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    Facial palsy and atrial fibrillation: a special case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Jul 13;2017. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
    Ramsay Hunt syndrome (herpes zoster oticus) is a rare complication of latent Varicella Zoster virus infection. It can be complicated by permanent hearing loss, loss of taste and postherpetic neuralgia. Although Ramsay Hunt syndrome most prominently involves the facial nerve, a number of other cranial nerves can be involved such as the vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal and the vagus nerve. Read More

    Economic burden of varicella in children 1-12 Years of age in Hungary, 2011-2015.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Jul 14;17(1):495. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Merck & Co, Inc., Center for Observational and Real-World Evidence (CORE), MAILSTOP WP97-A243, 770 Sumneytown Pike, West Point, PA, 19486, USA.
    Background: Although live-attenuated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccines have been proven to be safe and effective in preventing varicella and real-word evidence shows routine childhood immunization programs are effective in dramatically reducing varicella associated morbidity and mortality, varicella vaccine is not included in the National Immunization Program (NIP) in Hungary. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and economic burden associated with varicella in Hungary.

    Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective, chart review study of patients aged 1-12 years with a primary varicella diagnosis between 2011 and 2015. Read More

    Simian varicella virus causes robust transcriptional changes in T cells that support viral replication.
    Virus Res 2017 Jul 8;238:226-235. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA. Electronic address:
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox) during acute infection. Several studies have shown that T cells are early and preferential targets of VZV infection that play a critical role in disseminating VZV in to the skin and ganglia. However, the transcriptional changes that occur in VZV-infected T cells remain unclear due to limited access to clinical samples and robust translational animal models. Read More

    Bilateral herpes zoster in a patient with end-stage kidney disease.
    Int Med Case Rep J 2017 19;10:209-212. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke-Shi, Tochigi, Japan.
    Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by the reactivation of a latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection within the cranial or dorsal root ganglia. The cutaneous lesions of HZ are typically limited to a single dermatome, while non-contiguous HZ involving two or more dermatomes is a very rare clinical entity. In this report, we describe a case of HZ involving the left and right side of the abdomen corresponding to the T11 dermatome in a 63-year-old man on chronic peritoneal dialysis. Read More

    Cytomegalovirus infection in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals is characterized by circulating regulatory T cells of unconstrained antigenic specificity.
    PLoS One 2017 6;12(7):e0180691. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Center, Aurora, Colorado, United States of America.
    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with immune-suppression in immune-compromised hosts and old adults. We previously showed that ex vivo CMV restimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of CMV-seropositive volunteers expanded CD4+CD27-CD28- regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here we evaluate the phenotype and function of circulating CD4+CD27-CD28- T cells of CMV-seropositive adults. Read More

    Expanding the Antiviral Spectrum of 3-Fluoro-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates: Diamyl Aspartate Amidate Prodrugs.
    J Med Chem 2017 Jul 6. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Medicinal Chemistry, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven , Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.
    Acyclic nucleosides containing a 3-fluoro-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl (FPMP) side chain are known to be moderately potent antihuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents, while being completely devoid of antiviral activity against a wide range of DNA viruses. The derivatization of the phosphonic acid functionality of FPMPs with a diamyl aspartate phenoxyamidate group led to a novel generation of compounds that not only demonstrate drastically improved antiretroviral potency but also are characterized by an expanded spectrum of activity that also covers hepatitis B and herpes viruses. The best compound, the (S)-FPMPA amidate prodrug, exerts anti-HIV-1 activity in TZM-bl and peripheral blood mononuclear cells at low nanomolar concentrations and displays excellent potency against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Read More

    Tuberculous Meningitis-Mimicking Varicella-Zoster Meningitis.
    Infect Chemother 2017 Jun;49(2):123-129
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one of the most common etiologies of aseptic meningitis. The severest manifestation of VZV meningitis is occasionally confused with tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Thus, we investigated the clinical manifestations of VZV meningitis as compared with those of TBM. Read More

    Human varicella zoster virus is not present in the semen of a man affected by chickenpox during the in vitro fertilisation of his wife.
    Andrologia 2017 Jul 3. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Human varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a member of the herpes virus family and affects humans only. Information about the presence of the virus in the semen samples of men affected by chickenpox is rather limited in the literature. Here, we reported a husband was affected by VZV during in vitro fertilisation treatment of his wife treated in our centre. Read More

    Oral shedding of human herpesviruses in renal transplant recipients.
    Clin Oral Investig 2017 Jul 1. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Division of Pathology, Department of Stomatology, University of São Paulo School of Dentistry, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2227 - Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Objective: To describe the shedding profile of human herpesviruses in the saliva of renal transplant recipients.

