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    One or two doses of live varicella virus-containing vaccines: Efficacy, persistence of immune responses, and safety six years after administration in healthy children during their second year of life.
    Vaccine 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Vaccine Discovery and Development, GSK, Philadelphia, United States. Electronic address:
    Background: This phase III B follow-up of an initial multicenter study (NCT00226499) will evaluate the ten-year efficacy of two doses of the combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine (MMRV) and one dose of the live attenuated varicella vaccine (V) versus a measles-mumps-rubella control group (MMR) for the prevention of clinical varicella disease. Here we present efficacy results for six years post-vaccination.

    Methods: In phase A of the study, healthy children aged 12-22 months from ten European countries were randomized (3:3:1) and received either two doses of MMRV, or one dose of combined MMR and one dose of monovalent varicella vaccine (MMR+V), or two doses of the MMR vaccine (control), 42 days apart. Read More

    A rare case of Waterhouse- Friderichsen syndrome during primary Varicella zoster infection.
    Neth J Med 2017 Oct;75(8):351-353
    Department of Internal Medicine, Haaglanden Medical Centre, The Hague, the Netherlands.
    Primary Varicella zoster virus infection in adults is associated with a higher risk of complications when compared with the benign disease course of primary infection during childhood. We present a rare complication of adult primary Varicella zoster in the form of acute, irreversible adrenal insufficiency due to bilateral adrenal haemorrhage, which is also known as the WaterhouseFriderichsensyndrome. Read More

    Nursing management of childhood chickenpox infection.
    Emerg Nurse 2017 Dec;25(8):32-41
    Torbay Hospital, Torquay, England.
    Chickenpox is an extremely contagious infectious disease caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). It is a common childhood illness characterised by an itchy vesicular rash and fever, which usually resolves spontaneously without medical intervention. Serious, and rarely fatal, complications can occur, including pneumonia, central nervous system infection, overwhelming secondary bacterial infections, especially with Group A streptococcus, and necrotising fasciitis. Read More

    The pUL37 tegument protein guides alpha-herpesvirus retrograde axonal transport to promote neuroinvasion.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Dec 7;13(12):e1006741. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.
    A hallmark property of the neurotropic alpha-herpesvirinae is the dissemination of infection to sensory and autonomic ganglia of the peripheral nervous system following an initial exposure at mucosal surfaces. The peripheral ganglia serve as the latent virus reservoir and the source of recurrent infections such as cold sores (herpes simplex virus type I) and shingles (varicella zoster virus). However, the means by which these viruses routinely invade the nervous system is not fully understood. Read More

    Diagnostic Approach to Viral Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in Paediatric Age Group: A Study from New Delhi.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Sep 1;11(9):DC25-DC29. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Phd Student, Department of Microbiology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, New Delhi, India.
    Introduction: Acute Encephalitis Syndrome has heralded the emergence of multiple virulent pathogens, which may result in severe morbidity and mortality. In India, encephalitis is not notified and there has been a dearth of analysis for trends in encephalitis death rates and causation. A downward trend has been observed in encephalitis deaths, due to 'known' causes, which can be largely explained by improvement in diagnostic, treatment, and prevention methods. Read More

    Herpesvirus and Autophagy: "All Right, Everybody Be Cool, This Is a Robbery!"
    Viruses 2017 Dec 4;9(12). Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC), CEA, CNRS, Univ Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.
    Autophagy is an essential vacuolar process of the cell, leading to lysosomal degradation and recycling of proteins and organelles, which is extremely important in maintaining homeostasis. Multiple roles have been now associated with autophagy, in particular a pro-survival role in nutrient starvation or in stressful environments, a role in life span extension, in development, or in innate and adaptive immunity. This cellular process can also take over microorganisms or viral proteins inside autophagosomes and degrade them directly in autolysosomes and is then called xenophagy and virophagy, respectively. Read More

    Report of a Myocarditis Outbreak among Pediatric Patients: Human Herpesvirus 7 as a Causative Agent?
    J Trop Pediatr 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Department of Pediatrics, Dumlupinar University Kutahya Evliya Celebi Training and Research Hospital, Kutahya 43040, Turkey.
    Background: The etiology of myocarditis in children has not yet been completely elucidated.

