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    10322 results match your criteria Varicella-Zoster Virus

    1 OF 207

    Varicella-zoster virus meningitis with hypoglycorrhachia in a young immunocompetent adult without rash: A case report and literature review.
    IDCases 2018 13;12:104-106. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases Unit, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Greece.
    Overt aseptic meningitis rarely complicates varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation in young and immunocompetent adults. Many of the cases of VZV meningitis are associated with an exanthem. We describe an otherwise healthy 36-year-old adult who had aseptic meningitis without skin rash, caused by reactivation of varicella-zoster virus. Read More

    The Potential Public Health Impact of Herpes Zoster Vaccination of People Aged ≥ 50 Years in Japan: Results of a Markov Model Analysis.
    Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2018 Apr 21. Epub 2018 Apr 21.
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo Heisei University, 4-21-2, Nakano, Nakano-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the public health impact of introducing two herpes zoster (HZ) vaccines into the vaccination programs for the Japanese population aged ≥ 50 years: a single-dose Varicella Vaccine Live (VVL) or a two-dose adjuvanted Recombinant Zoster Vaccine (RZV).

    Methods: A multi-cohort static Markov model was developed to follow age cohorts (50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and ≥ 80 years) over their remaining lifetime. Japan-specific data inputs for the model were obtained from Japanese data sources. Read More

    Combined Infection of Human Herpes Viruses: A Risk Factor for Subsequent Colectomy in Ulcerative Colitis.
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
    Background: Little is known about the prevalence and pathogenicity of human herpes viruses except for cytomegalovirus (CMV) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human herpes viruses on colonic mucosa in patients with IBD and assess the long-term outcomes in these patients.

    Methods: We examined the colonic mucosal specimens from 66 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 54 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), and 29 healthy patients to identify the 6 most common types of human herpes virus, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Read More

    The Skin and the Eye - Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus in a Healthy 18-month-old Toddler.
    Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2018 Mar;60(1):170-174
    Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
    Herpes zoster, caused by reactivation of varicella-zoster virus, is uncommon in infancy. Even more uncommon is herpes zoster ophthalmicus, defined as herpes zoster of the ophthalmic branch of the fifth cranial nerve. Among healthy children, primary varicella-zoster virus infection during gestation as a result of maternal varicella or the first year of life is the major risk factor for development of herpes zoster in a relatively young age. Read More

    Longitudinal analysis of varicella-zoster virus-specific antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus: No association with subclinical viral reactivations or lupus disease activity.
    Lupus 2018 Jan 1:961203318770535. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    1 Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, 10173 University Medical Centre Groningen , University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are at high risk of herpes zoster. Previously, we found increased immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in SLE patients compared to controls, while antibody levels against diphtheria and cellular immunity to VZV were decreased. We aimed to test our hypothesis that increased VZV-IgG levels in SLE result from subclinical VZV reactivations, caused by stress because of lupus disease activity or immunosuppressive drug use. Read More

    Zika Virus IgG in Infants with Microcephaly, Guinea-Bissau, 2016.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2018 May;24(5):948-950
    We analyzed blood samples from infants born with microcephaly and their mothers in Guinea-Bissau in 2016 for pathogens associated with birth defects. No Zika virus RNA was detected, but Zika virus IgG was highly prevalent. We recommend implementing pathogen screening of infants with congenital defects in Guinea-Bissau. Read More

    Real World Evidence for Regulatory Decisions: Concomitant Administration of Zoster Vaccine Live and Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine.
    Am J Epidemiol 2018 Apr 11. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, California.
    The US Food and Drug Administration is charged with expanding the use of real world evidence (RWE) for regulatory decisions. As a test case for RWE to support regulatory decisions, we present the scenario of concomitant vaccination with zoster vaccine live (ZVL) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). The prescribing information states that these vaccines should not be given concurrently, based on a small trial using varicella zoster virus antibody levels as a correlate of ZVL efficacy, even though ZVL protects against herpes zoster via cell-mediated immunity. Read More

