8,927 results match your criteria Varicella-Zoster Virus


A Clinico-epidemiological Study of Childhood Herpes Zoster.

Indian Dermatol Online J 2018 Nov-Dec;9(6):383-388

Department of Dermatology, Military Hospital, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Herpes zoster (HZ) is a viral infection believed to be caused by the re activation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) or human herpes virus type 3 (HHV 3) that persists in the posterior nerve root ganglion. HZ is rarely reported in the pediatric age group with an intact immunity. Past infection with VZV and immunization with chickenpox vaccine are key markers in the onset of varicella zoster in children. Read More

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December 2018

Varicella-zoster virus clades circulating in Spain over two decades.

J Clin Virol 2018 Nov 28;110:17-21. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Centro Nacional de Microbiología (CNM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Despite childhood universal VZV immunization was introduced in 2015, there are no data on VZV clade distribution in Spain.

Objectives: To characterize the varicella-zoster virus strains circulating in Spain between 1997 and 2016.

Study Design: In this retrospective study, we determined the VZV clades in 294 patients with different pathologies (mainly encephalitis, zoster and varicella) by sequencing three fragments within ORF 22, ORF 21 and ORF 50 and, subsequently analyzing 7 relevant SNPs. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

[Genetic characterization of varicella Zoster virus isolated from complicated clinical cases in Peru in 2016 and 2017].

Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 2018 Jul-Sep;35(3):533-534

Laboratorio Nacional de Sarampión y Rubeola, Centro de Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú.

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May 2018
1 Read

Long-read sequencing uncovers a complex transcriptome topology in varicella zoster virus.

BMC Genomics 2018 Dec 4;19(1):873. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, 6720, Hungary.

Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a human pathogenic alphaherpesvirus harboring a relatively large DNA molecule. The VZV transcriptome has already been analyzed by microarray and short-read sequencing analyses. However, both approaches have substantial limitations when used for structural characterization of transcript isoforms, even if supplemented with primer extension or other techniques. Read More

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December 2018

Live-attenuated varicella zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation.

J Clin Invest 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Background: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny since vaccination with Ad5-vectored HIV vaccine trials demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector which was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, defining the impact of VZV vaccination on IA is particularly important with the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine. Read More

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December 2018

Xanthine-based acyclic nucleoside phosphonates with potent antiviral activity against varicella-zoster virus and human cytomegalovirus.

Antivir Chem Chemother 2018 Jan-Dec;26:2040206618813050

1 Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.

While noncanonic xanthine nucleotides XMP/dXMP play an important role in balancing and maintaining intracellular purine nucleotide pool as well as in potential mutagenesis, surprisingly, acyclic nucleoside phosphonates bearing a xanthine nucleobase have not been studied so far for their antiviral properties. Herein, we report the synthesis of a series of xanthine-based acyclic nucleoside phosphonates and evaluation of their activity against a wide range of DNA and RNA viruses. Two acyclic nucleoside phosphonates within the series, namely 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]xanthine (PMEX) and 9-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]xanthine (HPMPX), were shown to possess activity against several human herpesviruses. Read More

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December 2018

IMMUNE RECOVERY UVEITIS-LIKE SYNDROME MIMICKING RECURRENT T-CELL LYMPHOMA AFTER AUTOLOGOUS BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT.

Retin Cases Brief Rep 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio.

Purpose: To report the multimodal imaging findings of immune recovery uveitis mimicking recurrent T-cell lymphoma after autologous bone marrow transplant therapy.

Methods: A 71-year-old man presented with posterior uveitis 6 weeks after chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplant for angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Multimodal imaging included fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Recurrent strokes, central nervous system vasculitis, and acquired protein S deficiency secondary to varicella zoster in a child with AIDS.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Medical Research, Gundersen Health System, Mail Stop C03-006B, 1836 South Avenue, La Crosse, WI, 54601, USA.

A child with vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus refractory to therapy developed zoster-induced protein S deficiency and recurrent strokes. Extensive carotid arteritis was found postmortem. The carotid tissue was positive for herpes varicella zoster by polymerase chain reaction, as were immunofixation stains of the arterial wall. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Molecular docking studies, charge transfer excitation and wave function analyses (ESP, ELF, LOL) on valacyclovir : A potential antiviral drug.

