14,918 results match your criteria Vascular Dementia


Dl-3-n-butylphthalide regulates cholinergic dysfunction in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion rats.

J Int Med Res 2020 Jul;48(7):300060520936177

Department of Diagnostics, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Objectives: To investigate whether dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) affects cholinergic system function and ameliorates cognitive decline in a rat model of vascular dementia (VaD).

Methods: The VaD rat model was established by bilateral common carotid artery ligation (two-vessel occlusion, 2VO). Rats were divided into five groups: control, sham, 2VO, 2VO+NBP (80 mg/kg; intragastric), and 2VO+donepezil (1 mg/kg; intragastric). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060520936177DOI Listing

[Preventing role of warmth-promotion needling in reducing intracellular Ca overload of in vitro hippocampal neuronal cells of vascular dementia rats].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2020 Jun;45(6):454-60

Research Center of Gansu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou 730000.

Objective: To investigate the underlying mechanisms of warming-promotion needling (WPN) for vascular dementia (VD) by observing its effect on the expression of L-type calcium channel current (Ica.L), changes of intracellular [Ca]i in neurons and pathomorphological changes of brain in VD rats.

Methods: One hundred and eight male SD rats were randomized into normal control, model, medication, WPN, uniform reinforcing-reducing needling (URRN), and needle-twirling groups (=18 in each group). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.190191DOI Listing

The role of transcranial sonography in differentiation of dementia subtypes: an introduction of a new diagnostic method.

Neurol Sci 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Neurology, Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Valadi St, Valiasr St, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Transcranial sonography (TCS) is increasingly used for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders. We assessed the role of third ventricle width (TVW), midbrain area (MA), and midbrain circumference (MC) by TCS for diagnosis and differentiation of dementia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed in 59 patients with dementia including 19 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 10 Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 23 Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and 7 Vascular dementia (VaD), and 22 normal-cognition individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04566-4DOI Listing

Neurological diseases as mortality predictive factors for patients with COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study.

Neurol Sci 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 877 Bangeojinsunghwndo-ro, Dong-gu, Ulsan, 44033, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: In the current study, we evaluated factors that increase the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patient death rate by analyzing the data from two cohort hospitals. In addition, we studied whether underlying neurological diseases are risk factors for death.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we included 103 adult inpatients (aged ≥ 18 years). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04541-zDOI Listing

The brains of aged mice are characterized by altered tissue diffusion properties and cerebral microbleeds.

J Transl Med 2020 Jul 8;18(1):277. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Brain aging is a major risk factor in the progression of cognitive diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia. We investigated a mouse model of brain aging up to 24 months old (mo).

Methods: A high field (11. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02441-6DOI Listing

Pathophysiology, Classification, and MRI Parallels in Microvascular Disease of the Heart and Brain.

Microcirculation 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Cardiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at, UCLA and VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System.

Diagnostic imaging technology in vascular disease has long focused on large vessels and the pathologic processes that impact them. With improved diagnostic techniques, investigators are now able to uncover many underlying mechanisms and prognostic factors for microvascular disease. In the heart and brain, these pathologic entities include coronary microvascular disease and cerebral small vessel disease, both of which have significant impact on patients, causing angina, myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke and dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/micc.12648DOI Listing

Refining prediction of major bleeding on antiplatelet treatment after transient ischaemic attack or ischaemic stroke.

Eur Stroke J 2020 Jun 19;5(2):130-137. Epub 2020 Jan 19.

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

Introduction: Bleeding is the main safety concern of treatment with antiplatelet drugs. We aimed to refine prediction of major bleeding on antiplatelet treatment after a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or stroke by assessing the added value of new predictors to the existing STOP-BLEED score.

Patients And Methods: We used Cox regression analysis to study the association between candidate predictors and major bleeding among 2072 patients with a transient ischaemic attack or ischaemic stroke included in a population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study - OXVASC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2396987319898064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309362PMC

Periodontal Disease and Periodontal Disease-Related Bacteria Involved in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease.

