814 results match your criteria Vein of Galen Malformation

An Alternative Endovascular Technique for Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation Treatment: Etylene Vinyl Alcohol Co-Polymer Embolization via Double-Lumen Balloon Microcatheter.

Turk Neurosurg 2020 Oct 19. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Erciyes University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kayseri, Turkey.

Aim: To present an alternative endovascular treatment option for the vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation by ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer embolization via a double-lumen balloon microcatheter.

Material And Methods: A female patient was suspected with the vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation in the prenatal period and diagnosed choroidal type vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation. Once the patient was symptomatic with severe cardiac failure, an endovascular treatment decision was made. Read More

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October 2020

Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: The Sinus and Non-Sinus Concept.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2021 ;132:113-122

Department of Neurosurgery, ASST Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: Dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) account for 10-15% of all intracranial arteriovenous lesions. Different classification strategies have been proposed in the course of the years. None of them seems to guide the treatment strategy. Read More

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January 2021

High Output Cardiovascular Physiology and Outcomes in Fetal Diagnosis of Vein of Galen Malformation.

Pediatr Cardiol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Pediatric Heart Center, Icahn School of Medicine At Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) is a rare anomaly associated with poor outcomes from high output cardiac failure and neurologic complications. Studies addressing fetal cardiovascular status and outcomes in this population are limited. A single-center retrospective review was conducted on patients with a prenatal diagnosis of VGAM who underwent a fetal echocardiogram between January 2015 and July 2019. Read More

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Coil assisted glue embolization to improve safety and accuracy in endovascular management of Vein of Galen patients.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Apr 21;205:106652. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Army Hospital (Referral & Research), Delhi Cantt, New Delhi 110010, India. Electronic address:

Background: Vein of Galen malformation (VOGM) patients present in neonatal age with cardiac failure or significant neurologic consequences. The most established method of treatment has been transarterial embolization with high concentration glue (N-Butyl Cyano Acrylate) which may be difficult to control due to very high flow rates and may migrate to the venous side with undesirable consequences. We describe our experience in four patients in whom initial coil placement in prominent feeding arteries helped inflow reduction thereby facilitating controlled glue injection with a good result and no incidence of non-target embolization. Read More

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Epidemiology, Diagnostics, and Management of Vein of Galen Malformation.

Pediatr Neurol 2021 Jun 3;119:50-55. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Pediatrics I, University Medicine Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: Vein of Galen malformation (VGM) is a rare congenital intracerebral vascular malformation. The aim of this study was to gain reliable data about epidemiology; clinical manifestations; and pre-, peri- and postinterventional treatment strategies in Germany.

Methods: This prospective epidemiologic study was conducted by Erhebungseinheit für Seltene Pädiatrische Erkrankungen in Deutschland, a hospital-based German nationwide surveillance unit for rare pediatric diseases. Read More

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Pial arteriovenous fistula resembling the vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation, treated with staged endovascular embolization: a case report.

Br J Neurosurg 2021 Mar 25:1-5. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Interventional Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, China.

A 41-month-old boy was presented to our hospital because of an intracranial mass suspected of cerebrovascular malformation. He was admitted and received cerebral angiography. The angiography result confirmed the intracranial mass was the dilated vein of Galen resulting from a pial arteriovenous fistula, which quite resembling the vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation. Read More

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A cardiopulmonary bypass strategy to support a patient with vein of Galen malformation.

Perfusion 2021 Mar 24:2676591211001534. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Anaesthesia, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

We present a dissection of the patent ductus arteriosus and pulmonary artery for surgical repair utilising cardiopulmonary bypass in the setting of vein of Galen malformation. Several strategies were employed to attenuate the cerebral shunt including pH-stat, high cardiac index, restrictive venous drainage, continuous ventilation and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. The patient recovered from surgery with no apparent neurological sequelae. Read More

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Scepter mini assisted angiographic cure of a Vein of Galen Malformation with n-butyl cyanoacrylate.

Interv Neuroradiol 2021 Feb 20:1591019921993368. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY, USA.

Background: Even in the modern endovascular era, the treatment of Vein of Galen Malformations (VOGM) is extremely challenging. While their natural history is very poor, endovascular embolization has emerged as the standard of care. These lesions often require multiple treatment sessions to decrease shunting, with each treatment including multiple pedicles. Read More

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February 2021

Spontaneous thrombosis of a vein of Galen malformation associated with acute sinusitis: a case report.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Fundación Santafé de Bogotá, Carrera 7 No. 117 - 15, Bogotá, Colombia.