    Objective: Medical records of eight pediatric patients diagnosed with acute myocarditis within a 41-day period in a small-town hospital were retrospectively analyzed.

    Methods: We examined antibody titers of adenovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, respiratory syncytial virus, varicella-zoster virus and cytomegalovirus in peripheral blood. Read More

    Isolated cochlear neuritis from varicella reactivation mimicking a vestibular schwannoma.
    World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2016 Sep 1;2(3):181-184. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA.
    We present a case of a patient with progressive unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus with internal auditory canal enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) secondary to isolated cochlear neuritis from varicella reactivation. MRI following antiviral treatment showed resolution of enhancement. Varicella reactivation is commonly seen in the form of Ramsay Hunt syndrome, which is known to produce abnormal MRI enhancement from facial and vestibulocochlear neuritis; however, its characteristic clinical signs aid the diagnosis. Read More

    Haemorrhagic conversion of infectious myelitis in an immunocompromised patient.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Dec 2;2017. Epub 2017 Dec 2.
    Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.
    A 28-year-old man recently diagnosed with HIV (CD4 19 cells/mm3, viral load 3.6 million copies/mL, not on highly active antiretroviral therapy on initial diagnosis at outside hospital), disseminated histoplasmosis, shingles and syphilis presented with paraplegia developing over 3 days. Spine MRI demonstrated a longitudinally extensive cord lesion extending from C3 to the tip of the conus. Read More

    Radiotherapy-induced reactivation of neurotrophic human herpes viruses: Overview and management.
    J Clin Virol 2017 Nov 22;98:18-27. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Radiation Oncology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, United States. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Infection by Human Herpes Viruses (HHV) types 1-3, are prevalent throughout the world. It is known that radiotherapy can reactivate HHVs, but it is unclear how and to what extent reactivations can interact with or affect radiotherapeutic efficacy, patient outcomes and mortality risk. Herein, we aim to summarize what is known about Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-1,2 and Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) pathophysiology as it relates to tumor biology, radiotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy, diagnosis and management so as to optimize cancer treatment in the setting of active HHV infection. Read More

    Increased herpes zoster risk associated with poor HLA-A immediate early 62 protein (IE62) affinity.
    Immunogenetics 2017 Dec 1. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Antwerp Unit for Data Analysis and Computation in Immunology and Sequencing (AUDACIS), University of Antwerp, 2020, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Around 30% of individuals will develop herpes zoster (HZ), caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV), during their life. While several risk factors for HZ, such as immunosuppressive therapy, are well known, the genetic and molecular components that determine the risk of otherwise healthy individuals to develop HZ are still poorly understood. We created a computational model for the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA-A, -B, and -C) presentation capacity of peptides derived from the VZV Immediate Early 62 (IE62) protein. Read More

    Ultrasound indications for maternal STORCH testing in pregnancy.
    Swiss Med Wkly 2017 Nov 29;147:w14534. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Department of Obstetrics, University Hospital Basel, Switzerland.
    Aims Of The Study: Fetal abnormalities found on ultrasonography lead to a variety of diagnostic procedures, including a panel of serologies to detect possible maternal STORCH infections encompassing syphilis, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and others (human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C, parvovirus B19, enterovirus, varicella zoster, and Leptospira interrogans). The value of indiscriminate testing for infections upon the detection of fetal ultrasound abnormalities has been questioned. The aim of this study was to review the ultrasonographic abnormalities leading to maternal STORCH panels at the obstetrics department of a university hospital. Read More

    Detection of a novel mutation conferring acyclovir resistance and consecutive treatment failure in an HIV-positive patient with recurrent HSV-2 infection.
    J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2017 Nov 24;12:20. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Section of Experimental Virology, Institute for Medical Microbiology, German Consulting Laboratory for Herpes Simplex Virus and Varicella-Zoster Virus, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena, Jena, Germany.