J Inflamm Res 2020 30;13:275-283. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Oral Disease Research, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Aichi 474-8511, Japan.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, and it exhibits pathological properties such as deposition of extracellular amyloid β (Aβ) and abnormally phosphorylated Tau in nerve cells and a decrease of synapses. Conventionally, drugs targeting Aβ and its related molecules have been developed on the basis of the amyloid cascade hypothesis, but sufficient effects on the disease have not been obtained in past clinical trials. On the other hand, it has been pointed out that chronic inflammation and microbial infection in the brain may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S255309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335281PMC

Lifetime cumulative incidence of dementia in a community-dwelling elderly population in Japan.

Neurology 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

From the Departments of Epidemiology and Public Health (D.Y., J.H., T.H., Y.F., E.O., T.N.), Neuropsychiatry (T.O., S.K.), Center for Cohort Studies (M.S., S.S.), and Medicine and Clinical Science (Y.H., T.K.), Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Objective: To estimate the lifetime cumulative incidence of dementia and its subtypes from a community-dwelling elderly population in Japan.

Methods: A total of 1,193 community-dwelling Japanese individuals without dementia, aged 60 years or older, were followed up prospectively for 17 years. The cumulative incidence of dementia was estimated based on a death- and dementia-free survival function and the hazard functions of dementia at each year, which were computed by using a Weibull proportional hazards model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009917DOI Listing

Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Stroke 2020 May 31;22(2):206-224. Epub 2020 May 31.

Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research, LMU University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU), Munich, Germany.

Background And Purpose: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with the risk of stroke and dementia independently of other vascular risk factors, but its association with cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) remains unknown. Here, we employed a systematic review and meta-analysis to address this gap.

Methods: Following the MOOSE guidelines (PROSPERO protocol: CRD42018110305), we systematically searched the literature for studies exploring the association between LVH or left ventricular (LV) mass, with neuroimaging markers of CSVD (lacunes, white matter hyperintensities [WMHs], cerebral microbleeds [CMBs]). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5853/jos.2019.03335DOI Listing

Atrial Fibrillation on Patients with Vascular Dementia: A Fundamental Target for Correct Management.

Brain Sci 2020 Jul 2;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Neurological Clinic, Marche Polytechnic University, 60020 Ancona, Italy.

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a risk factor for cerebrovascular diseases and vascular dementia (VAD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the adherence to anticoagulant therapy guidelines in patients with dementia and AF on the risk of stroke/TIA or major bleeding (MB).

Methods: In a cohort of 1705 hospitalized patients with pre-existent AF, we observed 193 patients with vascular dementia (VAD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10070420DOI Listing

Chronic Sildenafil Treatment Improves Vasomotor Function in a Mouse Model of Accelerated Aging.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 30;21(13). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015 GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Aging leads to a loss of vasomotor control. Both vasodilation and vasoconstriction are affected. Decreased nitric oxide-cGMP-mediated relaxation is a hallmark of aging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134667DOI Listing

Prognosis of Cryptogenic Stroke With Patent Foramen Ovale at Older Ages and Implications for Trials: A Population-Based Study and Systematic Review.

JAMA Neurol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Wolfson Centre for Prevention of Stroke and Dementia, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Importance: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure may prevent recurrent stroke after cryptogenic transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke (TIA/stroke) in patients aged 60 years or younger. Patent foramen ovale is associated with cryptogenic stroke in the older population, but risk of recurrence is unknown. Data on prognosis of patients receiving medical treatment at older ages (≥60 years) are essential to justify trials of PFO closure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1948DOI Listing

A multicomponent integrative intervention to slow down the progression of mild cognitive impairment: A protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Res Nurs Health 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Research Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Mild cognitive impairment affects 36% of people aged 65 years and over in China, and around 50% transition from mild cognitive impairment to dementia within 3 years. Early intervention can slow down disease progression and thus delay dementia onset. The purpose of this article is to outline the protocol of an ongoing randomized controlled trial in mainland China that will evaluate the effects and feasibility of a 6-month multicomponent integrative intervention on the speed of progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nur.22050DOI Listing

Mortality and Institutionalization After Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in Parkinson's Disease and Related Conditions.

