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    Update From the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.
    J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2017 Sep 25. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham.
    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, and each member's term is 4 years. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. Read More

    DNA methylation patterns are related to co-morbidity status and circulating C-reactive protein levels in the nursing home elderly.
    Exp Gerontol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Electronic address:
    Elderly residents of long-term care commonly exhibit a number of age-related health deficits, including impaired physical and cognitive function, chronic illnesses, and chronic inflammation. Given our previous data relating the phenotype and function of innate and adaptive leukocytes from the nursing home elderly to chronic conditions and inflammatory biomarkers, we hypothesized that these factors would influence the regulatory programming of immune cells, thereby contributing to immune dysfunction. Since DNA methylation represents both an important regulatory mechanism of cells as well as a biomarker of health and disease, we sought to characterize the methylome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the nursing home elderly (n=23; 82-98years old, 70% female), and compare these patterns to pathological factors such as dementia, co-morbidity score and frailty, and immune-related factors such as serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokine levels and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine responsiveness. Read More

    Diagnostic usefulness of varicella-zoster virus real-time PCR with DNA from saliva and plasma in patients with herpes zoster.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Sep 26. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Background: We evaluated the diagnostic usefulness of PCR for detecting varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection and reactivation of VZV using saliva and plasma VZV DNA from subjects suspected of having herpes zoster (HZ), and healthy volunteers exposed to stress, respectively.

    Methods: Study subjects were patients with HZ (n = 52), control patients with zoster-mimicking conditions (n = 30), and healthy university students (n = 27). VZV DNA was examined in saliva and plasma samples by real-time PCR. Read More

    Review for Disease of the Year: Varicella Zoster Virus-Induced Anterior Uveitis.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017 Oct 12:1-7. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    c Department of Ophthalmology , Bayindir Kavaklidere Hospital , Ankara , Turkey.
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV)-induced anterior uveitis (AU) may complicate the course of primary varicella infection typically seen in children. In adults, especially with advanced age, VZV AU is more commonly associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) with or without skin rash affecting the distribution of the ophthalmic nerve due to reactivation of the latent VZV in the trigeminal ganglion. While it is typically a mild self-limiting AU in primary infection, HZO AU is often accompanied by keratitis, may have a chronic recurrent course, and lead to sectoral iris atrophy, pupillary distortion, and ocular hypertension. Read More

    Varicella Zoster virus expresses multiple small non-coding RNAs.
    J Virol 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, 5900002, Israel
    Many herpesviruses express small non coding RNAs (sncRNA), including microRNAs (miR), that may play roles in regulating lytic and latent infections. None have yet been reported in varicella zoster virus (VZV, HHV-3). Here we analyzed next generation sequencing (NGS) data for small RNAs in VZV-infected fibroblasts and human embryonic stem cell-derived (hESC) neurons. Read More

    Acute Retinal Necrosis caused by the zoster vaccine virus.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Infection and Immunity, University College London, Gower St, WC1E 6BT.
    We report acute retinal necrosis caused by the vOka vaccine strain following immunisation of a 78 year old women with live zoster vaccine. Whole genome sequencing confirmed the ocular vOka strain to be derived from the vaccine and excluded the presence of new mutations or recombination with wild type VZV. Read More

    Autophagy Proteins in Phagocyte Endocytosis and Exocytosis.
    Front Immunol 2017 22;8:1183. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Viral Immunobiology, Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Autophagy was initially described as a catabolic pathway that recycles nutrients of cytoplasmic constituents after lysosomal degradation during starvation. Since the immune system monitors products of lysosomal degradation via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II restricted antigen presentation, autophagy was found to process intracellular antigens for display on MHC class II molecules. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that the molecular machinery of autophagy serves phagocytes in many more membrane trafficking pathways, thereby regulating immunity to infectious disease agents. Read More

    Varicella infection in a non-universally vaccinated population: Actual epidemiology in Bulgaria (2013-2015).
    J Infect Public Health 2017 Oct 7. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Department of Preclinical and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Varna, 3, Bregalniza Str., 9002 Varna, Bulgaria. Electronic address:
    Background: Varicella is a common and usually mild disease but it has great importance in regard to general infectious morbidity. The current study aimed to characterize possible risk factors of varicella epidemiology in Bulgaria, a country where infection follows its natural epidemiological pattern as no mandatory or recommended vaccine is currently applied.