The vein of Galen malformation is caused by an abnormal shunting between choroidal arteries and the median prosencephalic vein during embryological development, leading to increased blood flow to the deep cerebral veins, intracranial damage, and systemic repercussions. Idiopathic spontaneous thrombosis of a vein of Galen malformation is rare, and its association with acute sinusitis has not been reported in the literature. We present the case of a girl with a postnatal diagnosis of a vein of Galen malformation at the age of 16 months, with secondary pulmonary hypertension that was adequately controlled with spironolactone. Read More

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February 2021

Outcome of fetal Vein Galen aneurysmal malformations: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jan 28:1-6. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Fetal Care and High-Risk Pregnancy, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy.

Objectives: To report the outcome of fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of Vein of Galen (VOG) malformation.

Methods: PubMed and Embase databases were searched. Random effect meta-analysis of proportions was used to analyze the data. Read More

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January 2021

The Impact of Angiographic Geometry on the Clinical Presentation of True Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformations.

Pediatr Neurosurg 2020 13;55(6):344-350. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Alexandria University School of Medicine, Azarita Medical Campus, Alexandria, Egypt.

Background Purpose: Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAM) may carry life-threatening and catastrophic sequelae in children. Their clinical presentations are differently variable between cardiac and cerebral syndromes. There may be a possible relationship between the Galenic angioarchitecture and the clinical presentation. Read More

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January 2021

[Orbital venous varices: modern diagnostic methods and differential diagnosis].

Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2020 ;84(6):33-48

Burdenko Center of Neurosurgery, Moscow, Russia.

Objective: To study the possibility of the modern CT and MRI methods in diagnostics of the orbital venous varices (OVV), discover the special characteristics of these lesions concerning their hemodynamic and differential diagnosis with other orbital lesions.

Material And Methods: In the period from 2012 to 2019 ten patients with OVV were evaluated. Four of them were men, three women and three children (boys aged 7, 10, and 12 years). Read More

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December 2020

Neurovascular disease and syndromes: Diagnosis and therapy in children.

Gary M Nesbit

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;176:305-323

Dotter Department of Interventional Radiology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, United States. Electronic address:

The pediatric neurovascular disease runs the chronologic spectrum with dramatic changes in the presentation, evaluation, and treatment from the prenatal, perinatal, and infant periods through childhood and adolescence. These diseases are often dynamic throughout this period and the dynamic continues throughout life. There are four major categories: high-flow arteriovenous shunting lesions, arterial aneurysms, low-flow vascular lesions, and vascular occlusive disease. Read More

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January 2021

Cerebral arteriovenous fistulae.

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;176:179-198

Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Neurological Surgery, Neurology, and Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, United States.

Dural arteriovenous fistulae (dAVFs) are diverse, complex lesions that share the common feature of arteriovenous shunting without an intervening nidus. In this chapter, the ensuing discussion is organized by dAVF location, followed by further consideration of less common, distinct types of dAVFs-carotid cavernous fistulae, pial arteriovenous fistulae, and vein of Galen malformations. For each lesion type, epidemiology, clinical presentation, imaging findings, classification considerations, and treatment options are discussed. Read More

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January 2021

Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation.

Ana Monteagudo

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020 12 7;223(6):B27-B29. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

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December 2020

Vein of Galen Malformation.

N Engl J Med 2020 Oct;383(15):e90

University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL

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October 2020

Vein of Galen Malformation.

Neoreviews 2020 10 1;21(10):e678-e686. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Radiology, Maternal Fetal Medicine Center, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

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October 2020

Case report of a vertical straight sinus with hydrocephalus and Chiari I malformation.

Anat Cell Biol 2020 Dec;53(4):516-518

Department of Neurosurgery, Tulane Center for Clinical Neurosciences, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.

The straight sinus is a division of the dural venous sinuses, found beneath the splenium of the corpus callosum. At the internal occipital protuberance, it comes together with the superior sagittal sinus and transverse sinus to form the torcular Herophili. It functions as a major site of venous drainage for the cerebellum, inferior sagittal sinus, and vein of Galen. Read More

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December 2020

Cerebrovascular Malformations in a Pediatric Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Cohort.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 09 25;110:49-54. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Division of Neuroradiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: We determined the frequency of cerebrovascular malformations in a pediatric cohort with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 54 children diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia at a tertiary care center. All neuroimaging was reviewed to assess for number and types of cerebrovascular malformations and for intracerebral hemorrhage and arterial ischemic stroke. Read More

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September 2020

Abnormalities of the Fetal Central Nervous System: Prenatal US Diagnosis with Postnatal Correlation.

Radiographics 2020 Sep-Oct;40(5):1458-1472. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

From the Department of Radiology (S.W.C., S.V.G.) and Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology (B.K.B.), Duke University, 2301 Erwin Rd, Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710.