    [Detection of herpes virus and human enterovirus in pathology samples using low-density arrays].
    Rev Esp Patol 2017 Jan - Mar;50(1):8-14. Epub 2016 Aug 6.
    Servicio de Anatomía Patológica, Complejo Asistencial de Salamanca, Salamanca, España.
    Despite the frequency of infections with herpesviridae family, only eight subtypes affect humans (Herpex Simplex Virus types 1 and 2, Varicella Zoster Virus, Epstein-Barr Virus, Citomegalovirus and Human Herpes Virus types 6, 7 and 8). Amongst enteroviruses infections, the most important are Poliovirus, Coxackievirus and Echovirus. Symptoms can vary from mild to severe and early diagnosis is of upmost importance. Read More

    Dermatological Complications After Solid Organ Transplantation.
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2017 Nov 25. Epub 2017 Nov 25.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Center for Autoimmune Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Organ transplant recipients (OTRs) are a population at high risk for cutaneous adverse events. Their early recognition and appropriate treatment is an important component of the clinical management of OTRs and should be optimally dealt with by dermatologists working in the context of a transplant dermatology clinic. Skin examination should be a standard procedure before performing organ transplantation to assess conditions which may be difficult to manage after the transplant procedure has been performed or which may represent a contraindication to transplantation, e. Read More

    Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of 2 doses of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine administered 2, 6 or 12 months apart in older adults: Results of a phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter study.
    Vaccine 2018 Jan 22;36(1):148-154. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    GSK, 709 Swedeland Road, King of Prussia, PA 19406, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: In phase III trials, 2 doses of a herpes zoster (HZ) subunit vaccine (HZ/su; 50 µg varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E [gE] and AS01B Adjuvant System) administered 2-months apart in older adults (≥50 and ≥70 years) demonstrated >90% efficacy in preventing HZ and had a clinically acceptable safety profile. Here we report immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety following administration of 2 HZ/su doses at intervals longer than 2 months.

    Methods: In this Phase III, open-label trial conducted in the US and Estonia, 354 adults ≥50 years were randomized 1:1:1 to receive 2 HZ/su doses 2, 6, or 12 months apart. Read More

    Herpes zoster vaccine live: A 10 year review of post-marketing safety experience.
    Vaccine 2017 Dec 22;35(52):7231-7239. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.
    Background: Zoster vaccine is a single dose live, attenuated vaccine (ZVL) indicated for individuals ≥50 years-old for the prevention of herpes zoster (HZ). Safety data from clinical trials and post-licensure studies provided reassurance that ZVL is generally safe and well tolerated. The objective of this review was to provide worldwide post-marketing safety information following 10 years of use and >34 million doses distributed. Read More

    Varicella Virus Vaccination in the United States.
    Viral Immunol 2017 Nov 27. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    2 Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons , New York, New York.
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the cause of chickenpox (varicella) and shingles (zoster), and was once responsible for over 4 million infections in the United States annually. The development of a live attenuated VZV vaccine was initially viewed with extreme skepticism. Nonetheless, a VZV vaccine was developed in the 1970s by Takahashi and his colleagues in Japan and was eventually licensed in the US. Read More

    Acute viral infections of the central nervous system, 2014-2016, Greece.
    J Med Virol 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Microbiology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    In order to investigate the viral etiology of acute infections of central nervous system (CNS), multiplex and single PCRs combined with serology for arboviruses were applied on samples from 132 hospitalized patients in Greece during May 2014-December 2016. A viral pathogen was detected in 52 of 132 (39.4%) cases with acute CNS infection. Read More