    Methods: Administrative regions of Bulgaria were used as units of observation and a set of sociodemographic and economic determinants, as well as geographic location (south or north) were tested for associations with the mean 3-year varicella incidence rates (2013-2015). Read More

    Telomere Dynamics in Immune Senescence and Exhaustion Triggered by Chronic Viral Infection.
    Viruses 2017 Oct 5;9(10). Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Pathology, Center for Viral Pathogenesis, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.
    The progressive loss of immunological memory during aging correlates with a reduced proliferative capacity and shortened telomeres of T cells. Growing evidence suggests that this phenotype is recapitulated during chronic viral infection. The antigenic volume imposed by persistent and latent viruses exposes the immune system to unique challenges that lead to host T-cell exhaustion, characterized by impaired T-cell functions. Read More

    Monoclonal IgG in MGUS and multiple myeloma targets infectious pathogens.
    JCI Insight 2017 Oct 5;2(19). Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    CRCINA, Inserm, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.
    Subsets of mature B cell neoplasms are linked to infection with intracellular pathogens such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), or Helicobacter pylori. However, the association between infection and the immunoglobulin-secreting (Ig-secreting) B proliferative disorders remains largely unresolved. We investigated whether the monoclonal IgG (mc IgG) produced by patients diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or multiple myeloma (MM) targets infectious pathogens. Read More

    Unusual case of acute urinary retention in a young female.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Oct 4;2017. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Emergency Department, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.
    We report an unusual case of a 17-year-old young female presenting to the emergency department with varicella infection, acute urinary retention (AUR) and no other neurological deficits. An MRI of the spine confirmed the diagnosis of acute transverse myelitis. Positive serum IgG antibodies against varicella zoster virus (VZV) suggested a parainfectious aetiology. Read More

    Seroprevalence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and Ljungan virus in Finnish patients with suspected neurological infections.
    J Med Virol 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Department of Virology and Immunology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Background: Directly-transmitted rodent-borne zoonotic viruses, such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can cause nervous system infections. Rodent-borne Ljungan virus (LV) is considered potentially zoonotic possibly causing neurological symptoms. Our objective was to understand the role of these two viruses compared to other pathogens in causing neurological infections in Finnish patients. Read More

    A Rare Presentation of Cranial Polyneuropathy Without Rash Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus.
    Med Arch 2017 Aug;71(4):293-295
    Inonu university, Turgut Ozal medicine center, Neurology department, Malatya, Turkey.
    Introduction: Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) is associated with many disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems including neuralgia, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, cerebellitis, vasculopathy, myelopathy, Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, and polyneuritis cranialis. Cranial nerves V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, and/or XII may be affected. The neurological disorders caused by VZV usually present with rash, but may rarely present without rash. Read More

    A Concordance Study of the Altona RealStar Varicella-Zoster Virus Real-Time Quantitative PCR and In House Conventional Qualitative PCR.
    J Med Virol 2017 Oct 2. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine; 3175 Chemin de la Côte Sainte-Catherine, Montreal, Quebec, H3T 1C4, Canada.
    This study compared the Altona RealStar™ VZV Kit 1.0 real time quantitative VZV PCR with in house qualitative conventional VZV PCR on cerebrospinal fluid, mucocutaneous and other uncommon clinical specimens. Overall rates of agreement, positive, and negative percent agreements were respectively 97. Read More