Mov Disord Clin Pract 2020 Jul 9;7(5):509-515. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine for the Elderly, Royal Derby Hospital, University Hospitals of Derby and Burton Derby DE22 3NE United Kingdom.

Background: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) can facilitate feeding and medication administration in dysphagic patients with Parkinson's disease and related disorders. Information on survival, institutionalization, and complications post PEG might inform feeding decisions.

Method: A total of 93 patients with Parkinson's disease and related disorders were identified by review of PEG registers and by searching the administrative databases in 2 large UK university hospitals (2005-2017); 83 case notes were available for retrospective review. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mdc3.12971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328413PMC

Differential Role for Activating FcγRIII in Neointima Formation After Arterial Injury and Diet-Induced Chronic Atherosclerosis in Deficient Mice.

Front Physiol 2020 17;11:673. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Institute for Molecular Cardiovascular Research (IMCAR), University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Atherogenesis and arterial remodeling following mechanical injury are driven by inflammation and mononuclear cell infiltration. The binding of immune complexes (ICs) to immunoglobulin (Ig)-Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) on most innate and adaptive immune cells induces a variety of inflammatory responses that promote atherogenesis. Here, we studied the role of FcγRIII in neointima formation after arterial injury in atherosclerosis-prone mice and compared the outcome and mechanism to that of FcγRIII in diet-induced "chronic" atherosclerosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7313534PMC

The effect of occupation on the incidence of vascular dementia: A 12-year follow-up cohort study.

Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Instituto Universitario de Investigación Sanitaria en Aragón (IIS), Zaragoza, España; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades, Madrid, España; Departamento de Microbiología, Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, España.

Introduction: Vascular dementia (DV) is the second cause of dementia with 15.8-20% of cases. Previous studies of the effect of occupation in DV do not show conclusive results, therefore, the objective was to analyze if the type of occupation can vary the risk of developing DV in those older than 55 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rpsm.2020.05.002DOI Listing

Structural network efficiency predicts cognitive decline in cerebral small vessel disease.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 Jun 25;27:102325. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Radboud University Medical Center, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Department of Neurology, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common disease in older adults and a major contributor to vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. White matter network damage is a potentially important mechanism by which SVD causes cognitive impairment. Earlier studies showed that a higher degree of white matter network damage, indicated by lower global efficiency (a graph-theory measure assessing efficiency of network information transfer), was associated with lower scores on cognitive performance independent of MRI markers for SVD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334365PMC

TRPM4 inhibition improves spatial memory impairment and hippocampal long-term potentiation deficit in chronic cerebral hypoperfused rats.

Behav Brain Res 2020 Jun 30:112781. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) been well characterized as a common pathological status contributing to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. CCH is an important factor that leads to cognitive impairment, but the underlying neurobiological mechanism is poorly understood and no effective treatment is available. Recently, transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) cation channel has been identified as an important molecular element in focal cerebral ischemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112781DOI Listing

Associations of truncal body composition with cognitive status in patients with dementia.

Neurol Sci 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Neurology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Konkuk University Medical Center, 120-1 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 05030, South Korea.

Backgound: Central obesity in midlife is a risk factor of cognitive decline and dementia, and also one of the factors that make cognitive functions deteriorate rapidly.

Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between truncal body composition (fat and muscle) and cognitive impairment in patients with dementia.

Methods: A total of 81 female over 60 years of age with probable Alzheimer's disease were recruited between November 2014 and September 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04503-5DOI Listing

TREM2 Overexpression Attenuates Cognitive Deficits in Experimental Models of Vascular Dementia.