    Apparent seronegative maternal shingles with post-natal mother-to-baby transmission of varicella zoster virus.
    J Med Virol 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Clinical Microbiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK.
    We present an unusual case of varicella zoster (VZ) virus IgG negative, yet clinically apparent, maternal shingles, which prompted the administration of VZ immunoglobulin to the newborn. The mother had no previous VZ vaccination. Eleven days later the baby developed a primary VZ infection, with only mild disease, likely as a result of the VZ immunoglobulin. Read More

    Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in uveitis.
    J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect 2017 Nov 21;7(1):22. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Department of ophthalmology, Erasmus Medical Center, 's-Gravendijkwal 230, 3015 CE, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Retinal detachment is more common among uveitis patients than in the general population. Here, we aimed to assess the prevalence of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in a uveitis population.

    Methods: We retrospectively studied 851 uveitis patients, recording characteristics such as uveitis duration, anatomical location, and cause; RRD occurrence; proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) at presentation; surgical approach; reattachment rate; and initial and final visual acuity (VA). Read More

    Varicella zoster virus-infected cerebrovascular cells produce a proinflammatory environment.
    Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2017 Sep 13;4(5):e382. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Department of Neurology (D.J., M.A.N.), Department of Medicine (C.P.N., B.E.P.), and Department of Pediatrics (K.S.), University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora.
    Objective: To test whether varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection of human brain vascular cells and of lung fibroblasts directly increases proinflammatory cytokine levels, consistent with VZV as a causative agent in intracerebral VZV vasculopathy and giant-cell arteritis (GCA).

    Methods: Conditioned supernatant from mock- and VZV-infected human brain vascular adventitial fibroblasts (HBVAFs), human perineurial cells (HPNCs), human brain vascular smooth muscle cells (HBVSMCs), and human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFLs) were collected at 72 hours postinfection and analyzed for levels of 30 proinflammatory cytokines using the Meso Scale Discovery Multiplex ELISA platform.

    Results: Compared with mock infection, VZV infection led to significantly increased levels of the following: interleukin-8 (IL-8) in all cell lines examined; IL-6 in HBVAFs, HPNCs, and HFLs, with no change in HBVSMCs; and vascular endothelial growth factor A in HBVAFs, HBVSMCs, and HFLs, with a significant decrease in HPNCs. Read More

    A Unique Case of Acute Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Secondary to Primary Varicella Zoster Virus Infection.
    Cureus 2017 Sep 16;9(9):e1693. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Medicine, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Primary varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, predominantly in the pediatric population, presents with pyrexia and a classic pruritic vesicular rash. In adults, although less common, it is more severe and linked to more complications. Neurological complications, which account for less than 1% of all VZV complications, include meningitis, encephalitis, arterial vasculopathy, and venous thrombosis. Read More

    Phylogenetic and recombination analysis of the herpesvirus genus varicellovirus.
    BMC Genomics 2017 Nov 21;18(1):887. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 550 Bardeen Laboratories, 1300 University Ave., Madison, WI, 53706, USA.
    Background: The varicelloviruses comprise a genus within the alphaherpesvirus subfamily, and infect both humans and other mammals. Recently, next-generation sequencing has been used to generate genomic sequences of several members of the Varicellovirus genus. Here, currently available varicellovirus genomic sequences were used for phylogenetic, recombination, and genetic distance analysis. Read More

    Association between false-positive TORCH and antiphospholipid antibodies in healthy pregnant women.
    Lupus 2017 Jan 1:961203317741564. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    1 Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Pediatrics, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.
    The present study investigated: (a) the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and (b) the obstetric outcome in healthy pregnant women showing false-positive TORCH-Toxoplasmosis, Other: syphilis, varicella-zoster, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpes infections-results. Data from 23 singleton healthy pregnancies with false-positive TORCH results were collected. Each woman was systematically screened for TORCH IgG and IgM during the pre-conception assessment and/or at the beginning of pregnancy. Read More