    Cytokines Produced in Response to Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) Infection of ARPE-19 Cells Stimulate Lymphocyte Chemotaxis.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Aug 18. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases.
    Posterior uveitis is an ocular complication that can occur with reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV). It may lead to loss of vision due to retinal detachment and chronic inflammation, which often causes more severe disease than the virus infection itself. To increase our understanding of the immune response, we infected the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line, ARPE-19, with cell-associated VZV and compared its response to that of the MeWo cell line using multiplex assays. Read More

    Aflibercept in the management of acute retinal necrosis syndrome-related macular edema.
    Eur J Ophthalmol 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Ophthalmology, The Ribera Hospital, Alzira - Spain.
    Purpose: Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a panuveitis syndrome that may lead to severe complications such as cystoid macular edema (CME). There is no consensus about the best treatment. We report one case of CME secondary to ARN managed with intravitreal aflibercept. Read More

    A Study of the Changes of T Helper 17 Cells and Regulatory T Cells in Herpes Zoster.
    Ann Dermatol 2017 Oct 25;29(5):578-585. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Department of Dermatology, Chosun University School of Medicine, Gwangju, Korea.
    Background: Immunosuppression and age-related deficiencies in cell-mediated immunity are important factors for the reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV). CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells and T helper 17 (Th17) cells are closely associated with various viral infections.

    Objective: We analyzed Treg cells and Th17 cells in patients with herpes zoster and investigated their relationship with the reactivation of latent VZV. Read More

    Intraocular Detection of Herpesviruses by xTAG Liquid Chip Technology in Patients with Acute Retinal Necrosis.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017 Sep 29:1-7. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    a Ophthalmology Department, Peking Union Medical College Hospital , Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences , Beijing , China.
    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the xTAG liquid chip technology (xTAG-LCT) for etiological diagnosis of acute retinal necrosis (ARN).

    Methods: Fifteen vitreous and 3 aqueous samples from 18 ARN patients were analyzed by xTAG-LCT and multiplex PCR (mPCR)/quantitative PCR (qPCR).

    Results: xTAG-LCT revealed positive results in 17 of the 18 samples: 10 for Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) alone; 5 for VZV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); 1 for herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) and EBV; 1 for VZV, HSV-1 and EBV. Read More

    Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-positive varicella-zoster virus myelitis presenting as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis: a case report.
    Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2017 Sep 28. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Department of Neurology, Brain Attack Center, Ota Memorial Hospital.
    A 69-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of disturbed consciousness and gait disturbance. He had herpes zoster (HZ) in his left thigh 10 days before admission, and motor paresis of four extremities developed. A dark red rash was observed in his left buttock and thigh (L2-3 region), which was also scattered in the right lower leg, chest wall, and both upper extremities. Read More

    Serological Susceptibility to Varicella Among U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Detainees.
    J Correct Health Care 2017 Jan 1:1078345817727287. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    9 Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
    U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is responsible for detaining unauthorized aliens during immigration proceedings. Read More

    Herpes zoster incidence and cost in patients receiving autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplant.
    Curr Med Res Opin 2017 Sep 25:1-25. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    b Center for Observational and Real World Evidence, MRL, Merck & Co., Inc. , Kenilworth , NJ , USA.
    Objective: Among patients receiving autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (Auto-HSCT), we estimated the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ), compared health care costs among patients with and without HZ, and evaluated antiviral prophylaxis (AP) use.

    Research Design And Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using data from a large health plan to identify patients ≥18 years with ≥1 claim for an Auto-HSCT procedure during 2006-2011 (N = 2,530). Patients were followed from date of Auto-HSCT until risk-end date, defined as development of HZ, end of enrollment, death, or 12/31/2011. Read More

    Pediatric vaccine-strain herpes zoster: a case series.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2017 Sep 25. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Background/objectives: Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV), and typically causes a painful, vesicular, dermatomal rash in adults over the age of fifty. However, HZ has been known to present in immunocompetent pediatric patients, which account for under 1% of total cases. Pediatric cases are typically caused by natural infection with VZV, but among vaccinated children up to half of cases can be due to vaccine-strain VZV. Read More