Neural Plast 2020 12;2020:8834275. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Neurology, Taian City Central Hospital, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Taian, Shandong Province 271000, China.

Neuroinflammation plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia (VD). Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a transmembrane receptor mainly expressed on microglia and has been known for its anti-inflammatory properties during immune response. However, data evaluating the effects of TREM2 in VD are lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8834275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306072PMC

Cognitive performance in asymptomatic carriers of mutations R1031C and R141C in CADASIL.

Int J Psychol Res (Medellin) 2018 Jul-Dec;11(2):46-55

Grupo Neurociencias de Antioquia, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia. Universidad de Antioquia Universidad de Antioquia Medellín Colombia.

CADASIL is the most common hereditary cause of repeated ischemic strokes, and has also been identified as a model of pure vascular dementia. The objective of this study was to establish the cognitive performance of asymptomatic carriers with the mutations R1031C and R141C. This observational crosssectional analytical study divided subjects into three groups: asymptomatic carriers of the R1031C mutation (𝑛 = 39), asymptomatic carries of the R141C mutation (𝑛 = 8) and noncarriers (𝑛 = 50). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21500/20112084.3373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7110283PMC

Diagnostic and prognostic value of serum NfL and p-Tau in frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Neurology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy

Objective: To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum neurofilament light (NfL) and serum phospho-Tau (p-Tau) in a large cohort of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD).

Methods: In this retrospective study, performed on 417 participants, we analysed serum NfL and p-Tau concentrations with an ultrasensitive single molecule array (Simoa) approach. We assessed the diagnostic values of serum biomarkers in the differential diagnosis between FTLD, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy ageing; their role as markers of disease severity assessing the correlation with clinical variables, cross-sectional brain imaging and neurophysiological data; their role as prognostic markers, considering their ability to predict survival probability in FTLD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2020-323487DOI Listing

Association between amphetamine-related disorders and dementia-a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Objective: We have conducted a study to clarify the association between amphetamine-related disorders (ARD) and the risk of developing dementia.

Methods: This study used a retrospective cohort design by using Taiwan's National Health Research Institute Database. A random sample of 68,300 subjects between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2015, was obtained, comprising of 17,075 patients with ARD, and 51,225 controls without ARD (1:3), matched for gender and age group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.51113DOI Listing

Androgens' effects on cerebrovascular function in health and disease.

Biol Sex Differ 2020 Jun 30;11(1):35. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Neuroscience & Experimental Therapeutics, Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland Avenue, MC-136, Albany, NY, 12208, USA.

Androgens affect the cerebral vasculature and may contribute to sex differences in cerebrovascular diseases. Men are at a greater risk for stroke and vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) compared to women throughout much of the lifespan. The cerebral vasculature is a target for direct androgen actions, as it expresses several sex steroid receptors and metabolizing enzymes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-020-00309-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328272PMC

Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Assessment of Brain Iron Level in Alzheimer Disease Using 3-T MRI.

Radiology 2020 Jun 30:192541. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

From the Department of Neurology (A.D., L.P., M. Soellradl, M. Sackl, C.T., E.H., C.E., S.R., R.S., C.L.), Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation (E.H.), and Division of Neuroradiology, Vascular, and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (C.E.), Medical University of Graz, Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 22, 8036 Graz, Austria; and Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research (ISD), University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany (B.G., M.D.).

Background Deep gray matter structures in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) contain higher brain iron concentrations. However, few studies have included neocortical areas, which are challenging to assess with MRI. Purpose To investigate baseline and change in brain iron levels using MRI at 3 T with R2* relaxation rate mapping in individuals with AD compared with healthy control (HC) participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020192541DOI Listing

Octogenarians and Non-Octogenarians Have Similar Outcomes After Upper Extremity Hemodialysis Access Creation.

Ann Vasc Surg 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Boston Medical Center, Boston University, School of Medicine, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Introduction: and Objectives: Routine arteriovenous (AV) access creation in octogenarians is controversial. Our goal was to assess perioperative and long-term outcomes in octogenarians after undergoing upper extremity AV access to determine whether advanced age should influence AV access decision making.