Comput Biol Chem 2018 Nov 17;78:9-17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Physics, Madras Christian College, East Tambaram, Chennai, 600059, Tamilnadu, India.

Valacyclovir is the l-valyl ester prodrug of the antiviral drug acyclovir that exhibits activity against Herpes simplex virus types and varicella zoster virus. An explicit surface analysis on the title compound was carried out theoretically using the wavefunction analyser multiwfn software, inorder to study the reactivity of the compound. The input wavefunction files were generated by Gaussian 09W software using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) as the basis set. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Diagnosis of viral central nervous system infections using antipeptide antibody against viral antigen by ELISA.

Acta Virol 2018 ;62(4):386-393

Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) occur sporadically and have been extensively studied because of the potential for permanent neurological damage or death. The neurotropic viruses have been reported to lead to various CNS infections. The objective of the present study is to develop an antigen detection ELISA protocol for detection and quantification of viral antigen in CNS infections by assessing the usefulness of antipeptide antibodies against potential peptides of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV) and Chandipura virus (CHPV). Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

Report of Resistant Varicella Zoster infection treated with Donor Lymphocyte Infusion in a Pediatric Oncology Patient.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

We report an 8 year old boy with disseminated, life-threatening, drug treatment-resistant varicella zoster infection occurring during standard treatment for neuroblastoma in whom viral clearance and cure was effected by donor Lymphocyte infusion from his HLA-identical twin sibling. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Anti-varicella-zoster virus activity of cephalotaxine esters in vitro.

J Microbiol 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Life Science, Gachon University, Seongnam, 13120, Republic of Korea.

Harringtonine (HT) and homoharringtonine (HHT), alkaloid esters isolated from the genus Cephalotaxus, exhibit antitumor activity. A semisynthetic HHT has been approved for treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. In addition to antileukemic activity, HT and HHT are reported to possess potent antiviral activity. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Ukrainian priorities for herpesvirus infections that affect the central nervous system.

Wiad Lek 2018 ;71(7):1289-1294

Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.

Objective: Introduction: Herpesviruses (HVs) are ubiquitous pathogens that infect humans usually during childhood, followed by a life-long persistence in a latent state in many sites of a body including the nerve cells. After reactivation HVs can affect the Central Nervous System (CNS) becoming a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide as well as long-term neurological sequelae. Despite being an important public health problem very few population-based studies were conducted so far in the world and none in Ukraine. Read More

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January 2018
5 Reads

SUNCT Headache Attacks Associated With Reactivation of Varicella Zoster Virus in a Trigeminal Distribution.

Headache 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Neurology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

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November 2018
1 Read

High Constitutive IL-10 Interferes with the Immune Response to Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) in Elderly Recipients of Live Attenuated Zoster Vaccine.

J Infect Dis 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, NY.

Introduction: Live attenuated zoster vaccine (Zostavax™) was used to test the hypothesis that constitutive IL-10, which may be high in elderly subjects, impairs vaccine efficacy. If true, then effectiveness of viral vaccines might be improved by transient inhibition of IL-10 before vaccination.

Methods: Zostavax™ was given to 26 patients (ages 60-80). Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Herpetic Panophthalmitis: A Diagnostic Dilemma.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018 Nov 16:1-3. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

b Ophthalmology , University of Rochester David and Ilene Flaum Eye Institute , Rochester , New York , USA.

Purpose: To describe an uncommon presentation of ocular infection caused by human herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2).

Methods: Case report.

Results: A 32-year-old female with no prior history of mucocutaneous herpesvirus infection presented with a minimally painful hypertensive granulomatous panophthalmitis and optic neuropathy that was initially suspected to be orbital cellulitis. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Varicella zoster virus differentially alters morphology and suppresses proinflammatory cytokines in primary human spinal cord and hippocampal astrocytes.

J Neuroinflammation 2018 Nov 15;15(1):318. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 4200 E. 19th Avenue, Mail Stop B182, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous alphaherpesvirus that produces varicella and zoster. VZV can infect multiple cell types in the spinal cord and brain, including astrocytes, producing myelopathy and encephalopathy. While studies of VZV-astrocyte interactions are sparse, a recent report showed that quiescent primary human spinal cord astrocytes (qHA-sps) did not appear activated morphologically during VZV infection. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Successful rescue of acute liver failure and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis following varicella infection: A case report and review of literature.

