questionnaire and a case simulator device comprising an Avea ventilator and an artificial lung and esophagus, which was connected to a Series 1101 Electronic Breathing Simulator. The 99 physicians participating in the study were provided with five simulated cases with on-time ventilator graphics without Peso and PL and completed a questionnaire on decisions they would make regarding ventilator management of the cases. Read More

    Application of end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring via distal gas samples in ventilated neonates.
    Pediatr Neonatol 2017 Apr 12. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.
    Background: Previous research has suggested correlations between the end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2) and the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in mechanically ventilated patients, but both the relationship between PETCO2 and PaCO2 and whether PETCO2 accurately reflects PaCO2 in neonates and infants are still controversial. This study evaluated remote sampling of PETCO2 via an epidural catheter within an endotracheal tube to determine the procedure's clinical safety and efficacy in the perioperative management of neonates.

    Methods: Abdominal surgery was performed under general anesthesia in 86 full-term newborns (age 1-30 days, weight 2. Read More

    Clinical Profile and Outcome of Newborns with Acute Kidney Injury in a Level 3 Neonatal Unit in Western India.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Mar 1;11(3):SC01-SC04. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Professor, Department of Paediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Gujarat, India.
    Introduction: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a serious condition in neonatal care. It complicates the management necessitating the restrictive use of medications.

    Aim: To evaluate clinical profile, identify associated and prog-nostic factors in newborns with AKI. Read More

    Gender Linked Metric Analysis of Portal Vein: A Sonographic Appraisal.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Mar 1;11(3):AC13-AC15. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    Introduction: Portal hypertension is one of the most mystifying and disconcerting abdominal ailment. Ultrasonography (USG) is an effective diagnostic tool for its prompt management. Knowledge of normal calibre of portal vein in a local setting is essential as literature reports contrasting values in different regions. Read More

    Dose of antivenom for the treatment of snakebite with neurotoxic envenoming: Evidence from a randomised controlled trial in Nepal.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 16;11(5):e0005612. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Division of Tropical and Humanitarian Medicine, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: Currently, there is inadequate evidence on which to base clinical management of neurotoxic snakebite envenoming, especially in the choice of initial antivenom dosage. This randomised controlled trial compared the effectiveness and safety of high versus low initial antivenom dosage in victims of neurotoxic envenoming.

    Methodology/ Principal Findings: This was a balanced, randomised, double-blind trial that was conducted in three health care centers located in the Terai plains of Nepal. Read More

    Mechanical ventilation in the acute respiratory distress syndrome.
    Hosp Pract (1995) 2017 May 23:1-11. Epub 2017 May 23.
    b Division of Cardiology , Westchester Medical Center, New York Medical College , Valhalla , NY , USA.
    The management of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patient is fundamental to the field of intensive care medicine, and it presents unique challenges owing to the specialized mechanical ventilation techniques that such patients require. ARDS is a highly lethal disease, and there is compelling evidence that mechanical ventilation itself, if applied in an injurious fashion, can be a contributor to ARDS mortality. Therefore, it is imperative for any clinician central to the care of ARDS patients to understand the fundamental framework that underpins the approach to mechanical ventilation in this special scenario. Read More

    Dietary Factors Promoting Brown and Beige Fat Development and Thermogenesis.
    Adv Nutr 2017 May 15;8(3):473-483. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE; and
    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that has a high capacity to dissociate cellular respiration from ATP utilization, resulting in the release of stored energy as heat. Adult humans possess a substantial amount of BAT in the form of constitutively active brown fat or inducible beige fat. BAT activity in humans is inversely correlated with adiposity, blood glucose concentrations, and insulin sensitivity; this suggests that strategies aimed at BAT-mediated bioenergetics are an attractive therapeutic target in combating the continuing epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Read More

    [The role of extracorporeal removal of CO2 (ECCO2R) in the management of respiratory diseases].
    Rev Mal Respir 2017 May 12. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Service de réanimation médicale, hôpital européen Georges-Pompidou, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 75015 Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75006 Paris, France.
    Introduction: The aim of extracorporeal removal of CO2 (ECCO2R) is to ensure the removal of CO2 without any significant effect on oxygenation. ECCO2R makes use of low to moderate extracorporeal blood flow rates, whereas extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) requires high blood flows.