    Methods: This is a prospective case-control study of 50 renal transplant recipients and control group of 50 individuals (non-transplanted and immunocompetent). Mouthwash samples were collected via oral rinse and then submitted to screening for the presence of eight types of herpesviruses by using multiplex PCR. Read More

    1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucose, a bioactive compound in Elaeocarpus sylvestris extract, inhibits varicella-zoster virus replication.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Jun 29;144:266-272. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Department of Life Science, Gachon University, Seongnam-Si, Kyeonggi-Do, 13120, South Korea. Electronic address:
    The aim of this study was to establish the effect of a 70% ethanol extract of Elaeocarpus sylvestris (ESE) on varicella-zoster virus (VZV) replication and identify the specific bioactive component(s) underlying its activity. ESE induced a significant reduction in replication of the clinical strain of VZV. Activity-guided fractionation indicated that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of ESE contains the active compound(s) inhibiting VZV replication. Read More

    Risk Factors for Secondary Glaucoma in Herpetic Anterior Uveitis.
    Am J Ophthalmol 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Ophthalmology, P. O. Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen, the Netherlands; W.J. Kolff Institute, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, University of Groningen, the Netherlands.
    Purpose: To determine the incidence of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and secondary glaucoma in herpetic anterior uveitis (AU), due to either herpes simplex or varicella zoster virus, by using the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) criteria, and to identify risk factors for the development of glaucoma.

    Design: Retrospective, observational cohort study.

    Methods: Patients with herpetic AU presenting themselves between 2001 and 2013 at the ophthalmology department of the University Medical Center Groningen were included. Read More

    Herpes Zoster Involving the Second Division of the Trigeminal Nerve: Case Report and Literature Review.
    J Endod 2017 Jun 26. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Department of Endodontics, The Dental College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, Georgia. Electronic address:
    Herpes zoster along the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve is a rare condition that is caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that resides within the trigeminal ganglion after the primary infection of chickenpox. The disease may be manifested as a toothache during its prodromal stage. The active stage of the disease is characterized by the appearance of a vesicular rash. Read More

    The Role of Varicella Zoster Virus in the Development of Periapical Pathoses and Root Resorption: A Systematic Review.
    J Endod 2017 Jun 26. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Department of Clinic of Oral Surgery, School of Dental Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Introduction: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and subsequent herpes zoster (HZ) infection have been proposed as a causative agent of periapical pathoses and root resorption. This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and present a critical analysis of the available data on the association among VZV, subsequent HZ infection, and the development of periapical pathoses and root resorption and to analyze the level of evidence of available studies.

    Methods: The literature search covered MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and Scopus. Read More

    Varicella-Related Primary Healthcare Visits, Hospitalizations and Mortality in Norway, 2008-2014.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Jun 27. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    1Department of Infectious Diseases Epidemiology and Modeling, Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway 2Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Nordbyhagen, Norway 3Institute of Clinical Medicine Campus AHUS, University of Oslo, Section for Research and Development, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Nordbyhagen, Norway.
    Background: Norway does not currently implement universal varicella vaccination in childhood. We aimed to characterize healthcare burden of varicella in Norway in the pre-vaccine era.

