93 results match your criteria Ventilation Graphics


Large difference between Enghoff and Bohr dead space in ventilated infants with hypoxemic respiratory failure.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Pediatrics, National Hospital Organization Maizuru Medical Center, Maizuru, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: Ventilated neonates with hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF) may show a ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) mismatch.

Objective: To evaluate the difference between the Bohr (V ) and Enghoff (V ) dead spaces in infants by using volumetric capnography based on ventilator graphics and capnograms.

Methods: This study enrolled 46 ventilated infants (mean birth weight, 2239 ± 640 g; mean gestational age, 35. Read More

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Ventilated Patients With COVID-19 Show Airflow Obstruction.

J Intensive Care Med 2021 Mar 11:8850666211000601. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Objective: Many patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) need mechanical ventilation secondary to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Information on the respiratory system mechanical characteristics of this disease is limited. The aim of this study is to describe the respiratory system mechanical properties of ventilated COVID-19 patients. Read More

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The Basics of Ventilator Waveforms.

Authors:
Elizabeth Emrath

Curr Pediatr Rep 2021 Jan 5:1-9. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 125 Doughty Street, MSC 917, Charleston, SC 29425 USA.

Purpose Of Review: Knowledge of ventilator waveforms is important for clinicians working with children requiring mechanical ventilation. This review covers the basics of how to interpret and use data from ventilator waveforms in the pediatric intensive care unit.

Recent Findings: Patient-ventilator asynchrony (PVA) is a common finding in pediatric patients and observed in approximately one-third of ventilator breaths. Read More

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January 2021

Optimization of mine ventilation network feature graph.

PLoS One 2020 16;15(11):e0242011. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Power China Hua Dong Engineering Corporation Limited, Zhejiang, Hangzhou, China.

A ventilation network feature graph can directly and quantitatively represent the features of a ventilation network. To ensure the stability of airflow in a mine and improve ventilation system analysis, we propose a new algorithm to draw ventilation network feature graphs. The independent path method serves as the algorithm's main frame, and an improved adaptive genetic algorithm is embedded so that the graph may be drawn better. Read More

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December 2020

Home mechanical ventilation: back to basics.

Acute Crit Care 2020 Aug 31;35(3):131-141. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Lane Fox Respiratory Service, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK.

Over recent decades, the use of home mechanical ventilation (HMV) has steadily increased worldwide, with varying prevalence in different countries. The key indication for HMV is chronic respiratory failure with alveolar hypoventilation (e.g. Read More

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Reduction in minute alveolar ventilation causes hypercapnia in ventilated neonates with respiratory distress.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Jan 3;180(1):241-246. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Pediatrics, National Hospital Organization Maizuru Medical Center, 2410 Yukinaga, Maizuru, Kyoto, 625-8502, Japan.

Hypercapnia occurs in ventilated infants even if tidal volume (V) and minute ventilation (V) are maintained. We hypothesised that increased physiological dead space (V) caused decreased minute alveolar ventilation (V; alveolar ventilation (V) × respiratory rate) in well-ventilated infants with hypercapnia. We investigated the relationship between dead space and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO) and assessed V. Read More

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January 2021

Ventilator Graphics: Scalars, Loops, & Secondary Measures.

Respir Care 2020 Jun;65(6):739-759

Department of Kinesiology, Respiratory Care Program, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina.

Ventilator graphic monitoring is common in ICUs. The graphic information provides clinicians with immediate clues regarding patient-ventilator interaction and ventilator function. These display tools are aimed at reducing complications associated with mechanical ventilation, such as patient-ventilator asynchrony. Read More

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Ventilated Infants Have Increased Dead Space and Lower Alveolar Tidal Volumes during the Early versus Recovery Phase of Respiratory Distress.

Neonatology 2020 11;117(2):189-192. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of Pediatrics, National Hospital Organization Maizuru Medical Center, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: Few studies have reported the measurement of anatomical dead space (Vd,an) and alveolar tidal volume (VA) in ventilated neonates with respiratory distress.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the differences in Vd,an and VA in ventilated infants between the early and recovery phases of respiratory distress using volumetric -capnography (Vcap) based on ventilator graphics and capnograms.

Methods: This study enrolled twenty-five ventilated infants (mean birth weight, 2,220 ± 635 g; mean gestational age, 34. Read More

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December 2019

Technical standards for respiratory oscillometry.