    How Does Imaging of Congenital Zika Compare with Imaging of Other TORCH Infections?
    Radiology 2017 Dec;285(3):744-761
    From the Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215 (D.L.); Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology (J.C.J.) and Radiology (M.C.), University Hospital Brugmann, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; Department of Radiology, UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium (M.C.); and Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University, Boston, Mass (I.C.).
    The acronym TORCH is used to refer to congenital infections, such as toxoplasmosis, other infections (such as syphillis, varicella-zoster, and parvovirus B19), cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. The classic findings in patients with TORCH infections include rash in the mother during pregnancy and ocular findings in the newborn. Zika virus has emerged as an important worldwide congenital infection. Read More

    Enhancement of cutaneous immunity during ageing by blocking p38 MAPkinase induced inflammation.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, WC1E 6EJ, England, UK. Electronic address:
    Background: Immunity declines with age that leads to re-activation of varicella zoster virus (VZV). In humans, age associated immune changes are usually measured in blood leukocytes however this may not reflect alterations in tissue-specific immunity.

    Objectives: We used a VZV antigen challenge system in the skin to investigate changes in tissue specific mechanisms involved in the decreased response to this virus during ageing. Read More

    Family history of zoster and risk of developing herpes zoster.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Nov 13;66:99-106. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Research Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, CA, USA.
    Background: Studies have investigated a possible association between family history of HZ and the occurrence of HZ. However, the results were inconclusive and susceptible to bias. We evaluated this association in an elderly population. Read More

    Varicella zoster virus-associated morbidity and mortality in Africa - a systematic review.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Nov 14;17(1):717. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Vaccines for Africa Initiative, Division of Medical Microbiology & Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella and herpes zoster. These vaccine preventable diseases are common globally. Most available data on VZV epidemiology are from industrialised temperate countries and cannot be used to guide decisions on the immunization policy against VZV in Africa. Read More

    Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Amenamevir in Healthy Subjects: Analysis of Four Randomized Phase 1 Studies.
    Adv Ther 2017 Dec 13;34(12):2625-2637. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Astellas Pharma Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
    Introduction: Amenamevir (ASP2151) is a nonnucleoside antiherpesvirus compound available for the treatment of varicella-zoster virus infections. In this article we summarize the findings of four phase 1 studies in healthy participants.

    Methods: Four randomized phase 1 studies investigated the safety and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of amenamevir, including the assessment of age group effect (nonelderly vs elderly), food effect, and the relative bioavailability of two formulations. Read More

    Safety and Immunogenicity of Inactivated Varicella-Zoster Virus Vaccine in Adults With Autoimmune Disease: A Phase 2, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Oct;65(7):1174-1182
    Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, New Jersey.
    Background: Immunogenicity and safety of inactivated zoster vaccine (ZVIN) were evaluated in adults with autoimmune disease.

    Methods: Adults with autoimmune disease treated with immunosuppressive therapy (biologic or nonbiologic) were randomized to receive 4 doses of ZVIN, ZVIN containing a higher quantity of antigen, or placebo. To measure varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-specific immune responses using glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA) and interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFN-γ ELISPOT), blood samples were collected at baseline, post-doses 2, 3, and 4. Read More

    Diagnostic Value of Serum-Soluble Interleukin 2 Receptor Levels vs Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme in Patients With Sarcoidosis-Associated Uveitis.
    JAMA Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Importance: New and improved diagnostic tests for sarcoidosis-associated uveitis are needed because the currently available laboratory diagnostic biomarkers (eg, lysozyme and angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE]) are lacking in high sensitivity and specificity.

    Objective: To compare the value of soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R) with ACE as diagnostic biomarkers of sarcoidosis in patients with uveitis.