    Methods: We linked individual patient data from different national registries to examine varicella vaccinations and varicella-coded primary care consultations, hospitalizations, outpatient hospital visits, deaths, and viral infections of central nervous system (CNS) in the whole population of Norway during 2008-2014. Read More

    Severe atypical herpes zoster as an initial symptom of fatal myelodysplastic syndrome with refractory anemia and blast excess (RAEB II).
    Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2017 18;10:195-198. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical Institute of Ministry of Interior (MVR), Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Herpes zoster is a common disease caused due to varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection with increasing incidence by age. If the patient has a severe, extended, or treatment-recalcitrant course of herpes zoster, this must be a red flag to search for underlying pathologies. Here, we report about a 64-year-old male patient with diabetes, who came to our emergency department because of general malaise, fever, chills, and a pronounced nuchal and facial swelling on the left side. Read More

    Latent virus reactivation in astronauts on the international space station.
    NPJ Microgravity 2017 12;3:11. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Mail code SK, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058 USA.
    Reactivation of latent herpes viruses was measured in 23 astronauts (18 male and 5 female) before, during, and after long-duration (up to 180 days) spaceflight onboard the international space station . Twenty age-matched and sex-matched healthy ground-based subjects were included as a control group. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected before, during, and after spaceflight. Read More

    STING is Involved in Antiviral Immune Response against VZV Infection via the Induction of Type I and III IFN Pathways.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) is a human-restricted α-herpesvirus that exhibits tropism for the skin. The VZV host receptors and downstream signaling pathways responsible for the antiviral innate immune response in the skin are not completely understood. Here, we show that stimulator of interferon genes (STING) mediates an important host defense against VZV infection in dermal cells including human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and HaCaT keratinocytes. Read More

    Is chickenpox so bad, what do we know about immunity to varicella zoster virus, and what does it tell us about the future?
    J Infect 2017 Jun;74 Suppl 1:S27-S33
    Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:
    Varicella and zoster continue to cause significant morbidity and even mortality in children and adults. Complications include bacterial superinfection, central nervous system manifestations such as meningitis, encephalitis, and cerebellar ataxia, and pain syndromes especially post herpetic neuralgia. Many developed countries but not all, are now administering live attenuated varicella vaccine routinely, with a decrease in the incidence of disease, providing personal and herd immunity. Read More

    Role of JNK pathway in varicella-zoster virus lytic infection and reactivation.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Division of Neuroimmunology and Neuroinfectious Diseases, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
    Mechanisms of neuronal infection by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) have been challenging to study due to the relatively strict human tropism of the virus and the paucity of tractable experimental models. Cellular mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been shown to play a role in VZV infection of non-neuronal cells, with distinct consequences on infectivity in differing cell types. Here, we utilize several human neuronal culture systems to investigate the role of one such MAPK, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), in VZV lytic infection and reactivation. Read More

    The spectrum of aseptic central nervous system infections in southern Germany - demographic, clinical and laboratory findings.
    Eur J Neurol 2017 Aug 21;24(8):1062-1070. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Background And Purpose: Aseptic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are frequently observed in Germany. However, no study has systematically addressed the spectrum of aseptic CNS infections in Germany.

    Methods: Data on 191 adult patients diagnosed from January 2007 to December 2014 with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis/meningoencephalitis at our hospital were collected by chart review and analyzed for demographic, clinical and laboratory findings. Read More

    Cutaneous varicella zoster virus infection following zoster vaccination: report of post-vaccination herpes zoster skin infection and literature review of zoster vaccination efficacy and guidelines.
    Dermatol Online J 2017 Jun 15;23(6). Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.
    BackgroundHerpes zoster vaccine is currently recommended in the United States for immune competent individuals ≥60 years. The efficacy of the herpes zoster vaccine decreases with age and with time following vaccination.PurposeAn elderly man with herpes zoster following vaccination is described. Read More

    Anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 activity of Houttuynoid A, a flavonoid from Houttuynia cordata Thunb.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Jun 17;144:273-280. Epub 2017 Jun 17.
    Guangdong South China United Vaccine Institute, Guangzhou, China; Sino-French Hoffmann Institute of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Science, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:
    Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection reactivate latent human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human papillomavirus in the presence of acyclovir (ACV). The common use of nucleoside analog medications, such as ACV and pencyclovir, has resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant HSV-1 strains in clinical therapy. Therefore, new antiherpetics that can inhibit early events in HSV-1 infection should be developed. Read More

    Chronic Herpetic Retinitis: Clinical Features and Long-Term Outcomes.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017 Jun 19:1-10. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    a Ophthalmology Department , Reference Centre for Rare Diseases, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, University Paris VI , Paris , France.
    Introduction: Chronic uveitis treated with immunosuppressive agents may have unfavorable outcomes due to delays in diagnosis. The aim of this study was to review initial data from clinical and ocular assessments and patient outcomes following specific treatments for atypical herpes virus ocular infections.