World J Clin Cases 2018 Nov;6(13):659-665

Department of Emergency, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044, China.

Herein we report a case of acute liver failure (ALF) and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) induced by varicella infection, successfully rescued by a combination therapy of acyclovir, supportive care, and immunosuppression with dexamethasone and etoposide. A previously healthy 16-year-old boy presented with generalized rash, fever, severe abdominal pain, and abnormal liver function within 4 d. Chickenpox was suspected, and acyclovir and intravenous immunoglobulin were started on admission. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Global impact of varicella vaccination programs.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

a Centro Infant, Department of Pediatrics , School of Medicine, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) , Porto Alegre , Rio Grande do Sul state , Brazil.

Although varicella is usually a mild and self-limited disease, complications can occur. In 1998, the World Health Organization recommended varicella vaccination for countries where the disease has a significant public health burden. Nonetheless, concerns about a shift in the disease to older groups, an increase in herpes zoster in the elderly and cost-effectiveness led many countries to postpone universal varicella vaccine introduction. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Warts and all: Fingolimod and unusual HPV-associated lesions.

Mult Scler 2018 Nov 14:1352458518807088. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Neurology, Concord Hospital, Concord, NSW, Australia/ Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background:: Fingolimod is used to reduce relapse rates in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). It is a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) analogue having antagonistic effects on S1P receptors. Its immunosuppressive effect is due to reduced circulating lymphocyte numbers, and it may also be associated with impaired intrinsic cancer surveillance. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Corticosteroids for Preventing Post Herpetic Neuralgia after Herpes Zoster Infection.

Acad Emerg Med 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA.

Post-herpetic neuralgia is a painful condition of persistent chronic pain following acute reactivation of varicella zoster virus. The review defines PHN as persisting or recurring pain at the site of shingles at least one month after the onset of the acute rash. The incidence of shingles increases with age, almost doubling in each decade after 50 years of age. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Digital droplet polymerase chain reaction analysis of common viruses in the aqueous humour of patients with Posner-Schlossman syndrome in Chinese population.

Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: To compare the detection results consistency of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and digital droplet polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR), and determine the value of ddPCR for viral detection in the aqueous humour.

Methods: A total of 130 aqueous humour samples were collected, including 60 patients with Posner-Schlossman syndrome (PSS) in case group and 70 elderly patients with senile cataract in control group. The target nucleic acid fragments of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus and varicella zoster virus in aqueous humour were analysed by qPCR and ddPCR, respectively, for the diagnosis and curative effect monitoring of pathogen-induced PSS. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

2018 Colorado Alphaherpesvirus Latency Society Symposium.

J Neurovirol 2018 Dec 9;24(6):797-812. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 12700 E. 19th Ave, Mail Stop B1182, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Meeting Report on the 8th Annual Symposium of the Colorado Alphaherpesvirus Latency Society (CALS), held on May 16-19, 2018, in Vail, Colorado. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Primary varicella zoster infection with tongue lesions.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Nov 8;2018. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Paediatric Emergency Medicine, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK.

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November 2018
2 Reads

VZV-specific T-cell levels in patients with rheumatic diseases are reduced and differentially influenced by antirheumatic drugs.

Arthritis Res Ther 2018 Nov 9;20(1):252. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Transplant and Infection Immunology, Saarland University, 66421, Homburg, Germany.

Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV)-specific cellular immunity is essential for viral control, and the incidence of VZV reactivation is increased in patients with rheumatic diseases. Because knowledge of the influence of antirheumatic drugs on specific cellular immunity is limited, we analyzed VZV-specific T cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and seronegative spondylarthritis (SpA), and we assessed how their levels and functionality were impacted by disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). A polyclonal stimulation was carried out to analyze effects on general effector T cells. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

An Open-Label, Single-Dose, Human Mass Balance Study of Amenamevir in Healthy Male Adults.

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Astellas Pharma Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

Amenamevir is an inhibitor of the helicase-primase enzyme complex developed for the treatment of varicella zoster virus. This mass balance study investigated the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of a single dose (200 mg) of C-labeled amenamevir in healthy male volunteers. Blood, urine, and feces samples were collected for up to 8 days after the dose. Read More

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November 2018
11 Reads

Synthesis, Anti-varicella-zoster virus and Anti-cytomegalovirus Activity of 4,5-Disubstituted 1,2,3-(1H)-Triazoles.

