5,758 results match your criteria Varicocele


Assessment of seminal calcium and magnesium levels in infertile men with varicocele before and after varicocelectomy.

Andrology 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Andrology, Sexology & STIs, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Background: Trace elements perform a vital role in all stages of human physiology, as well as reproduction.

Objective: This study aimed to assess seminal calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in infertile men associated with varicocele (Vx).

Material &methods: Overall, 50 men were divided into two groups; fertile men (n = 20) and infertile men that were scheduled for Vx surgical repair (n = 30). Read More

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Role of multiparametric ultrasound in testicular focal lesions and diffuse pathology evaluation, with particular regard to elastography: review of Literature.

Andrology 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Ultrasound is the main requested technique for the assessment of traumatic, vascular, neoplastic, and inflammatory testicular pathology. Moreover, the role of ultrasound has broadened over the years along with the introduction of new techniques, such as contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and US-elastography.

Objective: An updated representation of the pre-existing Literature evidence for multiparametric ultrasound imaging with particular regard to elastography, in the evaluation of focal and diffuse testicular pathologies, has been presented. Read More

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Can the Body Mass Index Predict Varicocele Recurrence Post-Intervention?

Cureus 2021 May 7;13(5):e14892. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Radiology, Ministry of National Guard - Health Affairs, Riyadh, SAU.

Purpose In this study, we investigated the association between the body mass index (BMI) and varicocele recurrence post-intervention in our local Saudi population. We also explored the association between recurrence and other predictors such as age, laterality, indication for surgery, type of intervention, clinical grade, testicular delivery, and method of ligation. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study, including all patients who had microscopic varicocelectomy surgery or radiographic embolization for varicoceles over a five-year period. Read More

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Management of Patients when Superficial Venous Disease Arises from Pelvic Escape Points.

Semin Intervent Radiol 2021 Jun 3;38(2):226-232. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Clinical Radiology and Surgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania - Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a common condition in women that carries with it significant morbidity. It is commonly seen in patients presenting to obstetrics and gynecology outpatient clinic visits. CPP is a presenting symptom of various pathologies including pelvic varicocele, pelvic adhesions, spastic colon syndrome, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, and psychosomatic disorders. Read More

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Varicocele Embolization: Patient Selection: Preprocedure Workup, and Technical Considerations.

Semin Intervent Radiol 2021 Jun 3;38(2):176-181. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Departments of Urology and Radiology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York City, New York.

Varicocele refers to an abnormally dilated and tortuous pampiniform venous plexus within the spermatic cord. The prevalence of varicocele is reported to be approximately 15% in the general male population. Its incidence increases with age and has a higher incidence in infertile men. Read More

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Spermatocytic Tumor of Testis in a Young Male.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2021 Jun;30(6):722-724

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Spermatocytic tumor is a rare germ cell tumor not related to germ cell neoplasia in situ, and derived from postpubertal-type germ cells. It was previously called "Spermatocytic Seminoma" due to false belief of its origin from germ cell neoplasia in situ. The tumor usually occurs in an older age group and orchidectomy is curative. Read More

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15-Year varicocelectomy outcomes in pediatric age: Beware of genitofemoral nerve injury.

J Pediatr Urol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Centro Hospitalar Universitário São João, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, Porto, 4200-319, Portugal; Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, Porto, 4200-319, Portugal.

Background: Varicocele affects 15% of adolescents. The main postoperative complications are recurrence and hydrocele; nerve injury is rarely reported.

Objective: The aims of this study are: to assess the complications after laparoscopic varicocelectomy, namely nerve injury; and to assess if nerve injury is more frequent using "hot" or "cold" ligation. Read More

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Obstructive oligospermia: the role of interventional radiology in its diagnosis and treatment.

Pol J Radiol 2021 12;86:e204-e207. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University Federico II of Naples (UNINA), Naples, Italy.

Purpose: According to the latest World Health Organization guidelines (2010), oligo-sperm it is due to a sperm concentration of less than 15 million/ml of seminal fluid. The cause can be obstructive and non-obstructive. Interventional radiology allows diagnosis and, in some cases, minimally invasive treatment. Read More

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Improvement of semen parameters after coil embolization of varicoceles: a systematic review.