    Methods: The records of four consecutive patients with recurrent uveitis for at least five years treated in our department between 2001 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

    Vanishing spinal cord after varicella-zoster virus myelitis.
    Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2017 Jul 5;4(4):e364. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Neurology Service (M.S., J.A., N.S.-V., Y.B., S.L., F.G., A.S.) and Radiology Department (J.B.), Hospital Clinic de Barcelona; and Neurology Service (J.S.), Althaia, Manresa, Barcelona, Spain.

    Genetic analysis of varicella-zoster virus in the aqueous humor in uveitis with severe hyphema.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Jun 15;17(1):427. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511, Japan.
    Background: Genetic variations have been identified in the genome of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) strains using vesicle fluid, varicella scabs and throat swab samples. We report a rare case of VZV-associated uveitis with severe hyphema, which was immediately diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the aqueous humor, in which we were able to analyze the VZV genotype for the first time.

    Case Presentation: A 16-year-old Japanese boy was referred to our hospital with a 20-day history of unilateral anterior uveitis and 11-day history of hyphema. Read More

    Varicella Zoster Virus Infection of the Central Nervous System - 10 Year Experience from a Tertiary Hospital in South India.
    Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2017 Apr-Jun;20(2):149-152
    Department of Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Introduction: Varicella zoster virus is an exclusively human neurotrophic virus. The primary infection with the virus causes varicella. The virus remains latent in nervous tissue and upon secondary activation causes a variety of syndromes involving the central nervous system (CNS) including meningoencephalitis and cerebellitis. Read More

    Facial paralysis due to Ramsay Hunt syndrome - A rare condition.
    Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2017 Apr;63(4):301-302
    Full Professor and Head of the Neurosurgery Division, FCMSCSP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Ramsay Hunt syndrome (or herpes zoster oticus) is a rare complication of herpes zoster in which reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection in the geniculate ganglion occurs. Usually, there are auricular vesicles and symptoms and signs such otalgia and peripheral facial paralysis. In addition, rarely, a rash around the mouth can be seen. Read More

    Revisiting the genotyping scheme for varicella-zoster viruses based on whole-genome comparisons.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Jun 14;98(6):1434-1438. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    1​Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Division of Viral Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    We report whole-genome sequences (WGSs) for four varicella-zoster virus (VZV) samples from a shingles study conducted by Kaiser Permanente of Southern California. Comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis of all published VZV WGSs revealed that strain KY037798 is in clade IX, which shall henceforth be designated clade 9. Previously published single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)-based genotyping schemes fail to discriminate between clades 6 and VIII and employ positions that are not clade-specific. Read More

    A case of presumed herpes keratouveitis in a patient treated with fingolimod.
    Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin 2016 Jan-Dec;2:2055217316652907. Epub 2016 Jun 3.
    Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, USA.
    We discuss a case of presumed bilateral herpes simplex keratouveitis in a 36-year-old multiple sclerosis patient switched to fingolimod from glatiramer acetate. Fingolimod treatment appears to increase the risk of herpesvirus infections, including with herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus. This case report reviews the potential immunology behind this risk, and identifies the need for further research, including ways to minimize and stratify risk for herpesvirus reactivation. Read More

    Varicella-Zoster Virus-Specific Cellular Immune Responses to the Live Attenuated Zoster Vaccine in Young and Older Adults.
    J Immunol 2017 Jul 12;199(2):604-612. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Section of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045.
    The incidence and severity of herpes zoster (HZ) increases with age. The live attenuated zoster vaccine generates immune responses similar to HZ. We compared the immune responses to zoster vaccine in young and older to adults to increase our understanding of the immune characteristics that may contribute to the increased susceptibility to HZ in older adults. Read More

    Pyruvate controls the checkpoint inhibitor PD-L1 and suppresses T cell immunity.
    J Clin Invest 2017 Jun 12;127(7):2725-2738. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.
    Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are at high risk for reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) and development of herpes zoster (HZ). Here, we found that macrophages from patients with CAD actively suppress T cell activation and expansion, leading to defective VZV-specific T cell immunity. Monocyte-derived and plaque-infiltrating macrophages from patients with CAD spontaneously expressed high surface density of the immunoinhibitory ligand programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), thereby providing negative signals to programmed death-1+ (PD-1+) T cells. Read More