Methods: All AV access creations performed at a single institution from 2014-2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2020.06.035DOI Listing

Therapeutic Angiogenesis with Sound Waves.

Ann Vasc Dis 2020 Jun;13(2):116-125

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.

Along with the progress of global aging, the prognosis of severe ischemic heart disease (IHD) remains poor, and thus the development of effective angiogenic therapy remains an important clinical unmet need. We have developed low-energy extracorporeal cardiac shock wave therapy as an innovative minimally invasive angiogenic therapy and confirmed its efficacy in a porcine chronic myocardial ischemia model in animal experiments as well as in patients with refractory angina. Since ultrasound is more advantageous for clinical application than shock waves, we then aimed to develop ultrasound therapy for IHD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3400/avd.ra.20-00010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315235PMC

A Machine Learning Approach for the Differential Diagnosis of Alzheimer and Vascular Dementia Fed by MRI Selected Features.

Front Neuroinform 2020 11;14:25. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

NMR Research Unit, Department of Neuroinflammation, Faculty of Brain Sciences, Queen Square MS Centre, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom.

Among dementia-like diseases, Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) are two of the most frequent. AD and VD may share multiple neurological symptoms that may lead to controversial diagnoses when using conventional clinical and MRI criteria. Therefore, other approaches are needed to overcome this issue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fninf.2020.00025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300291PMC

Neurological and neuropsychiatric complications of COVID-19 in 153 patients: a UK-wide surveillance study.

Lancet Psychiatry 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

The National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit for Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, Liverpool, UK; Department of Clinical Infection Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Infection, Veterinary, and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; The Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Concerns regarding potential neurological complications of COVID-19 are being increasingly reported, primarily in small series. Larger studies have been limited by both geography and specialty. Comprehensive characterisation of clinical syndromes is crucial to allow rational selection and evaluation of potential therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30287-XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316461PMC

[Comparative analysis of unsaturated indicators fatty acids in elderly patients in initial stages of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.]

Adv Gerontol 2020 ;33(2):265-272

V.M.Bekhterev National Research Medical Center for Psychiatry and Neurology, 3 Bekhterev str., St. Petersburg 192019, Russian Federation, e-mail:

A decrease in cognitive functions up to the development of dementia in the elderly is associated with a decrease in the blood level of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially Omega-3, which occurs against the background of oxidative stress. The paper presents a comparative analysis of the spectrum of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the activity of individual components of the enzymatic antioxidant system in the blood of elderly people with impaired cognitive performance to the level of «mild cognitive decline» (MCI AD, prodromal Alzheimer's disease) or vascular etiology (MCI VaD, prodromal vascular dementia) compared with older people without signs of cognitive impairment. A decrease in the concentration of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the blood of both groups of the examined patients was revealed compared with the control group. Read More

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January 2020

CSF biomarkers in Olmsted County: Evidence of 2 subclasses and associations with demographics.

Neurology 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

From the Departments of Neurology (A.C.V.H., M.M.M., D.S.K., R.C.P.), Health Sciences Research (H.J.W., S.D.W., M.M.M., W.K.K., R.C.P.), Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (R.B.D.), and Radiology (C.R.J.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Department of Neurology and Alzheimer Center Amsterdam UMC (A.C.V.H.), the Netherlands; and Roche Diagnostics (U.E., R.B.-U., A.A.-S.), Basel, Switzerland.

Objective: We studied interrelationships between CSF biomarkers and associations with ε4 genotype, demographic variables, vascular variables, and clinical diagnosis in Olmsted County, Minnesota.