Eur Respir J 2020 02 27;55(2). Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Dept of Respiratory Medicine, Antwerp University Hospital and University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Oscillometry (also known as the forced oscillation technique) measures the mechanical properties of the respiratory system (upper and intrathoracic airways, lung tissue and chest wall) during quiet tidal breathing, by the application of an oscillating pressure signal (input or forcing signal), most commonly at the mouth. With increased clinical and research use, it is critical that all technical details of the hardware design, signal processing and analyses, and testing protocols are transparent and clearly reported to allow standardisation, comparison and replication of clinical and research studies. Because of this need, an update of the 2003 European Respiratory Society (ERS) technical standards document was produced by an ERS task force of experts who are active in clinical oscillometry research. Read More

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February 2020

Patient-ventilator asynchronies: types, outcomes and nursing detection skills.

Acta Biomed 2018 12 7;89(7-S):6-18. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Fondazione Poliambulanza Hospital, Brescia (Italy).

Background: Mechanical ventilation is often employed as partial ventilatory support where both the patient and the ventilator work together. The ventilator settings should be adjusted to maintain a harmonious patient-ventilator interaction. However, this balance is often altered by many factors able to generate a patient ventilator asynchrony (PVA). Read More

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December 2018

A framework for Fourier-decomposition free-breathing pulmonary H MRI ventilation measurements.

Magn Reson Med 2019 03 26;81(3):2135-2146. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: To develop a rapid Fourier decomposition (FD) free-breathing pulmonary H MRI (FDMRI) image processing and biomarker pipeline for research use.

Methods: We acquired MRI in 20 asthmatic subjects using a balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequence optimized for ventilation imaging. 2D H MRI series were segmented by enforcing the spatial similarity between adjacent images and the right-to-left lung volume-ratio. Read More

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[Hypophosphatemia is associated with poor prognosis of critically ill patients: a meta-analysis of 1 555 patients].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2018 Jan;30(1):34-40

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550004, Guizhou, China (Liu B, Cheng YM, Shen F, Wang YH, Wu YQ); Department of Intensive Care Unit, Second Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Kaili 556000, Guizhou, China (Yao L); Department of Intensive Care Unit, Fourth People's Hospital of Zhenjiang City, Zhenjiang 212000, Jiangsu, China (Liu YQ); Department of Oncology, Mineral Hospital of Liupanshui City, Liupanshui 553000, Guizhou, China (Gou XB). Corresponding author: Shen Feng, Email:

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between hypophosphatemia and prognosis in critically ill patients.

Methods: Some hypophosphatemia-associated prospective or retrospective clinical cohort studies were searched through CNKI, Wanfang Data, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, and Google Scholar English database respectively, with the guidance of these key words such as hypophosphatemia, intensive care, prognosis and fatality rate. The articles were concerned about the correlation between hypophosphatemia and the prognosis of patients in intensive care unit (ICU). Read More

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January 2018

Mechanically Ventilating the Severe Asthmatic.

J Intensive Care Med 2018 Sep 5;33(9):491-501. Epub 2017 Nov 5.

2 Department of Critical Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

The management of the critically ill patients with asthma can be rather challenging. Potentially devastating complications relating to this presentation include hypoxemia, worsening bronchospasm, pulmonary aspiration, tension pneumothorax, dynamic hyperinflation, hypotension, dysrhythmias, and seizures. In contrast to various other pathologies requiring mechanical ventilation, acute asthma is generally associated with better outcomes. Read More

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September 2018

Clinical management of pressure control ventilation: An algorithmic method of patient ventilatory management to address "forgotten but important variables".

J Crit Care 2018 Feb 6;43:169-182. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, 3-4-32 Todaijima, Urayasu City, Chiba 2790001, Japan.

Pressure controlled ventilation is a common mode of ventilation used to manage both adult and pediatric populations. However, there is very little evidence that distinguishes the efficacy of pressure controlled ventilation over that of volume controlled ventilation in the adult population. This gap in the literature may be due to the absence of a consistent and systematic algorithm for managing pressure controlled ventilation. Read More

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February 2018

Impact of physician education and availability of parameters regarding esophageal pressure and transpulmonary pressure on clinical decisions involving ventilator management.

J Crit Care 2017 10 18;41:112-118. Epub 2017 Apr 18.

Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, St. Marianna University Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan.

Purpose: This study investigated the effects of physician education and the availability of P and P data on physicians' decisions regarding ventilator management during specific simulated clinical conditions.