    Design, Setting, And Participants: A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted using data collected from 249 consecutive patients with uveitis at the Erasmus University Medical Center uveitis outpatient clinic, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, from April 3, 2013, through November 25, 2015. Read More

    Decreased Immunity to Varicella Zoster Virus in Giant Cell Arteritis.
    Front Immunol 2017 24;8:1377. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Introduction: Herpes zoster, which can have a major impact on quality of life, results from reactivation of a latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. We hypothesized that giant cell arteritis (GCA) patients are at increased risk of herpes zoster because of treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids and advanced age. Aim of the study, therefore, was to determine cell-mediated and humoral immunity to VZV in patients with GCA, patients with closely related disease polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR; treated with lower doses of glucocorticoids) and healthy controls (HCs). Read More

    A RARE CASE OF INFECTIOUS MULTIFOCAL SERPIGINOID CHOROIDITIS.
    Acta Clin Croat 2016 12;55(4):667-70
    Multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis is an infectious variety of serpiginous choroiditis. The disease is characterized by infectious etiology and overlapping clinical features in an intermediary form of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy and serpiginous choroiditis. In a 33-year-old patient, bilateral multiple placoid partially confluent chorioretinal lesions were diagnosed after a febrile flu-like episode. Read More

    Varicella-zoster virus ORF7 interacts with ORF53 and plays a role in its trans-Golgi network localization.
    Virol Sin 2017 Oct 30;32(5):387-395. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361102, China.
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that causes chickenpox and shingles. ORF7 is an important virulence determinant of VZV in both human skin and nerve tissues, however, its specific function and involved molecular mechanism in VZV pathogenesis remain largely elusive. Previous yeast two-hybrid studies on intraviral protein-protein interaction network in herpesviruses have revealed that VZV ORF7 may interact with ORF53, which is a virtually unstudied but essential viral protein. Read More

    Reply to Bigler et al. (ar-17-1461).
    Arthritis Rheumatol 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.
    We thank Dr. Bigler and his colleagues for their interest in our article and sharing the results from their laboratory. The authors proposed evaluating a biologic mechanism linking Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) to giant cell arteritis (GCA) through assessment of cross-reactive VZV-specific T cell immunity, hypothesizing that VZV reactive T-cells would be increased in GCA patients relative to controls. Read More

    Diffuse skin rash, altered mental status · Dx?
    J Fam Pract 2017 Nov;66(11):E7-E9
    University of Mississippi Medical Center, Department of Dermatology, Jackson, MS, USA.
    A 74-YEAR-OLD CAUCASIAN MAN presented to the hospital with intractable back and chest pain, a diffuse skin rash, and altered mental status. He said that 2 days ago, he'd gone to a different local hospital for treatment of back pain and a headache that had begun 3 days earlier. He was treated with intravenous hydromorphone and sent home with a prescription for meperidine. Read More

    Low intrathecal antibody production despite high seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus in multiple sclerosis: a review of the literature.
    J Neurol 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Molecular Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently have an intrathecal production of antibodies to different common viruses, which can be detected by elevated antiviral antibody indices (AIs). There is a strong and consistent association of MS and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection.

    Objective: To systematically compare the frequencies of intrathecal antibody production to EBV, measles virus, rubella virus, varicella zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in patients with MS. Read More

    Role for the Ventral Posterior Medial/Posterior Lateral Thalamus and Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Affective/Motivation Pain Induced by Varicella Zoster Virus.
    Front Integr Neurosci 2017 16;11:27. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, United States.
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infects the face and can result in chronic, debilitating pain. The mechanism for this pain is unknown and current treatment is often not effective, thus investigations into the pain pathway become vital. Pain itself is multidimensional, consisting of sensory and affective experiences. Read More