    Cytomegalovirus and varicella zoster virus seropositivity of Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis: A population-based study.
    J Neuroimmunol 2017 Aug 8;309:4-6. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Department of Virology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:
    Multiple Sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting young individuals with age range of 20-40years of age. The precise mechanism underlying the disease is still unclear. Some viruses have been proposed to play roles in disease causation. Read More

    Conventional and high-resolution vessel wall MRI of intracranial aneurysms: current concepts and new horizons.
    J Neurosurg 2017 Jun 9:1-13. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Departments of 1 Radiology.
    Intracranial aneurysms are heterogeneous in histopathology and imaging appearance. The biological behavior of different types of aneurysms is now known to depend on the structure and physiology of the aneurysm wall itself in addition to intraluminal flow and other luminal features. Aneurysm wall structure and imaging markers of physiology such as aneurysm wall enhancement have been assessed in many prior investigations using conventional-resolution MRI. Read More

    Interaction of Immunoglobulin with Cytomegalovirus-Infected Cells.
    Viral Immunol 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    2 Department of Virology, University of Toyama , Toyama City, Japan .
    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is used to treat or prevent severe viral infection, especially cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. IVIG was characterized to understand its interaction with CMV-infected cells. IVIG retarded CMV spread and reduced virus yields depending on the neutralizing (NT) antibody titer. Read More

    Severe varicella-zoster virus pneumonia: a multicenter cohort study.
    Crit Care 2017 Jun 7;21(1):137. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Service de réanimation médicale, Hôpital Saint-Louis, AP-HP, Paris, France.
    Background: Pneumonia is a dreaded complication of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection in adults; however, the data are limited. Our objective was to investigate the clinical features, management, and outcomes of critically ill patients with VZV-related community-acquired pneumonia (VZV-CAP).

    Methods: This was an observational study of patients with VZV-CAP admitted to 29 intensive care units (ICUs) from January 1996 to January 2015. Read More

    Detection of herpes simplex-1 and -2 and varicella zoster virus by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in corneas from patients with bacterial keratitis.
    Arq Bras Oftalmol 2017 Mar-Apr;80(2):84-87
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Objective:: Bacterial keratitis occurs worldwide, and despite recent developments, it remains a potentially blinding condition. This study assesses the presence of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and -2) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in corneal scrapings from patients with bacterial keratitis.

    Methods:: A total of 65 patients with clinical diagnoses of infectious corneal ulcers prospectively underwent clinical eye examinations. Read More

    Prevalence of pregnancy-relevant infections in a rural setting of Ghana.
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2017 Jun 6;17(1):172. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Kreuzbergring 57, D-37075, Göttingen, Germany.
    Background: Although infectious diseases still account for a high burden of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, simultaneous investigations on multiple infections affecting maternal and child health are missing.

    Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, single-centre pilot study in a rural area of Ghana to assess the infectiological profile during pregnancy. Screening of 180 expectant mothers was done by vaginal swabs and serology to detect the most common pregnancy-relevant infections. Read More

    Management of Viral Central Nervous System Infections: A Primer for Clinicians.
    J Cent Nerv Syst Dis 2017 1;9:1179573517703342. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA.
    Viruses are a common cause of central nervous system (CNS) infections with many host, agent, and environmental factors influencing the expression of viral diseases. Viruses can be responsible for CNS disease through a variety of mechanisms including direct infection and replication within the CNS resulting in encephalitis, infection limited to the meninges, or immune-related processes such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Common pathogens including herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster, and enterovirus are responsible for the greatest number of cases in immunocompetent hosts. Read More

    Neuroimmune-Glia Interactions in the Sensory Ganglia Account for the Development of Acute Herpetic Neuralgia.
    J Neurosci 2017 Jul 2;37(27):6408-6422. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Department of Pharmacology,
    Herpetic neuralgia is the most important symptom of herpes zoster disease, which is caused by Varicella zoster Nevertheless, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in herpetic neuralgia are not totally elucidated. Here, we examined the neuroimmune interactions at the sensory ganglia that account for the genesis of herpetic neuralgia using a murine model of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1) infection. The cutaneous HSV-1 infection of mice results in the development of a zosteriform-like skin lesion followed by a time-dependent increase in pain-like responses (mechanical allodynia). Read More