Materials And Methods: The study was a prospective, before-after study using a case scenario-based questionnaire and a case simulator device comprising an Avea ventilator and an artificial lung and esophagus, which was connected to a Series 1101 Electronic Breathing Simulator. The 99 physicians participating in the study were provided with five simulated cases with on-time ventilator graphics without P and P and completed a questionnaire on decisions they would make regarding ventilator management of the cases. Read More

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October 2017

Thoracic CT-MRI coregistration for regional pulmonary structure-function measurements of obstructive lung disease.

Med Phys 2017 May 11;44(5):1718-1733. Epub 2017 Apr 11.

Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.

Purpose: Recent pulmonary imaging research has revealed that in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, structural and functional abnormalities are spatially heterogeneous. This novel information may help optimize treatment in individual patients, monitor interventional efficacy, and develop new treatments. Moreover, by automating the measurement of regional biomarkers for the 19 different anatomical lung segments, there is an opportunity to embed imaging biomarkers into clinically acceptable clinical workflows and improve lung disease clinical care. Read More

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Ability of ICU Health-Care Professionals to Identify Patient-Ventilator Asynchrony Using Waveform Analysis.

Respir Care 2017 Feb 25;62(2):144-149. Epub 2016 Oct 25.

Department of Respiratory Care, University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas.

Background: Waveform analysis by visual inspection can be a reliable, noninvasive, and useful tool for detecting patient-ventilator asynchrony. However, it is a skill that requires a properly trained professional.

Methods: This observational study was conducted in 17 urban ICUs. Read More

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February 2017

Patient-Ventilator Interactions.

Clin Chest Med 2016 Dec 14;37(4):669-681. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Respiratory Care Services, Duke University Hospital, Box 3911 Duke North, Erwin Road, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Ventilatory muscle fatigue is a reversible loss of the ability to generate force or velocity of contraction in response to increased elastic and resistive loads. Mechanical ventilation should provide support without imposing additional loads from the ventilator (dys-synchrony). Interactive breaths optimize this relationship but require that patient effort and the ventilator response be synchronous during breath initiation, flow delivery, and termination. Read More

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December 2016

Trending autoregulatory indices during treatment for traumatic brain injury.

J Clin Monit Comput 2016 Dec 7;30(6):821-831. Epub 2015 Oct 7.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA.

Our goal is to use automatic data monitoring for reliable prediction of episodes of intracranial hypertension in patients with traumatic brain injury. Here we test the validity of our method on retrospective patient data. We developed the Continuous Hemodynamic Autoregulatory Monitor (CHARM), that siphons and stores signals from existing monitors in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU), efficiently compresses them, and standardizes the search for statistical relationships between any proposed index and adverse events. Read More

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December 2016

Ventilator graphics.

Minerva Pediatr 2016 Dec 8;68(6):456-469. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

Section of Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA -

Providing optimal mechanical ventilation to critically-ill children remains a challenge. Patient-ventilator dyssynchrony results frequently with numerous deleterious consequences on patient outcome including increased requirement for sedation, prolonged duration of ventilation, and greater imposed work of breathing. Most currently used ventilators have real-time, continuously-displayed graphics of pressure, volume, and flow versus time (scalars) as well as pressure, and flow versus volume (loops). Read More

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December 2016

Hypoxic events and concomitant factors in preterm infants on non-invasive ventilation.

J Clin Monit Comput 2017 Apr 20;31(2):427-433. Epub 2016 Feb 20.

Department of Paediatrics, Royal Hobart Hospital, Hobart, TAS, Australia.

Automated control of inspired oxygen for newborn infants is an emerging technology, currently limited by reliance on a single input signal (oxygen saturation, SpO). This is while other signals that may herald the onset of hypoxic events or identify spurious hypoxia are not usually utilised. We wished to assess the frequency of apnoea, loss of circuit pressure and/or motion artefact in proximity to hypoxic events in preterm infants on non-invasive ventilation. Read More

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Globally optimal co-segmentation of three-dimensional pulmonary ¹H and hyperpolarized ³He MRI with spatial consistence prior.

Med Image Anal 2015 Jul 17;23(1):43-55. Epub 2015 Apr 17.

Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada; Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada; Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Pulmonary imaging using hyperpolarized (3)He/(129)Xe gas is emerging as a new way to understand the regional nature of pulmonary ventilation abnormalities in obstructive lung diseases. However, the quantitative information derived is completely dependent on robust methods to segment both functional and structural/anatomical data. Here, we propose an approach to jointly segment the lung cavity from (1)H and (3)He pulmonary magnetic resonance images (MRI) by constraining the spatial consistency of the two segmentation regions, which simultaneously employs the image features from both modalities. Read More

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Real-time pulmonary graphics.