    Widespread activation of antisense transcription of the host genome during herpes simplex virus 1 infection.
    Genome Biol 2017 Oct 31;18(1):209. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Berlin Institute for Medical Systems Biology, Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association, Robert-Rössle-Strasse 10, 13125, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Herpesviruses can infect a wide range of animal species. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is one of the eight herpesviruses that can infect humans and is prevalent worldwide. Herpesviruses have evolved multiple ways to adapt the infected cells to their needs, but knowledge about these transcriptional and post-transcriptional modifications is sparse. Read More

    Varicella Zoster Virus specific T cell responses in untreated Giant Cell Arteritis.
    Arthritis Rheumatol 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Translational Immunology, Dep. of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a large vessel vasculitis of unknown cause. Infections were long suspected as potential disease triggers, yet a disease causing pathogen has not been identified to date(1). Recently, several studies reported Varicella zoster virus (VZV) particles in artery biopsies(2). Read More

    Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy mimicking varicella zoster infection: report in a woman with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and review of the literature.
    Dermatol Pract Concept 2017 Jul 31;7(3):6-15. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Department of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
    Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a rare papulovesicular eruption that presents in patients with hematoproliferative disorders, particularly chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A 59-year-old woman with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who developed eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy mimicking varicella zoster infection is described. PubMed database was searched with the key words: chronic, dermatosis, eosinophilic, hematologic, infection, leukemia, lymphocytic, malignancy, varicella, zoster. Read More

    Herpes zoster meningitis in immunocompetent children: Two case reports and a literature review.
    Pediatr Int 2017 Oct;59(10):1116-1118
    Department of Pediatrics, Kitano Hospital, Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Institute, Osaka City, Osaka, Japan.
    We encountered two cases of Herpes zoster (HZ) meningitis, a rarely occurring complication of HZ, in previously healthy children. One patient treated with i.v. Read More

    Herpes Zoster in the Older Adult.
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 2017 Dec;31(4):811-826
    Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC), Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center (LSCVAMC), Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. Electronic address:
    Herpes zoster (HZ) is the result of reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) and occurs most frequently in older adults. Classically, HZ presents as a unilateral, selflimited, dermatomal rash. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a common sequela, presenting as severe pain that persists after the rash has resolved. Read More

    A randomized lot-to-lot immunogenicity consistency study of the candidate zoster vaccine HZ/su.
    Vaccine 2017 Dec 24;35(48 Pt B):6700-6706. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Pfizer Inc., 500 Arcola Road, Collegeville, PA, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: The risk of developing herpes zoster (HZ) increases with age and is thought to be associated with a decrease in cell-mediated immunity in older adults. The adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E (gE) recombinant subunit vaccine (HZ/su) showed >90% efficacy in the prevention of HZ when administered in adults ≥50 years of age. Here we aim to evaluate immunogenicity consistency of 3 different HZ/su vaccine lots and to assess safety of these lots. Read More

    Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of the Interactions of Amenamevir (ASP2151) with Ketoconazole, Rifampicin, Midazolam, and Warfarin in Healthy Adults.
    Adv Ther 2017 Nov 26;34(11):2466-2480. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Astellas Pharma Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
    Introduction: Amenamevir is a nonnucleoside antiherpes virus compound available for treating herpes zoster infections. Four studies aimed to determine any potential interactions between amenamevir and ketoconazole, rifampicin, midazolam, or warfarin in healthy male participants.

    Methods: Two studies were open-label studies that evaluated the effects of multiple doses of ketoconazole (400 mg) and rifampicin (600 mg) on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of amenamevir. Read More

    Epidemiological Profile of Acute Viral Encephalitis.
    Indian J Pediatr 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Radiology, Sarojini Naidu Medical College, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Objective: To study the etiology and clinico-epidemiological profile of acute viral encephalitis in children with acute encephalitis syndrome (AES).

    Methods: An observational study including 100 patients fulfilling the criteria for AES was conducted in children of age group 1 mo - 16 y. Viral isolation was done on RD cells, HEp-2 cells and Vero cells from the cerebrospinal fluid samples of suspected viral encephalitis (VE) cases. Read More

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