    Frequency of Aquaporin-4 Immunoglobulin G in Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis With Antiphospholipid Antibodies.
    Mayo Clin Proc 2018 Apr 11. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:
    Antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies have historically been postulated to cause a poorly understood inflammatory myelitis. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) causes an inflammatory longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). In 2004, aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG) was first reported as a highly specific (>99%) serum diagnostic biomarker of NMOSD, distinguishing it from other disorders (eg, multiple sclerosis). Read More

    Varicella Zoster Virus Reactivation in Adult Survivors of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: How Do We Best Protect Our Patients?
    Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Department of Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) remains a significant public health burden for long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation. Delayed immune reconstitution after transplantation due to immunosuppression, posttransplant therapies, poor engraftment, and graft-versus-host disease leave a large number of patients at risk for herpes zoster (shingles) and its highly morbid complications. Although prophylaxis with acyclovir or valacyclovir has reduced the incidence of VZV reactivation as long as prophylaxis is continued, the incidence of disease in the late posttransplant period or after stopping prophylaxis is greater in the HCT population than the general public. Read More

    Elderly-onset varicella pneumonia in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis taking tofacitinib.
    Arthritis Rheumatol 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tomakomai City General Hospital, Tomakomai, Japan.
    A 68-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis, who was treated with tofacitinib, a type of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, was admitted for dyspnea and generalized purpuric vesicular rash, following 3 days of fever and malaise. She developed hypoxia from respiratory insufficiency. On physical examination, the systemic eruptions had an erythematous base and were present in various stages, from maculopapular to vesicular and pustular, with crusting (left). Read More

    Safety and Efficacy of Different Systemic Treatment Modalities for Acute Pain of Herpes Zoster: A Pilot Study.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2018 Mar-Apr;9(2):101-104
    Department of Dermatology, AVBRH, JNMC, DMIMS, Wardha (Meghe), Maharashtra, India.
    Background: Herpes zoster is a viral infection of skin caused by Varicella Zoster virus. The most important symptom for which the patient seeks medical advice is pain, which is perceived before the development of rash and lasts even after its resolution. The pain during the first 30 days after onset of herpes zoster is known as acute herpetic neuralgia. Read More

    Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus With Orbital Findings Preceding Skin Rash.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 Apr 3. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Southside Eye Care, Chesapeake, Virginia.
    The authors describe 2 patients who presented with orbital findings and later developed vesicular lesions that were positive for varicella zoster virus and consistent with Herpes Zoster ophthalmicus. One case is the first to involve dacryoadenitis and orbital myositis preceding disseminated Herpes Zoster. In the other case, a patient developed zoster orbital syndrome leading to elevated intraocular pressure, loss of vision, and afferent pupillary defect. Read More

    Granulysin as a novel factor for the prognosis of the clinical course of chickenpox.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Apr 10:1-4. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Burch University Sarajevo,Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    Granulysin is a recently discovered cytolytic protein of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Studies of healthy and immunocompromised patients with primary or recurrent varicella-zoster infections demonstrate the importance of virus-specific cellular immunity in controlling viral replication, but also some studies presented granulysin as a molecule that can play a role in chickenpox immunopathogenesis. This study investigated possible correlation between serum granulysin levels and clinical course of chickenpox. Read More

    Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia with Anti-viral Therapy for Zoster: A Case Report.
    Cureus 2018 Feb 2;10(2):e2144. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.
    Varicella zoster virus can infect the trigeminal ganglion, but viral infection is not frequently considered as a cause of trigeminal neuralgia. This is a case of a woman whose trigeminal neuralgia remitted after being treated with valacyclovir for a thoracic zoster rash and later resolved entirely following administration of the zoster vaccine. Successful treatment of trigeminal neuralgia with anti-viral therapies has not previously been reported. Read More

    Classic paper: Are the chickenpox virus and the zoster virus identical?: HELMUT RUSKA.
    Rev Med Virol 2018 Apr 6:e1975. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Institute of Virology, University of Ulm Medical School, Ulm, Germany.
    As early as 1943, the German physician Helmut Ruska visualized the virus of varicella and zoster (at that time, he was not completely certain whether the virus was the same) by the newly developed electron microscope; he is regarded as the discoverer of this virus. Here, we present a translation of his classical paper into the English language. In our introduction and commentary to his paper, we discuss the significance of Helmut Ruska's work for the development of virology, his distinction between the varicella, zoster, and herpes virus group on one hand and poxviruses on the other, as well as the development of imaging techniques which have refined or substituted for electron microscopy of viruses and virus-infected cells. Read More

    Aseptic meningitis caused by the Varicella-zoster virus after primary infection in an immunocompetent child: a case report.
    Ann Biol Clin (Paris) 2018 Apr;76(2):234-236
    Laboratoire de virologie, CHRU La Cavale Blanche, Brest, France, UMR 1078, Génétique, génomique fonctionnelle et biotechnologies, Inserm, Université de Brest, EFS, IBSAM, Brest, France.