J Vasc Bras 2021 Apr 28;20:e20200137. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Programa de pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the 2009 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, including clinical studies in which one of the outcomes was semen parameter improvement after varicocele embolization using coils only. The objective of the review was to assess the evidence on the role of embolization using coils alone for semen parameter improvement in men with varicocele, since embolization using coils is the most cost-effective method of varicocele repair. Study quality was assessed using the methodological index for non-randomized studies (MINORS). Read More

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Historical trends for the standards in scrotal ultrasonography: What was, what is and what will be normal.

Andrology 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Endocrinology Unit, Department of Experimental, Clinical and Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Background: Ultrasonography (US) is the gold standard imaging method for scrotal investigation. Colour-Doppler US (CDUS), contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) and sonoelastography (SE) allow sonographers to assess size, echotexture, vascular features and stiffness of the scrotal organs and abnormalities. Scrotal US has been used to investigate male reproductive health, scrotal pain, masses and trauma. Read More

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An unusual case of genital filariasis of the testicular tunics in an Italian patient.

Ann Saudi Med 2021 May-Jun;41(3):186-189. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

From the Department of Surgery Pietro Valdoni, Umberto I Policlinico, Roma, Italy.

At least 27 million men present with urogenital manifestations of genital filariasis (GF). Although there is a large burden of GF in residents in endemic regions, infection in short-term travellers and in non-endemic areas is rare. We report the case of a 75-year-old Italian man referred to our institution for a testicular discomfort. Read More

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Coenzyme Q10, oxidative stress, and male infertility: A review.

Clin Exp Reprod Med 2021 Jun 25;48(2):97-104. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Oral Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, MAHSA University, Malaysia.

Male infertility has a complex etiopathology, which mostly remains elusive. Although research has claimed that oxidative stress (OS) is the most likely underlying mechanism of idiopathic male infertility, the specific treatment of OS-mediated male infertility requires further investigation. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a vitamin-like substance, has been found in measurable levels in human semen. Read More

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Lycopene Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced Testicular Injury by Inhibiting PROK2 Expression and Activating PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway in a Varicocele Adult Rat.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 8;2021:3471356. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Urology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250014, Shandong, China.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lycopene on hypoxia-induced testicular injury in rat model and explore the underlying mechanism.

Methods: Six-week-old male Wistar rats ( = 36) were randomly divided into three groups ( = 12/group): a normal group (NG, sham control), a varicocele group (VG), and a varicocele treated by lycopene group (VLG). Bilateral renal veins constriction was performed on rats in VG and VLG. Read More

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The Comparison of Resistance Index of Testicular Artery Using Color Doppler Ultrasound in Infertile Men Undergoing Varicocelectomy.

J Reprod Infertil 2021 Apr-Jun;22(2):110-115

Department of Radiology, Razi Hospital, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Varicocele is one of the leading causes of infertility in men. Resistance index (RI) in testis is a parameter indicating parenchymal perfusion and microvascular functions. Increased RI in the testis of patients with varicocele might be a sign of impairments in microvascularization and a significant decrease in testicular perfusion. Read More

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Varicocoele. Classification and pitfalls.

Andrology 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Andrology, Female Endocrinology and Gender Incongruence Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences "Mario Serio", University of Florence, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Carreggi, Firenze, Italy.

Background: Varicocoeles have been considered for a long time potentially correctable causes for male infertility, even though the correlation of this condition with infertility and sperm damage is still debated.

Objective: To present a summary of the evidence evaluation for imaging varicocoeles, to underline the need for a standardized examination technique and for a unique classification, and to focus on pitfalls in image interpretation.

Methods: Based on the evidence of the literature, the current role of ultrasound (US) imaging for varicocoeles has been reported and illustrated, with emphasis on examination technique, classification, and pitfalls. Read More

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Standing Ultrasound Adds Clinical Utility for the Diagnosis of Varicoceles.

J Urol 2021 May 25:101097JU0000000000001877. Epub 2021 May 25.