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2015 Jun 7;20(3):181-91. Epub 2015 Feb 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, C.S. Mott Children's Hospital, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Real-time pulmonary graphics now enable clinicians to view lung mechanics and patient-ventilator interactions on a breath-to-breath basis. Displays of pressure, volume, and flow waveforms, pressure-volume and flow-volume loops, and trend screens enable clinicians to customize ventilator settings based on the underlying pathophysiology and responses of the individual patient. This article reviews the basic concepts of pulmonary graphics and demonstrates how they contribute to our understanding of respiratory physiology and the management of neonatal respiratory failure. Read More

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Computational fluid dynamic modelling of the effect of ventilation mode and tracheal tube position on air flow in the large airways.

Anaesthesia 2015 May 8;70(5):577-84. Epub 2015 Jan 8.

School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

We have used computational fluid dynamic modelling to study the effects of tracheal tube size and position on regional gas flow in the large airways. Using a three-dimensional mathematical model, we simulated flow with and without a tracheal tube, replicating both physiological and artificial breathing. Ventilation through a tracheal tube increased proportional flow to the left lung from 39. Read More

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See-saw pattern in ventilator graphic: Is there any story behind?

Niger Med J 2014 Jul;55(4):359-61

Department of Neuroanesthesia and Neurocritical Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

The importance of ventilator graphics cannot be over emphasized that provide the useful information about airway, ventilation, compliance and lung mechanics. Some bizarre forms of graphics are usually overlooked in view of artifacts, but sometimes these tracings may in fact predict some relevant information. Read More

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Monitoring of intratidal lung mechanics: a Graphical User Interface for a model-based decision support system for PEEP-titration in mechanical ventilation.

J Clin Monit Comput 2014 Dec 19;28(6):613-23. Epub 2014 Feb 19.

Division for Experimental Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Hugstetter Str. 55, 79106, Freiburg, Germany,

In mechanical ventilation, a careful setting of the ventilation parameters in accordance with the current individual state of the lung is crucial to minimize ventilator induced lung injury. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has to be set to prevent collapse of the alveoli, however at the same time overdistension should be avoided. Classic approaches of analyzing static respiratory system mechanics fail in particular if lung injury already prevails. Read More

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December 2014

Ventilator waveforms.

Top Companion Anim Med 2013 Aug;28(3):112-23

Small Animal Emergency and Critical Care Service, Department of Veterinary Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Ventilator waveforms are graphic representations of changes in pressure, flow, and volume within a ventilator circuit. The changes in these parameters over time may be displayed individually (scalars) or plotted one against another (pressure-volume and flow-volume loops). There are 6 basic shapes of scalar waveforms, but only 3 are functionally distinct (square, ramp, and sine). Read More

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A simple gas exchange model predicting arterial oxygen content for various FiO2 levels.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2013 ;2013:465-8

The application of mechanical ventilation is a life-saving routine therapy that allows the patient to overcome the physiological impact of surgeries, trauma or critical illness by ensuring vital oxygenation and carbon dioxide removal. Above a certain level of minute ventilation (usually set to ensure acceptable carbon dioxide removal and oxygenation) oxygenation is only marginally affected by a further increase in minute ventilation. Thus, oxygenation is predominantly influenced by inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) Usually, finding the appropriate setting is a trial-and-error procedure, as the clinician is unaware of the exact value that needs to be set in order to reach the desired arterial oxygen partial pressures (PaO2) in the patient. Read More

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Patient-ventilator interactions. Implications for clinical management.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013 Nov;188(9):1058-68

1 Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Assisted/supported modes of mechanical ventilation offer significant advantages over controlled modes in terms of ventilator muscle function/recovery and patient comfort (and sedation needs). However, assisted/supported breaths must interact with patient demands during all three phases of breath delivery: trigger, target, and cycle. Synchronous interactions match ventilator support with patient demands; dyssynchronous interactions do not. Read More

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November 2013

A technical description of a novel pharmacological anesthesia robot.

J Clin Monit Comput 2014 Feb 15;28(1):27-34. Epub 2013 Jun 15.

Department of Experimental Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada,

To control the three components of general anesthesia (hypnosis, analgesia, and neuromuscular blockade), an automated closed-loop, anesthesia-drug delivery system (McSleepy) was developed. Bispectral index was used as the control variable for hypnosis, the analgoscore for analgesia, and phonomyography for neuromuscular blockade. McSleepy can be used to control the induction, maintenance and emergence from general anesthesia. Read More

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February 2014