    Varicella-zoster virus necrotising retinitis, retinal vasculitis and panuveitis following uncomplicated chickenpox in an immunocompetent child.
    BMJ Case Rep 2018 Apr 5;2018. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
    Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, Manchester, UK.
    A 4-year-old girl presented with acute left visual loss 4 weeks after uneventful chickenpox. She was found to have left necrotising retinitis and profound retinal vasculitis and vitritis. Aqueous humour was PCR positive for varicella-zoster virus. Read More

    Secular Trends in Infection-Related Mortality after Kidney Transplantation.
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 Apr 5. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
    Transplantation and Liver Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; and
    Background And Objectives: Infections are the most common noncardiovascular causes of death after kidney transplantation. We analyzed the current infection-related mortality among kidney transplant recipients in a nationwide cohort in Finland.

    Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: Altogether, 3249 adult recipients of a first kidney transplant from 1990 to 2012 were included. Read More

    Acute Hemichorea Can Be the Only Clinical Manifestation of Post-Varicella Vasculopathy: Two Pediatric Clinical Cases.
    Front Neurol 2018 20;9:164. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Division of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Acute hemichorea can occur in the context of infectious, autoimmune, metabolic, toxic, and vascular neuropathologies. Primary infection by varicella zoster virus (VZV) can result in vasculopathy with neurological manifestations, such as hemiparesis, at times accompanied by hemichorea. Isolated hemichorea, however, had not been reported. Read More

    Real-time Detection and Monitoring of Loop Mediated Amplification (LAMP) Reaction Using Self-quenching and De-quenching Fluorogenic Probes.
    Sci Rep 2018 Apr 3;8(1):5548. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Division of Microbiology, Virology & Infection Control, Children's & Women's Health Center of British Columbia, 4500 Oak St, Vancouver, V6H 3N1, Canada.
    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification (iNAAT) technique known for its simplicity, sensitivity and speed. Its low-cost feature has resulted in its wide scale application, especially in low resource settings. The major disadvantage of LAMP is its heavy reliance on indirect detection methods like turbidity and non-specific dyes, which often leads to the detection of false positive results. Read More

    [Characterization analysis of gM, gL genes of varicella zoster virus in six provinces of China].
    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2018 Apr;52(4):419-423
    Institute of Integrative Medicine of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, China.
    To analyze the genetic characterization of glycoprotein M(gM.),glycoprotein L(gL) of varicella zoster virus. According to the program of "Ministry of Science and Technology of China" , Based on the 12 suspected VZV patients monitored in Beijing (1 case), Shanghai (5 cases), Jilin (2 cases), Qinghai (1 case), Guangdong (2 case) and Sichuan (case) in 2007-2015. Read More

    Infectious Myelopathies.
    Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2018 Apr;24(2, Spinal Cord Disorders):441-473
    Purpose Of Review: This article reviews bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic pathogens associated with myelopathy. Infectious myelopathies may be due to direct infection or parainfectious autoimmune-mediated mechanisms; this article focuses primarily on the former.