Center for Reproductive Medicine and Surgery, Institute for Reproductive Medicine and Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York.

Purpose: To assess the role of standing vs supine scrotal ultrasound (SUS) for varicocele assessment by evaluating differences in clinical outcomes.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed men from 2008-2020 diagnosed with varicocele who had documented SUS with both supine and standing assessments with and without Valsalva. Clinical outcomes (semen parameters, TUNEL and serum testosterone (T)) after microsurgical varicocelectomy were compared among men who had varicoceles diagnosed by standing SUS (vein size >2. Read More

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SERPIN A5 may have a potential as a biomarker in reflecting the improvement of semen quality in infertile men who underwent varicocele repair.

Andrologia 2021 May 19:e14081. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Urology, Kocaeli University School of Medicine, Kocaeli, Turkey.

We aimed to identify proteins that were differentially regulated in spermatozoal samples collected from fertile healthy men (FHM) and infertile patients with varicocele (IFPV) before and after varicocelectomy. Seminal samples were collected from 20 IFPV before and after varicocelectomy and from 14 FHM as controls. Samples underwent seminal examination and proteomic analysis. Read More

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Effect of varicocele repair on sperm retrieval rate and testicular histopathological patterns in men with nonobstructive azoospermia.

Asian J Androl 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Indonesian Reproductive Science Institute, Bunda General Hospital, Jakarta 10310, Indonesia.

Varicocele adversely affects semen parameters. However, the effect of varicocele repair on the sperm retrieval rate and testicular histopathological patterns in men with nonobstructive azoospermia has not been widely reported. We retrospectively assessed the sperm retrieval rates and testicular histopathological patterns in men with nonobstructive azoospermia who were referred to the Urology Clinic in Dr. Read More

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Spermatic vein embolization as a treatment for symptomatic varicocele.

Can Urol Assoc J 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Radiology, St. Vincent's University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Introduction: Varicocele is a relatively common condition in men that causes pain in approximately 10% of cases. There have been few studies to date assessing the improvements in both pain and quality of life parameters associated with spermatic vein embolization (SVE) as a treatment for patients with symptomatic varicocele, so we aimed to assess this.

Methods: A review was carried out of consecutive SVE procedures performed at our institution from 2013-2019. Read More

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Effect of varicocelectomy on sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation rates in infertile men with clinical varicocele: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Fertil Steril 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

ANDROFERT, Andrology and Human Reproduction Clinic, Referral Center for Male Reproduction, 13075-460 Campinas, Brazil; Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil; Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the effect of varicocelectomy on sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation (SDF) rates in infertile men with clinical varicocele.

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Setting: Not applicable. Read More

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Evaluation of the effect of shift working and sleep quality on semen parameters in men attending infertility clinic.

Andrologia 2021 May 12:e14116. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey.

We aimed to evaluate the effect of shift work on semen parameters together with the effect of sleep quality in men attending infertility clinic. The participants were divided into two groups as follows: 104 shift worker men (Group 1) and 116 nonshift worker men (Group 2). Groups were compared in terms of semen parameters, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores. Read More

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Narrative review of the history of microsurgery in urological practice.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Apr;10(4):1780-1791

The Turek Clinic, Beverly Hills, CA, USA.

The clinical need for magnified visualization during surgery spurred the evolution of microscope and microsuture technology. Innovative surgeons across various surgical specialties recognized the importance of utilizing and advancing these technologies. Operative microscopy allows human dexterity to perform beyond direct visual limitations. Read More

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Effect of varicoceles on spermatogenesis.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, 525 East 68th Street, Starr 900, New York, NY 10065, United States. Electronic address:

Varicoceles are dilated veins within the spermatic cord and a relatively common occurrence in men. Fortunately, the large majority of men are asymptomatic, however, a proportion of men with varicoceles can suffer from infertility and testosterone deficiency. Sperm and testosterone are produced within the testis, and any alteration to the testicular environment can negatively affect the cells responsible for these processes. Read More

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Prediction of reproductive function recovery after microsurgical varicocelectomy in men from infertile couples: Clinical and laboratory predictors.