    State Of The Art: For each ECCO2R device it is important to consider not only performance in terms of CO2 removal, but also cost and safety, including the incidence of hemolysis and of hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications. Read More

    [Research advances in noninvasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in neonates].
    Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 May;19(5):607-611
    Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 201102, China.
    Noninvasive ventilation is an important respiratory management technique for the treatment of mild or moderate respiratory failure in the neonatal intensive care unit. Its reasonable application can effectively avoid the use of invasive ventilation and related complications. Recent studies have found that noninvasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation has the advantages of both nasal continuous positive airway pressure and high-frequency ventilation and can rapidly improve oxygenation, effectively remove carbon dioxide, and improve respiratory failure. Read More

    Pulmonary Involvement in Adult Patients with Inborn Errors of Metabolism.
    Respiration 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Center for Molecular Diseases, Division of Genetic Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are rare individually, but taken together, they affect 1 in 1,000 people. Most of the disease becomes apparent at the pediatric age; however, with the identification of late-onset forms, and with improved survival, several of these conditions may be found in adults of all ages. While the lung is not typically a primary site of clinical disease in patients with IEM, in some of them it can be a significantly affected organ with associated severe respiratory complications. Read More

    Respiratory support techniques to avoid desaturation in critically ill patients requiring endotracheal intubation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    J Crit Care 2017 May 8;41:98-106. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Department of Biopathology and Medical Biotechnologies (DIBIMED), Section of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Intensive Care and Emergency, University Hospital Paolo Giaccone, University of Palermo, Via del vespro 129, 90127 Palermo, Italy.
    Purpose: To evaluate which respiratory support method for critically ill patients undergoing endotracheal intubation (ETI) is associated with less desaturation.

    Methods: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and CINAHL databases. We included randomized (RCT) and non-randomized (non-RCT) studies investigating any method of respiratory support before/during ETI compared to a reference control. Read More

    Rapid deployment of a mobile biosafety level-3 laboratory in Sierra Leone during the 2014 Ebola virus epidemic.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 15;11(5):e0005622. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Changchun Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Changchun, Jilin, China.
    Background: Ebola virus emerged in West Africa in December 2013. The high population mobility and poor public health infrastructure in this region led to the development of the largest Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak to date.

    Methodology/principal Findings: On September 26, 2014, China dispatched a Mobile Biosafety Level-3 Laboratory (MBSL-3 Lab) and a well-trained diagnostic team to Sierra Leone to assist in EVD diagnosis using quantitative real-time PCR, which allowed the diagnosis of suspected EVD cases in less than 4 hours from the time of sample receiving. Read More

    Lung Rest During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Neonatal Respiratory Failure-Practice Variations and Outcomes.
    Pediatr Crit Care Med 2017 May 12. Epub 2017 May 12.
    1Department of Pediatrics, Nemours, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE. 2Center for Pediatric Lung Research, Nemours, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE. 3Department of Pediatrics, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA. 4Biostatistics Core, Nemours, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE. 5Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.
    Objective: Describe practice variations in ventilator strategies used for lung rest during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure in neonates, and assess the potential impact of various lung rest strategies on the duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the duration of mechanical ventilation after decannulation.

    Data Sources: Retrospective cohort analysis from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry database during the years 2008-2013.

    Study Selection: All extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs for infants less than or equal to 30 days of life for pulmonary reasons were included. Read More

    Characteristics, in-hospital management and outcome of late acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction presenters.
    J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2017 May 12. Epub 2017 May 12.
    aInterventional Cardiology Unit, San Luigi Gonzaga University Hospital, Orbassano and Rivoli Hospital, Rivoli (Turin) bDivision of Cardiology, Maria Vittoria Hospital, Turin, Italy.
    Background: Patients with delayed presentation of acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation (STEMI) frequently have a poor prognosis but literature about acute complications in intensive cardiac care unit (ICCU) and in-hospital outcome are still limited.