Methods: We included 774 Mayo Clinic Study of Aging participants (693 cognitively unimpaired [CU]; 71 with mild cognitive impairment [MCI]). CSF β-amyloid 42 (Aβ42), total tau (t-tau), and hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) were analyzed using Aβ42 CSF, t-tau CSF, and p-tau (181P) CSF electrochemiluminescence immunoassays. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009874DOI Listing

Kidney Disease, Intensive Hypertension Treatment, and Risk for Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Division of Nephrology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Intensively treating hypertension may benefit cardiovascular disease and cognitive function, but at the short-term expense of reduced kidney function.

Methods: We investigated markers of kidney function and the effect of intensive hypertension treatment on incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in 9361 participants in the randomized Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial, which compared intensive versus standard systolic BP lowering (targeting <120 mm Hg versus <140 mm Hg, respectively). We categorized participants according to baseline and longitudinal changes in eGFR and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020010038DOI Listing

Electrophysiological differences in cortical excitability in different forms of dementia: A transcranial magnetic stimulation and laboratory biomarkers study.

Neurophysiol Clin 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Medical physiology department, faculty of medicine, Assiut university, Assiut, Egypt.

Background: The aim of the present study was to identify neurophysiologic markers to differentiate between Alzheimer dementia (AD), Vascular dementia (VaD), and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and to examine their relationship to levels of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1).

Methods: The study included 15 patients with each type of dementia (AD, VaD, PDD) and 25 control subjects. Dementia patients were diagnosed according to the DiagnosticandStatisticalManualofMentalDisorders4thedition-revised(DSM-IV-R). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2020.05.001DOI Listing

Long-term exposure to ambient source-specific particulate matter and its components and incidence of cardiovascular events - The Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

Environ Int 2020 Sep 24;142:105854. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Environmental Epidemiology Group, Institute of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Medical Faculty, Medical Research School Düsseldorf, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Background: Few studies have examined the risk of long-term exposure to source-specific airborne pollutants on incidence of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events.

Objectives: We aimed to estimate the effect of long-term exposure to source-specific air pollution and particulate matter (PM) components on incidence of stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), and total cardiovascular events (CVE) in the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (HNR).

Methods: We used baseline (2000-2003) and 14-year follow-up data of the HNR Study, an ongoing population-based prospective cohort study in Western Germany. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105854DOI Listing
September 2020

The role of semaphorins in small vessels of the eye and brain.

Pharmacol Res 2020 Jun 23:105044. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Neurology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China. Electronic address:

Small vessel diseases, such as ischemic retinopathy and cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), are increasingly recognized in patients with diabetes, dementia and cerebrovascular disease. The mechanisms of small vessel diseases are poorly understood, but the latest studies suggest a role for semaphorins. Initially identified as axon guidance cues, semaphorins are mainly studied in neuronal morphogenesis, neural circuit assembly, and synapse assembly and refinement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.105044DOI Listing

Statin exposure and the risk of dementia in individuals with hypercholesterolemia.

J Intern Med 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Family Medicine, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the association between statin exposure and dementia risk in individuals with hypercholesterolemia using data from the NHIS-HEALS database between 2002 and 2015.

Methods: Subjects were classified into statin exposure and statin non-exposure groups according to medication possession ratio. Dementia was defined as those with primary diagnostic dementia codes such as F00-F03, G30, G31. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joim.13134DOI Listing

Olfactory testing does not predict β-amyloid, MRI measures of neurodegeneration or vascular pathology in the British 1946 birth cohort.

J Neurol 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Dementia Research Centre, Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, WC1N 3BG, UK.

Objective: To explore the value of olfactory identification deficits as a predictor of cerebral β-amyloid status and other markers of brain health in cognitively normal adults aged ~ 70 years.

Methods: Cross-sectional observational cohort study. 389 largely healthy and cognitively normal older adults were recruited from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (1946 British Birth cohort) and investigated for olfactory identification deficits, as measured by the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-10004-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311798PMC

Excessive Production of Transforming Growth Factor β1 Causes Mural Cell Depletion From Cerebral Small Vessels.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 3;12:151. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Neurology, Clinical Neuroscience Branch, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan.