    Recent Findings: Some microorganisms exhibit neurotropism for the spinal cord (eg, enteroviruses such as poliovirus and flaviviruses such as West Nile virus), while others are more protean in neurologic manifestations (eg, herpesviruses such as varicella-zoster virus), and others are only rarely reported to cause myelopathy (eg, certain fungal and parasitic infections). Read More

    [Rapidly deteriorated lobar intracerebral hemorrhages: possible association of varicella zoster virus-vasculopathy].
    Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2018 Mar 31. Epub 2018 Mar 31.
    Department of Neurology, Brain Attack Center, Ota Memorial Hospital.
    A 75-year-old man having dementia and lifestyle related diseases developed a lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (LICH) in the left parietal and a small cerebellar infarction in the left occipital lobe. Many micro bleeds (MB) due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in the subcortical areas and multiple vascular stenosis were also found by MRI and MRA. He developed herpes zoster in his buttocks on day 6 of hospitalization and complicated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) meningitis with positive for VZV-DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. Read More

    Usefulness of Inflammatory Markers for the Prediction of Postherpetic Neuralgia in Patients with Acute Herpes Zoster.
    Ann Dermatol 2018 Apr 21;30(2):158-163. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Dermatology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.
    Background: Increasing evidence suggests a pivotal role for neuronal inflammation in response to replicating varicella zoster virus in the development of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN).

    Objective: In this study, we investigated the value of serum levels of various inflammatory markers in acute herpes zoster (HZ) as predictors for the development of PHN.

    Methods: A total of 116 patients with acute HZ were enrolled in this study. Read More

    Fatal varicella in immigrants from tropical countries: Case reports and forensic perspectives.
    Leg Med (Tokyo) 2018 Mar 24;32:83-86. Epub 2018 Mar 24.
    DIMEC - Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Section of Legal Medicine, University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 49, 40126 Bologna, Italy.
    The primary Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) infection results in varicella, a generally benign, self-limiting disease in immunocompetent children. Despite the usual course a possible fatal evolution of the primary infection is observed predominantly in immunocompromised subjects and in adults, especially emigrating from tropical regions. Two cases of fatal varicella have been investigated and discussed. Read More

    Viral load and antibody boosting following herpes zoster diagnosis.
    J Clin Virol 2018 Mar 21;103:12-15. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Division of Infection & Immunity, University College London, London, UK.
    Background: Acute varicella zoster virus (VZV) replication in shingles is accompanied by VZV antibody boosting. It is unclear whether persisting virus shedding affects antibody levels.

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between VZV viral load and antibody titres in shingles patients during six months following diagnosis and assess whether VZV antibody titre could discriminate patients with recent shingles from healthy population controls. Read More

    Herpesviruses in the Activated Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase-δ Syndrome.
    Front Immunol 2018 23;9:237. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Medical Virology Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.
    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is important for multiple stages of herpesvirus replication including virus entry, replication, latency, and reactivation. Recently, patients with gain-of-function mutations in the p110δ-catalytic subunit of PI3K or in the p85-regulatory subunit of PI3K have been reported. These patients have constitutively active PI3K with hyperactivation of Akt. Read More

    Simian Varicella Virus Infects Enteric Neurons and α4β7 Integrin-Expressing Gut-Tropic T-Cells in Nonhuman Primates.
    Viruses 2018 03 28;10(4). Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, 3015 CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    The pathogenesis of enteric zoster, a rare debilitating complication of reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in the enteric nervous system (ENS), is largely unknown. Infection of monkeys with the closely related simian varicella virus (SVV) mimics VZV disease in humans. In this study, we determined the applicability of the SVV nonhuman primate model to study infection of the ENS. Read More

    VZV ORF63 protects human neuronal and keratinocyte cell lines from apoptosis and changes its localization upon apoptosis induction.
    J Virol 2018 Mar 28. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Discipline of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2050, Australia.
    There are many facets of varicella zoster virus (VZV) pathogenesis that are not fully understood, such as the mechanisms involved in the establishment of lifelong latency, reactivation and development of serious conditions such as post herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Virus-encoded modulation of apoptosis has been suggested to play an important role in these processes. VZV open reading frame (ORF) 63 has been shown to modulate apoptosis in a cell type specific manner, but the impact of ORF63 on cell death pathways has not been examined in isolation, in the context of human cells. Read More

    Safety and Immunogenicity of Zoster Vaccine Live in HIV-Infected Adults with CD4+ Cell Counts Above 200 Cells/mL Virologically Suppressed on Antiretroviral Therapy.
    Clin Infect Dis 2018 Mar 26. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.
    Background: Herpes zoster (HZ) risk is increased in HIV-infected persons. Live attenuated zoster vaccine (ZV) reduces HZ incidence and severity in older adults; ZV safety and immunogenicity data in HIV-infected adults are limited.

    Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in HIV-infected adults virologically suppressed on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Read More

    Varicella in Poland: economic burden in children 1-12 years of age in Poland, 2010-2015.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Mar 27;18(1):410. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Merck & Co., Inc., 2000 Galloping Hill Rd, Kenilworth, NJ, 07033, USA.
    Background: The safety and efficacy of live-attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccines in preventing varicella and reducing associated morbidity and mortality in real-world have been previously shown. In Poland, VZV vaccination is only mandatory for certain high-risk individuals. Here, we have conducted an evaluation of the clinical and economic burden of varicella in Poland. Read More

    Progressive outer retinal necrosis after rituximab and cyclophosphamide therapy.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2018 Apr;66(4):591-593
    Advanced Eye Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    We report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) in a patient of microscopic polyangitis (MPA), being treated with immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclophosphamide and rituximab. Her aqueous tap was positive for Varicella Zoster virus and she was treated with oral and intravitreal antivirals, along with discontinuation of one of the immunosuppressive agents, i.e. Read More

    Post-licensure safety surveillance of zoster vaccine live (Zostavax®) in the United States, Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 2006-2015.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Mar 26:1-23. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    a Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , United States.
    Background: Herpes zoster (HZ), or shingles, is caused by reactivation of varicella-zoster virus in latently infected individuals. Live-attenuated HZ vaccine (zoster vaccine live, ZVL) is approved in the United States for persons aged ≥50 years and recommended by the CDC for persons ≥60 years.

    Methods: We analyzed U. Read More

    ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) consensus document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies: an Infectious Diseases perspective (agents targeting lymphoid or myeloid cells surface antigens [II]: CD22, CD30, CD33, CD38, CD40, SLAMF-7 and CCR4).
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Mar 20. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Genoa and Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy. Electronic address:
    Background: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies.

    Aims: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of agents targeting CD22, CD30, CD33, CD38, CD40, SLAMF-7 and CCR4 and to suggest preventive recommendations.

    Sources: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family. Read More

    Small Vessel Vasculitis in Herpes Zoster-Discussion of Current Aspects of Varicella Zoster Virus Vasculopathy.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2018 Mar 21. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Department of Dermatology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar, Germany.
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) vasculopathy was initially described as herpes zoster ophthalmicus with contralateral hemiplegia in 1896. VZV is able to infect endothelial cells directly, leading to a thickened intima and vascular remodeling due to inflammation. Therefore, a spectrum of vasculopathies is induced, ranging from a discrete capillaritis-to-granulomatous vasculitis and obliterative angiitis. Read More

    Seroprevalence of antibodies against varicella zoster virus and rubella virus among newly recruited expatriate healthcare workers: a cross-sectional study.
    BMJ Open 2018 03 22;8(3):e019339. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Community Medicine and Public Health Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
    Objectives: To assess the state of immunity to varicella zoster virus (VZV) and rubella virus (RV) among newly recruited healthcare workers (HCWs) in Kuwait before they begin work, and to determine whether there are differences in the prevalence of seronegativity according to nationality, gender, age group and occupation group.

    Setting: This cross-sectional study involved analysis of blood samples from workers newly recruited to the Kuwaiti healthcare system.

    Participants: All new non- national HCWs recruited during the study period (n=1540). Read More

    Rapid Viral Diagnosis of Orthopoxviruses by Electron Microscopy: Optional or a Must?
    Viruses 2018 03 22;10(4). Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    (ret) University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Burnfoot, Stocksfield, Northumberland, NE43 7TN, UK.
    Diagnostic electron microscopy (DEM) was an essential component of viral diagnosis until the development of highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT). The simple negative staining technique of DEM was applied widely to smallpox diagnosis until the world-wide eradication of the human-specific pathogen in 1980. Since then, the threat of smallpox re-emerging through laboratory escape, molecular manipulation, synthetic biology or bioterrorism has not totally disappeared and would be a major problem in an unvaccinated population. Read More