    Methods: All STEMI patients admitted to our institution between June 2007 and December 2013 were divided into patients presenting more than 12 h after symptom onset (lateSTEMI) and within 12 h (STEMI). Baselines clinical features including details about treatment of choice were collected. Read More

    Home high-flow nasal cannula as a treatment for severe tracheomalacia: A pediatric case report.
    Pediatr Pulmonol 2017 May 15. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
    Tracheomalacia refers to a softness of the tracheal cartilage that makes the airway more susceptible to collapse. In contrast to milder cases where conservative therapy is preferred, severe tracheomalacia is often a life threatening condition requiring more aggressive management. For children with this condition, a variety of treatment options are available. Read More

    How to decrease bronchopulmonary dysplasia in your neonatal intensive care unit today and "tomorrow".
    F1000Res 2017 21;6:539. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Section of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, St. Christopher's Hospital for Children, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or BPD, is the most common chronic lung disease in infants. Genetic predisposition and developmental vulnerability secondary to antenatal and postnatal infections, compounded with exposure to hyperoxia and invasive mechanical ventilation to an immature lung, result in persistent inflammation, culminating in the characteristic pulmonary phenotype of BPD of impaired alveolarization and dysregulated vascularization. In this article, we highlight specific areas in current management, and speculate on therapeutic strategies that are on the horizon, that we believe will make an impact in decreasing the incidence of BPD in your neonatal intensive care units. Read More

    Organic carbon pools and soil biological fertility are affected by land use intensity in Mediterranean ecosystems of Sardinia, Italy.
    Sci Total Environ 2017 May 9;599-600:789-796. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l'analisi dell'economia agraria, Centro di Ricerca Agricoltura e Ambiente, Via della Navicella 2-4, 00184 Rome, Italy.
    Soil quality is mainly studied from the chemical and physical point of view, whereas soil biochemical and microbiological parameters are relatively more scarcely explored to assess the effect of management practices. This study aimed to evaluate soil organic carbon (SOC) and its pools; soil microbial activity parameters; and the Biological Fertility Index (BFI), in six land uses characteristics of the Mediterranean basin in north-eastern Sardinia. These land uses differed in management intensity and consisted of: tilled vineyard (TV), no tilled grassed vineyard (GV), former vineyards (FV), hay crop and pasture (HC and PA), cork oak forest (CO). Read More

    A greenhouse gas source of surprising significance: anthropogenic CO2 emissions from use of methanol in sewage treatment.
    Water Sci Technol 2017 May;75(9):1997-2012
    Advanced Water Management Center, The University of Queensland, Gehrmann Building - Level 4, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia E-mail:
    The impact of methanol (CH3OH) as a source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) in denitrification at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has never been quantified. CH3OH is the most commonly purchased carbon source for sewage denitrification. Until recently, greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting protocols consistently ignored the liberation of anthropogenic CO2 attributable to CH3OH. Read More

    Intrapulmonary Percussive Ventilation as an Airway Clearance Technique during Venoarterial Extracorporeal Life Support in an Infant with Pertussis.
    Front Pediatr 2017 27;5:99. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA.
    Initiation of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is often followed by complete opacification of pulmonary parenchyma and volume loss. The optimal mechanical ventilator management and lung recruitment strategy of a pediatric patient requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is not known. We present a case of a 4-week old infant who developed a severe pertussis infection requiring ECLS. Read More

    Michaelis-Menten kinetics of soil respiration feedbacks to nitrogen deposition and climate change in subtropical forests.
    Sci Rep 2017 May 11;7(1):1752. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, USA.
    China experiences some of the highest rates of anthropogenic nitrogen deposition globally, with further increases projected. Understanding of soil feedbacks to the combined anthropogenic influences of climate change and nitrogen deposition in these systems is critical to improve predictive abilities for future climate scenarios. Here we used a Michaelis-Menten substrate-based kinetics framework to explore how soil CO2 production (Rsoil) responds to changes in temperature and available soil nitrogen (N) by combining field experiments with laboratory manipulations from sites experiencing elevated rates of anthropogenic N deposition but varying in soil N availabiltiy. Read More

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