Med Chem 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081. China.

Background: Clinical drugs for herpesvirus exhibit high toxicity and suffer from significant drug-resistantance. The development of new, effective, and safe anti-herpesvirus agents with different mechanisms of action is greatly required.

Objective: Novel inhibitors against herpesvirus with different mechanisms of action from that of clinical drugs. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Disseminated varicella-zoster virus infection with abdominal pain possibly caused by pirfenidone: A case report.

Respir Med Case Rep 2018 26;25:330-332. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Kameda Medical Center, 929 Higashi-cho, Kamogawa, Chiba 296-8602, Japan.

We report a case of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis treated with pirfenidone in a 76-year-old woman who complained of acute-onset abdominal pain and rashes. The patient was diagnosed with disseminated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, and pirfenidone was discontinued. Her condition improved in one month. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Identification of Amino Acids Essential for Viral Replication in the HCMV Helicase-Primase Complex.

Front Microbiol 2018 23;9:2483. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

U1092, RESINFIT, CHU Limoges, INSERM, University of Limoges, Limoges, France.

Promising new inhibitors that target the viral helicase-primase complex have been reported to block replication of herpes simplex and varicella-zoster viruses, but they have no activity against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), another herpesvirus. The HCMV helicase-primase complex (pUL105-pUL102-pUL70) is essential for viral DNA replication and could thus be a relevant antiviral target. The roles of the individual subunits composing this complex remain to be defined. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Corroboration of a Major Role for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Alzheimer's Disease.

Authors:
Ruth F Itzhaki

Front Aging Neurosci 2018 19;10:324. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Strong evidence has emerged recently for the concept that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) is a major risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This concept proposes that latent HSV1 in brain of carriers of the type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE-ε4) is reactivated intermittently by events such as immunosuppression, peripheral infection, and inflammation, the consequent damage accumulating, and culminating eventually in the development of AD. Population data to investigate this epidemiologically, e. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Reactivation of Simian Varicella Virus (SVV) in Rhesus Macaques After CD4 T Cell Depletion.

J Virol 2018 Nov 7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA

Rhesus macaques intrabronchially inoculated with simian varicella virus (SVV), the counterpart of human varicella zoster virus (VZV), developed primary infection with viremia and rash, which resolved upon clearance of viremia followed by establishment of latency. To assess the role of CD4 T cell immunity in reactivation, monkeys were treated with a single 50 mg/kg dose of a humanized monoclonal anti-CD4 antibody; within 1 week, circulating CD4 T cells were reduced from 40-60% to 5-30% of the total T cell population and remained low for 2 months. Very low viremia was seen only in some of the treated monkeys. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Infection and functional modulation of human monocytes and macrophages by varicella zoster virus.

J Virol 2018 Nov 7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Discipline of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is associated with viraemia during primary infection that is presumed to stem from infection of circulating immune cells. Whilst VZV has been shown to be capable of infecting a number of different subsets of circulating immune cells such as T cells, dendritic cells and NK cells, less is known about the interaction between VZV and monocytes. Here, we demonstrate that blood derived human monocytes are permissive VZV replication VZV infected monocytes exhibited each temporal class of VZV gene expression as evidenced by immunofluorescent staining. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Herpes Zoster DNA Vaccines with IL-7 and IL-33 Molecular Adjuvants Elicit Protective T Cell Immunity.

Immune Netw 2018 Oct 31;18(5):e38. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Biomedical Science and Engineering Interdisciplinary Program, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141, Korea.

Herpes zoster (HZ), or shingles, is caused by the reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) from the sensory ganglia when VZV-specific T-cell immunity is decreased because of aging or immunosuppression. In the present study, we developed HZ DNA vaccine candidates encoding VZV proteins and cytokine adjuvants, such as IL-7 and IL-33. We immunized C57BL/6 mice with DNA plasmids encoding VZV glycoprotein E (gE), immediate early (IE) 63, or IE62 proteins and found that robust VZV protein-specific T-cell responses were elicited by HZ DNA vaccination. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Clinical Features of Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection.