It is increasingly becoming apparent that cerebrovascular dysfunction contributes to the pathogenic processes involved in vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Under these pathologic conditions, the degeneration of cerebral blood vessels is frequently accompanied by a loss of mural cells from the vascular walls. Vascular mural cells play pivotal roles in cerebrovascular functions, such as regulation of cerebral blood flow and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.00151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283554PMC

Dl-3-n-Butylphthalide Promotes Remyelination and Suppresses Inflammation by Regulating AMPK/SIRT1 and STAT3/NF-κB Signaling in Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 9;12:137. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Demyelination in vascular dementia (VD) is partly attributable to inflammation induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). Remyelination contributes to the recovery of cognitive impairment by inducing the proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. It was previously reported that Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) promotes cognitive improvement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.00137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296049PMC

Evaluating blood-brain barrier permeability in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.

J Transl Med 2020 Jun 24;18(1):256. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Center for Translational NeuroImaging, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: This is an exploratory study using a novel imaging modality, quantitative ultrashort time-to-echo, contrast enhanced (QUTE-CE) magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in a rat model of type 2 diabetes with the presumption that small vessel disease is a contributing factor to neuropathology in diabetes.

Methods: The BBZDR/Wor rat, a model of type 2 diabetes, and age-matched controls were studied for changes in blood-brain barrier permeability. QUTE-CE, a quantitative vascular biomarker, generated angiographic images with over 500,000 voxels that were registered to a 3D MRI rat brain atlas providing site-specific information on blood-brain barrier permeability in 173 different brain areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02428-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7313122PMC

MicroRNA-153 impairs hippocampal synaptic vesicle trafficking via downregulation of synapsin I in rats following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

Exp Neurol 2020 Jun 21;332:113389. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Department of Pharmacology (The State-Province Key Laboratories of Biomedicine-Pharmaceutics of China), College of Pharmacy of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province 150086, China. Electronic address:

Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) promotes the development of Alzheimer's pathology. However, whether and how CCH impairs the synaptic vesicle trafficking is still unclear. In the present study, we found that the hippocampal glutamatergic vesicle trafficking was impaired as indicated by a significant shortened delayed response enhancement (DRE) phase in CA3-CA1 circuit and decreased synapsin I in CCH rats suffering from bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2020.113389DOI Listing

Neuroimaging Outcomes in Studies of Cognitive Training in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review.

Curr Alzheimer Res 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

University of Leicester, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Leicester. United Kingdom.

Background: Cognitive training (CT) has demonstrated some benefits to cognitive and psychosocial function in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia, but the certainty related to those findings remains unclear. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which CT improves cognitive functioning may help to understand the relationships between CT and cognitive function. The purpose of this review was to identify the evidence for neuroimaging outcomes in studies of CT in MCI and early Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567205017666200624202425DOI Listing

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A single center experience and systemic analysis of cases in Turkey.

Ideggyogy Sz 2020 05;73(05-06):177-184

Bezmialem Vakif University, Department of Neurology, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background And Purpose: We aimed to analyze the clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in a single center as well as to review other published cases in Turkey.

Methods: Between January 1st, 2014 and June 31st, 2017, all CJD cases were evaluated based on clinical findings, differential diagnosis, the previous misdiagnosis, electroencephalography (EEG), cerebrospinal fluid and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in our center. All published cases in Turkey between 2005-2018 were also reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18071/isz.73.0177DOI Listing

Heart and Brain: Complex Relationships for Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2020 Jun 23;22(8):72. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Gazes Cardiac Research Institute, Medical University of South Carolina, 30 Courtenay Drive STB 313, Charleston, SC, 29425, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes the evidence for the established vascular/hypoperfusion model and explores the new hypothesis that configures the heart/brain axis as an organ system where similar pathogenic mechanisms exploit physiological and pathological changes.