Fetal central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities are second only to cardiac malformations in their frequency of occurrence. Early and accurate diagnosis at prenatal US is therefore essential, allowing improved prenatal counseling and facilitating appropriate referral. Thorough knowledge of normal intracranial anatomy and adoption of a logical sonographic approach can improve depiction of abnormal findings, leading to a more accurate differential diagnosis earlier in pregnancy. Read More

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Peculiar Characteristics of Arteriovenous Malformations Arising in the Galenic Region.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Jul 15;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo 1138655, Japan.

Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are congenital vascular lesions fed by arterial feeders originating from branches of the internal carotid artery (ICA) or vertebrobasilar artery. We experienced unique AVMs arising in the midline Galenic region, receiving blood supply from the ICA/vertebral artery systems and the external carotid artery system. We retrospectively reviewed data on eight patients who had an AVM arising in the Galenic region and were treated in the University of Tokyo Hospital between 1990 and 2019. Read More

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Vein of Galen Aneurysm: Prenatal Ultrasound Diagnosis.

Acta Med Port 2020 Jul 1;33(7-8):521. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Departamento de Obstetrícia, Ginecologia e Medicina da Reprodução. Hospital de Santa Maria. Centro Hospitalar Universitário Lisboa Norte. Lisboa. Portugal.

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Arteriovenous fistulas of the Vein of Galen region in adults: Endovascular treatment.

Interv Neuroradiol 2020 Dec 14;26(6):757-766. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Hospital Nuestra Señora del Rosario, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: Arteriovenous fistulas of the Vein of Galen region in adults (Ad-VGAVF) are an uncommon entity with specific anatomic features. The aim of this article is to present our experience in the endovascular treatment of this pathology and to propose a therapeutic strategy based precisely on the angioarchitecture of these lesions.

Materials And Methods: During a 20-year period, 10 patients underwent endovascular treatment of Ad-VGAVF. Read More

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December 2020

Galenic Pial Arteriovenous Fistulas in Adults.

J Neurol Sci 2020 09 5;416:117014. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Institut Fiziologii imeni O O Bogomolca Nacional'na akademia nauk Ukraini, Bogomoletz str. 4, Kiev 01024, Ukraine.

Background: Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VOGMs) are pial arteriovenous fistulas possessing Galenic venous drainage most commonly presenting during the neonatal period and infancy, with initial discovery during adulthood quite rare.

Objectives And Methods: We conducted a literature survey of the PubMed database in order to identify Galenic pial arteriovenous fistulas (GPAVFs) with major manifestation or initial presentation during adulthood. Inclusionary criteria included pial AVFs with Galenic drainage with major manifestation or initial presentation at, or older than, 18 years. Read More

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September 2020

Typical MRI Features of a Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation.

J Belg Soc Radiol 2020 Jun 22;104(1):32. Epub 2020 Jun 22.


Typical imaging features of a vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation are enlarged intracranial arterial feeders to a dilated recipient vein. Read More

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De novo arteriovenous shunts after endovascular cure of cerebrospinal macro arteriovenous fistulas. A role for the vasa vasorum?

J Neuroradiol 2021 Mar 27;48(2):127-131. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hôpital Foch, Suresnes, France. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Macro-arteriovenous fistulas (MAVFs) are arteriovenous shunts draining into a giant venous ectasia. They can be treated by surgery or embolisation. Angiographic controls are usually performed rapidly after treatment in order to prove the cure of the lesion but no long term angiographies are generally scheduled. Read More

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Deep venous communication in vein of Galen malformations: incidence, Imaging, and Implications for treatment.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Mar 16;13(3):290-293. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Image Guided Therapy, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Failure to appreciate deep venous drainage pathways is a major cause of severe complications in the endovascular treatment of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VOGMs).

Objective: To report deep venous drainage patterns in patients with VOGM, emphasizing the internal cerebral veins, and to describe the challenges in evaluating these.

Methods: Patients with VOGM presenting to our institute between 2000 and 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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Diagnosis of foetal vein of galen aneurysmal malformation by ultrasound combined with magnetic resonance imaging: a case series.

BMC Med Imaging 2020 06 12;20(1):63. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Ultrasound Diagnosis, Gansu Provincial Maternity and Child-care Hospital, Lanzhou, 730050, Gansu Province, P. R. China.

Background: Foetal vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) is a very rare congenital malformation of the cerebral blood vessels. We sought to evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasound in combination with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in foetal VGAM.

Case Presentation: Prenatal ultrasound combined with MRI diagnosed five cases of VGAM. Read More

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