Viruses 2018 Nov 2;10(11). Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a pathogenic human herpes virus that causes varicella (chickenpox) as a primary infection, following which it becomes latent in peripheral ganglia. Decades later, the virus may reactivate either spontaneously or after a number of triggering factors to cause herpes zoster (shingles). Varicella and its complications are more severe in the immunosuppressed. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Ischemic Stroke due to Virologically-Confirmed Varicella Zoster Virus Vasculopathy: A Case Series.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Neurology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Limited data are available regarding the characteristics and prognosis of patients with stroke due to varicella zoster virus (VZV) vasculopathy.

Methods: We studied 4 patients (2 men and 2 women; age, 38-63 years) from a single center who developed acute ischemic stroke due to VZV vasculopathy. The virological diagnosis was confirmed by detecting VZV DNA and/or the IgG antibody to VZV in the cerebrospinal fluid. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Association between human herpes virus seropositivity and frailty in the elderly: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ageing Res Rev 2018 Dec 1;48:145-152. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Investigative Pathology Laboratory, Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil. Electronic address:

Frailty is an emerging geriatric syndrome characterized by decreased physiologic reserve and increased vulnerability to environmental factors. Several studies have examined the association between persistent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and poor clinical outcomes in the elderly, but the results are often contradictory. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze the association between human herpesvirus seropositivity [CMV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Varicella zoster virus (VZV), and Herpes simplex virus (HSV)] and frailty in elderly people. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Black-blood magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates varicella zoster vasculitis.

Intern Med J 2018 Nov;48(11):1408-1410

Department of Neurology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

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November 2018
1 Read

Lytic Transcriptome Dataset of Varicella Zoster Virus Generated by Long-Read Sequencing.

Front Genet 2018 16;9:460. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.

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October 2018
2 Reads

Antiviral drugs for varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus infections.

Authors:

Med Lett Drugs Ther 2018 Sep;60(1556):153-157

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September 2018
2 Reads

Recombinant Zoster Vaccine (Shingrix): A Review in Herpes Zoster.

Authors:
Yahiya Y Syed

Drugs Aging 2018 Dec;35(12):1031-1040

Springer, Private Bag 65901, Mairangi Bay, Auckland, 0754, New Zealand.

Shingrix is a recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) that contains a varicella zoster virus glycoprotein E antigen and the AS01 adjuvant system. The subunit vaccine is approved for the prevention of herpes zoster (HZ) [EU, USA, Japan, Canada and Australia] and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) [EU and Australia] in adults aged ≥ 50 years. In the pivotal trials in adults aged ≥ 50 years (ZOE-50) and ≥ 70 years (ZOE-70), RZV significantly reduced the risk of HZ and PHN. Read More

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December 2018
9 Reads

Aromatase Derived Estradiol Within the Thalamus Modulates Pain Induced by Varicella Zoster Virus.

Front Integr Neurosci 2018 12;12:46. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Ophthalmology and of Molecular Microbiology and Genetics, Eye and Ear Foundation, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Herpes zoster or shingles is the result of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection and often results in chronic pain that lasts for months after visible symptoms subside. Testosterone often attenuates pain in males. Previous work demonstrates ovarian estrogen effects γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling in the thalamus, reducing pain but the role of testosterone within the thalamus is currently unknown. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Manifestations of Herpes Virus Infections in the Nervous System.

Neurol Clin 2018 Nov;36(4):725-738

Department of Neurology, Felsenstein Medical Research Institut, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel.

The 3 neurotropic human herpes viruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are capable of establishment of latent viral infection in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. HSV-1, and more rarely HSV-2, carries the potential to cause meningoencephalitis, with devastating clinical consequences. Immediate diagnosis, based on clinical presentation, MRI imaging, and molecular diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction, and initiation of therapy are mandatory to reduce mortality and neurologic permanent sequelae. Read More

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November 2018
12 Reads

Acute Liver Failure due to Disseminated Varicella Zoster Infection.

Case Reports Hepatol 2018 27;2018:1269340. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Methodist Hospitals of Dallas, 1441 N Beckley Ave Dallas, TX 75203, USA.