Recent Findings: Although associated by common risk factors, similar epidemiological stratification and common triggers (including inflammation, oxidative stress, and hypoxia), heart failure and Alzheimer's disease have been, for long time, viewed as pathogenically separate illnesses. The silos began to be broken down with the awareness that vascular dysfunction, and loss of cardiac perfusion pump power, trigger biochemical changes, contributing to the typical hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-the accumulation of Aβ plaques and hyperphosphorylated Tau tangles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-020-01318-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309683PMC

Weights for ordinal analyses of the modified Rankin Scale in stroke trials: A population-based cohort study.

EClinicalMedicine 2020 Jun 15;23:100415. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Centre for Prevention of Stroke and Dementia, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Level 6, West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom.

Background: Ordinal/shift analyses of ordered measures like the modified Rankin Scale(mRS) are underused as primary trial outcomes for neurological disorders - despite statistical advantages - potentially hindered by poor clinical interpretability versus dichotomies, and by valuing state-transitions equally (linear scale). Weighted ordinal analyses incorporating step-changes at key transitions might have greater statistical validity and clinical applicability.

Methods: In a prospective population-based cohort of ischaemic stroke (Oxford Vascular Study, recruited 2002-2014), we stratified 5-year outcomes of death, dementia, and/or institutionalization, health/social-care costs, and EuroQol-derived quality-adjusted life-expectancy(QALE) by 3-month mRS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300241PMC

Common neurodegenerative disorders in the perioperative setting: Recommendations for screening from the Society for Perioperative Assessment and Quality Improvement (SPAQI).

Perioper Care Oper Room Manag 2020 Sep 5;20. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, 1225 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL 32603.

Aging is associated with normal and abnormal brain and cognitive changes. Due to the expected increase in older adults requiring surgery, perioperative clinicians will be increasingly encountering patients with neurodegenerative disease. To help perioperative clinicians understand signs of abnormal behaviors that may mark an undiagnosed neurodegenerative disorder and alert additional patient monitoring, The Society for Perioperative Assessment and Quality Improvement (SPAQI) worked with experts in dementia, neuropsychology, geriatric medicine, neurology, and anesthesiology to provide a summary of cognitive and behavioral considerations for patients with common neurodegenerative disorders being evaluated at preoperative centers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcorm.2020.100092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311090PMC
September 2020

Serum Uric Acid Concentration in Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease (Ischemic Stroke and Vascular Dementia).

Med Arch 2020 Apr;74(2):95-99

Faculty of Health Studies, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Introduction: Significance of serum uric acid (UA) in cerebrovascular disease still remains controversial. UA is most abundant natural antioxidant in human plasma. Its antioxidant properties might protect against free radical damage, thereby reducing the risk of oxidative stress-related cognitive impairment and dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/medarh.2020.74.95-99DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296397PMC

Late functional improvement and 5-year poststroke outcomes: a population-based cohort study.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Wolfson Centre for Prevention of Stroke and Dementia, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Background: Late functional improvement between 3 and 12 months poststroke occurs in about one in four patients with ischaemic stroke, more commonly in lacunar strokes. It is unknown whether this late improvement is associated with better long-term clinical or health economic outcomes.

Methods: In a prospective, population-based cohort of 1-year ischaemic stroke survivors (Oxford Vascular Study; 2002-2014), we examined changes in functional status (modified Rankin Scale (mRS), Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI), Barthel Index (BI)) from 3 to 12 months poststroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2019-322365DOI Listing

A 95-year-old patient with unexpected coronavirus disease 2019 masked by aspiration pneumonia: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2020 Jun 23;14(1):82. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, "Hypertension Excellence Centre" of the European Society of Hypertension, Italian National Research Centre on Aging, Hospital "U. Sestilli", IRCCS INRCA, via della Montagnola n. 81, 60127, Ancona, Italy.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection has become a pandemic disease (coronavirus disease 2019). The infection has moved from China to the rest of the world and Italy represents one of the most affected countries. Older adults are more susceptible to develop complications with the consequent highest mortality rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13256-020-02432-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309209PMC