    Managing varicella zoster virus contact and infection in patients on anti-rheumatic therapy.
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 2017 May 29. Epub 2017 May 29.
    Department of Rheumatology, King's College London, London, UK.
    Chickenpox and shingles can be more severe and occasionally life threatening in immunosuppressed patients. As such, some groups warrant a more detailed history, serological testing and consideration of prophylaxis following contact with the virus. Active disease may also require more aggressive treatment with antivirals. Read More

    Viral etiologies in adult patients with encephalitis in Poland: A prospective single center study.
    PLoS One 2017 1;12(6):e0178481. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Department of Immunopathology of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw, Poland.
    Encephalitis is a severe neurological syndrome associated with high morbidity and mortality as well as long-term neurological sequelae. Despite being an important public health problem, very few extensive population-based studies were conducted so far in the world and none in Central Europe. Altogether 114 consecutive patients meeting the initial criteria for encephalitis were enrolled at the Warsaw Hospital for Infectious Diseases between June 2012 and July 2015. Read More

    Risk Factors for Aseptic Meningitis in Herpes Zoster Patients.
    Ann Dermatol 2017 Jun 11;29(3):283-287. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Department of Dermatology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.
    Background: Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection. HZ-associated aseptic meningitis, a rare complication of HZ, can require hospitalization and a long treatment period.

    Objective: A retrospective study was performed to identify potential factors associated with HZ-associated aseptic meningitis development. Read More

    [Evaluation of viral etiology in central nervous system infections from a university hospital point of view in Izmir based on seven years data].
    Mikrobiyol Bul 2017 Apr;51(2):127-135
    Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, Izmir, Turkey.
    The serious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS); encephalitis and meningitis, have high mortality and morbidity rate especially not diagnosed and treated in time. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) is the tool of choice for viral diagnosis in CNS infections. In this study, viral etiological agents found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples sent to our university hospital virology laboratory for laboratory diagnosis of CNS infections were retrospectively evaluated and results were compared with other reports from our country. Read More

    Diplopia as isolated presentation of varicella zoster central nervous system reactivation.
    J Neurovirol 2017 May 30. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Infectious Diseases Unit, S.M. Goretti Hospital, Via Canova 4, 04100, Latina, Italy.
    Here, we report a patient who developed diplopia secondary to a right cranial nerve III and IV palsy, as well as fever and headache. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis (CSF) showed high varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-DNA viral load (>300,000,000 copies/ml). VZV antibodies in CSF was ≥1:16. Read More

    Herpes Zoster in Breast Cancer: a case report.
    J Biomed Res 2017 May 26. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Department of Surgery, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    There is little information on herpes zoster infection in breast cancer patients as a complication during adjuvant chemotherapy. We report a case of herpes zoster in a 65-year-old woman presented with low grade fever and vital signs together with skin symptoms such as severe edema, irritation and itching in the left breast where there was wound drainage. PCR test revealed varicella zoster virus. Read More

    Lateral thalamic control of nociceptive response after whisker pad injection of varicella zoster virus.
    Neuroscience 2017 Jul 24;356:207-216. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Department of Ophthalmology and of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, 203 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States. Electronic address:
    Pain is a common complication of herpes zoster (HZ) infection which results from reactivation of a latent varicella zoster virus (VZV). A third of HZ patients' progress to a chronic pain state known as post herpetic neuralgia (PHN), and about a quarter of these patients' have orofacial pain. The mechanisms controlling the pain responses are not understood. Read More

    The natural history of varicella zoster virus infection in Norway: Further insights on exogenous boosting and progressive immunity to herpes zoster.
    PLoS One 2017 18;12(5):e0176845. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Department of Economics and Management, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    We use age-structured models for VZV transmission and reactivation to reconstruct the natural history of VZV in Norway based on available pre-vaccination serological data, contact matrices, and herpes zoster incidence data. Depending on the hypotheses on contact and transmission patterns, the basic reproduction number of varicella in Norway ranges between 3.7 and 5. Read More

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