    Management of herpes zoster (shingles) during pregnancy.
    J Obstet Gynaecol 2018 Mar 22:1-8. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    a Medical College of Georgia , Augusta University , Augusta , GA , USA.
    An infection with the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella and herpes zoster (HZ). Although rare, the development of HZ does occur during pregnancy. Maternal HZ does not result in increased foetal mortality, and the passage of VZV to the foetus rarely occurs. Read More

    A spliced latency-associated VZV transcript maps antisense to the viral transactivator gene 61.
    Nat Commun 2018 Mar 21;9(1):1167. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), an alphaherpesvirus, establishes lifelong latent infection in the neurons of >90% humans worldwide, reactivating in one-third to cause shingles, debilitating pain and stroke. How VZV maintains latency remains unclear. Here, using ultra-deep virus-enriched RNA sequencing of latently infected human trigeminal ganglia (TG), we demonstrate the consistent expression of a spliced VZV mRNA, antisense to VZV open reading frame 61 (ORF61). Read More

    Age-associated differences in infection of human skin in the SCID mouse model of varicella-zoster virus pathogenesis.
    J Virol 2018 Mar 21. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Department of Pediatrics; Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the skin-tropic human alphaherpesvirus responsible for both varicella and herpes zoster. Varicella and herpes zoster skin lesions have similar morphology but herpes zoster occurs disproportionally in older individuals and is often associated with a more extensive local rash and severe zoster-related neuralgia. We hypothesized that skin aging could also influence the outcome of the anterograde axonal transport of VZV to skin. Read More

    Sequential retinal necrosis secondary to varicella zoster in unrecognised long-standing HIV infection: patient safety report.
    BMJ Case Rep 2018 Mar 21;2018. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Royal Bolton Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Bolton, UK.
    A retired woman with left ophthalmic shingles of over 2 years' duration attended with bilateral vision loss and systemic upset. Acute retinal necrosis with detachment was detected on right fundus examination. Cataract in left eye precluded funduscopy. Read More

    Thymidine kinase and protein kinase in drug-resistant herpesviruses: Heads of a Lernaean Hydra.
    Drug Resist Updat 2018 Mar 31;37:1-16. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49-box 1043, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Herpesviruses thymidine kinase (TK) and protein kinase (PK) allow the activation of nucleoside analogues used in anti-herpesvirus treatments. Mutations emerging in these two genes often lead to emergence of drug-resistant strains responsible for life-threatening diseases in immunocompromised populations. In this review, we analyze the binding of different nucleoside analogues to the TK active site of the three α-herpesviruses [Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV)] and present the impact of known mutations on the structure of the viral TKs. Read More

    Characterization of phenyl pyrimidine derivatives that inhibit cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene expression.
    Antivir Chem Chemother 2018 Jan-Dec;26:2040206618763193
    1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu, Japan.
    Background Previously, we established a reporter cell line for human cytomegalovirus and screened anti-human cytomegalovirus compounds using the cell line. In this study, we characterized one of the identified compounds, 2,4-diamino-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (coded as 35C10). Methods 50% Effective concentrations (EC50s) and 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC50s) of 35C10 and its derivatives in human fibroblasts were determined by X-gal staining of the cells infected with human cytomegalovirus Towne strain expressing β-galactosidase. Read More

    The Role of the WI-38 Cell Strain in Saving Lives and Reducing Morbidity.
    AIMS Public Health 2017 2;4(2):127-138. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    University of California at San Francisco, USA.
    The modern success story of vaccinations involves a historical chain of events that transformed the discovery that vaccines worked, to administering them to the population. We estimate the number of lives saved and morbidity reduction associated with the discovery of the first human cell strain used for the production of licensed human virus vaccines, known as WI-38. The diseases studied include poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella (chicken pox), herpes zoster, adenovirus, rabies and Hepatitis A. Read More

    Immunopathology of Virus-Induced Anterior Uveitis.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018 15;26(3):338-346. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    g Department of Viroscience , Erasmus MC , Rotterdam , The Netherlands.
    Herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus, and rubella virus are the most common causes of virus-induced anterior uveitis. They can present in a variety of entities not only with typical but also overlapping clinical characteristics. These viral infections are commonly associated with ocular infiltration of T cells and B/plasma cells, and expression of cytokines and chemokines typical of a proinflammatory immune response. Read More

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