Andrologia 2021 May 7:e14101. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Urology and Andrology, Faculty of Fundamental Medicine, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

The objective was to reveal predictors for fertility recovery after varicocelectomy in subfertile men. This retrospective study recruited 93 men with clinical varicocele and pathozoospermia who underwent microsurgical varicocelectomy. Stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to identify predictors of spontaneous pregnancy (SP) after surgery. Read More

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[Varicocele and reproductive function: pathozoospermia treatment (a prospective comparative study)].

Urologiia 2021 May(2):62-68

Department of Urology and Andrology, Faculty of Fundamental Medicine, and Head of the Clinic for Mens Health, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Varicocele does not always lead to infertility; varicocelectomy does not always improve sperm.

Objective: to evaluate the standardized effect (Es) of nutrient therapy, microsurgical and laparoscopic varicocelectomy for pathozoospermia.

Study Design: a multicenter case-control study with stratified randomization. Read More

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Liquid and Solid Embolic Agents in Gonadal Veins.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 9;10(8). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Radiology Unit I, Department of Medical Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies "GF Ingrassia"-University Hospital "Policlinico-San Marco", University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia n° 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.

Male varicocele and pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) are common pathologies with high predominance in young patients, having a high impact on the quality of life and infertility. Lately, the use of different endovascular embolization techniques, with various embolizing agents, shows good technical results and clinical outcomes. With the aim of presenting the "state of the art" of endovascular techniques for the treatment of male varicocele and PCS, and to discuss the performance of the different embolic agents proposed, we conducted an extensive analysis of the relevant literature and we reported and discussed the results of original studies and previous meta-analyses, providing an updated guide on this topic to clinicians and interventional radiologists. Read More

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The effect of ejaculation time on varicose vein diameter and reflux level.

Andrologia 2021 Apr 28:e14090. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Urology, Hatay State Hospital, Hatay, Turkey.

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the time interval between ejaculation and scrotal Doppler ultrasonography affects the results of the varicose vein diameter and reflux time. Age, medication use, operation history, physical examination and semen analysis findings, varicose vein diameters and the presence of reflux and reflux time were evaluated prospectively in the patients older than 18 years of age who presented to the urology outpatient clinic with infertility and underwent scrotal Doppler ultrasonography and semen analysis. The time interval between the two scrotal Doppler ultrasonography for semen analysis was noted, the two results were compared. Read More

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Deferasirox, an Iron-Chelating Agent, Improves Testicular Morphometric and Sperm Functional Parameters in a Rat Model of Varicocele.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 8;2021:6698482. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Animal Biotechnology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Isfahan, Iran.

Varicocele is characterized by testicular dysfunction that originates from hyperthermia and hypoxia, leading to defects in testicular tissue and altered spermatozoa structure and function. The varicocele testis is characterized by the presence of intracellular iron deposits that contribute to the associated oxidative stress. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that administration of an iron-chelating agent, such as deferasirox (DFX), could potentially mitigate the consequences of varicocele on testicular tissue and spermatozoa. Read More

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Surgical or radiological treatment for varicoceles in subfertile men.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 04 23;4:CD000479. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Cochrane Austria, Department for Evidence-based Medicine and Evaluation, Danube University Krems, Krems, Austria.

Background: Varicoceles are associated with male subfertility; however, the mechanisms by which varicoceles affect fertility have yet to be satisfactorily explained. Several treatment options exist, including surgical or radiological treatment, however the safest and most efficient treatment remains unclear.  OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgical and radiological treatment of varicoceles on live birth rate, adverse events, pregnancy rate, varicocele recurrence, and quality of life amongst couples where the adult male has a varicocele, and the female partner of childbearing age has no fertility problems. Read More

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Clinical outcome of pediatric and young adult subclinical varicoceles: a single-institution experience.

Asian J Androl 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Urology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Subclinical varicocele represents an abnormality of veins of the pampiniform plexus on scrotal ultrasound (US) without a clinically palpable varicocele. Its significance remains unclear. While guidelines do not recommend surgical intervention, clinical management is variable. Read More

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