Acute liver failure (ALF) can be due to numerous causes and result in fatality or necessitate liver transplantation if left untreated. Possible etiologies of ALF include ischemia, venous obstruction, medications, toxins, autoimmune hepatitis, metabolic and infectious causes including hepatitis A-E, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and adenovirus with VZV being the most rarely reported. Pathognomonic skin lesions facilitate diagnosis of VZV hepatitis, but definitive diagnosis is secured with liver biopsy, tissue histopathology, culture, and specific VZV polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

Lymphocyte Area Under the Curve as a Predictive Factor for Viral Infection after Allogenic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 Oct 22. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Viral infection is a serious complication that can greatly affect patient mortality and morbidity after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). For the early identification of patients at high risk for viral infection, we evaluated the impact of lymphocyte area under the curve (AUC) value as a new predictive factor for early immune reconstitution after allo-HSCT against viral infection. This study included 286 patients who underwent their first allo-HSCT at Kyoto University Hospital between 2005 and 2017. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

More than meets the eye: Varicella zoster virus-related orbital apex syndrome.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2018 Nov;66(11):1647-1649

Department of Internal Medicine, Singapore General Hospital; Department of Ophthalmology, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore.

A 67-year-old male patient with poorly controlled type-2 diabetes mellitus developed an orbital apex syndrome and anterior cavernous syndrome secondary to herpetic zoster ophthalmicus (HZO), despite being on oral acyclovir. Urgent treatment with intravenous acyclovir led to improvement of the orbital and ocular inflammation but had no effect on the complete ophthalmoplegia and profound visual loss. At the 9-month follow-up visit, the patient had complete unilateral ophthalmoplegia and monocular blindness due to optic atrophy. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Understanding the role of exogenous boosting in modeling varicella vaccination.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2018 Nov 5;17(11):1021-1035. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

b Center for Outcomes Research and Real World Evidence , Merck & Co., Inc , Kenilworth , NJ , USA.

Introduction: The exogenous boosting (EB) hypothesis posits that cell-mediated immunity is boosted for individuals reexposed to varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Historically, mathematical models of the impact of universal childhood varicella vaccination (UVV) have used limited data to capture EB and often conclude that UVV will temporarily increase herpes zoster (HZ) incidence. Areas covered: We updated a 2013 systematic literature review of 40 studies to summarize new evidence from observational or modeling studies related to EB and its parameterization. Read More

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November 2018
15 Reads

G1m1 predominance of intrathecal virus-specific antibodies in multiple sclerosis.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2018 Oct 17;5(10):1303-1309. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine Faculty of Medicine University of Oslo Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet Oslo Norway.

We have previously shown that plasmablasts of the G1m1 allotype of IgG1 are selectively enriched in the cerebrospinal fluid of G1m1/G1m3 heterozygous patients with multiple sclerosis, whereas both allotypes are equally used in neuroborreliosis. Here, we demonstrate a strong preference for the G1m1 allotype in the intrathecal humoral immune responses against measles, rubella, and varicella zoster virus in G1m1/G1m3 heterozygous multiple sclerosis patients. Conversely, intrathecally synthesized varicella zoster virus-specific IgG1 in varicella zoster virus meningoencephalitis comprised both allotypes. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Elsberg syndrome related to varicella zoster virus infection with painless skin lesions in an elderly woman with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2018 9;14:1951-1954. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Division of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan,

Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at increased risk of infections, with the urinary tract being the most frequent infection site. Incomplete bladder emptying, frequent urination and abdominal distension are typical symptoms of urinary tract infections (UTIs). A 68-year-old female with a long history of poorly controlled type 2 DM (T2DM) visited our hospital complaining of urinary retention, which was initially diagnosed as cystitis by another doctor. Read More

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October 2018
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No Evidence for Cross-reactivity of Virus-specific Antibodies With HLA Alloantigens.

Transplantation 2018 Nov;102(11):1844-1849

Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: Antibodies directed against HLA can develop through pregnancy, blood transfusions, or organ transplants. Anecdotal evidence suggests that virus-specific antibodies may have the capacity to cross-react with HLA, a phenomenon called heterologous immunity, which is well described for T-cell alloreactivity.

Methods: To determine whether antibody cross-reactivity between viral antigens and HLA is common, we tested 51 virus-specific human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for human immunodeficiency virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, and parvovirus, for reactivity against HLA class I and class II in single-antigen bead assays. Read More

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November 2018
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