    Protocol of a randomised controlled trial characterising the immune responses induced by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccination in healthy Kenyan women: setting the stage for a potential VZV-based HIV vaccine.
    BMJ Open 2017 Sep 21;7(9):e017391. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Introduction: A protective HIV vaccine would be expected to induce durable effector immune responses at the mucosa, restricting HIV infection at its portal of entry. We hypothesise that use of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) as an HIV delivery vector could generate sustained and robust tissue-based immunity against HIV antigens to provide long-term protection against HIV. Given that HIV uniquely targets immune-activated T cells, the development of human vaccines against HIV must also involve a specific examination of the safety of the vector. Read More

    [Investigation of bacterial and viral etiology in community acquired central nervous system infections with molecular methods].
    Mikrobiyol Bul 2017 Jul;51(3):277-285
    Sabuncuoglu Serefeddin Training and Research Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Amasya, Turkey.
    In this multicenter prospective cohort study, it was aimed to evaluate the bacterial and viral etiology in community-acquired central nervous system infections by standart bacteriological culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Patients hospitalized with central nervous system infections between April 2012 and February 2014 were enrolled in the study. Demographic and clinical information of the patients were collected prospectively. Read More

    Development and evaluation of multiplex real-time PCR for diagnosis of HSV-1, VZV, CMV, and Toxoplasma gondii in patients with infectious uveitis.
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Virology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India. 160 012. Electronic address:
    Infectious uveitis is a vision threatening inflammatory ocular disease wherein early diagnosis may prevent the loss of vision. The purpose of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time PCR for the diagnosis of Herpes simplex virus-1, Varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma gondii in patients with suspected infectious uveitis. A total of 126 intraocular samples (aqueous and vitreous humor) were collected and subjected to multiplex real-time PCR. Read More

    Outer nuclear membrane fusion of adjacent nuclei in varicella-zoster virus-induced syncytia.
    Virology 2017 Sep 11;512:34-38. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, 225 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 070101, USA. Electronic address:
    Syncytia formation has been considered important for cell-to-cell spread and pathogenesis of many viruses. As a syncytium forms, individual nuclei often congregate together, allowing close contact of nuclear membranes and possibly fusion to occur. However, there is currently no reported evidence of nuclear membrane fusion between adjacent nuclei in wild-type virus-induced syncytia. Read More

    Slowly progressing varicella zoster brainstem encephalitis complicating Ramsay Hunt syndrome in an immunocompetent patient: case report and review of the literature.
    J Neurovirol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, University of Milan, Piazza E. Malan 1, San Donato Mil.se, 20097, Milan, Italy.
    A 56-year-old immunocompetent male developed brainstem encephalitis complicating Ramsay Hunt syndrome. The disease had a slowly progressing course of months after the triggering infection, much longer than previously reported. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging, physical-chemical, and cell count analyses on cerebrospinal fluid were normal, whereas polymerase chain reaction for varicella zoster virus DNA was positive. Read More

    PCR detection of human herpesviruses in colonic mucosa of individuals with inflammatory bowel disease: Comparison with individuals with immunocompetency and HIV infection.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(9):e0184699. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    AIDS Clinical Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: Detection of human herpesviruses (HHVs) other than cytomegalovirus (CMV) in colonic mucosa of individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unknown. This study identified eight HHVs in the colonic mucosa of individuals with IBD and compared the results with immunocompetent and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals.

    Methods: A total of 89 individuals who had colorectal ulcer on colonoscopy were enrolled: 26 with immunocompetency (n = 26), 41 with IBD, and 22 with HIV infection. Read More

    Simian varicella virus inhibits the interferon gamma signalling pathway.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    3​Research Center for Emerging Infections and Zoonoses, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany 1​Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    The alphaherpesvirus simian varicella virus (SVV) causes varicella and zoster in nonhuman primates. Herpesviruses evolved elaborate mechanisms to escape host immunity, but the immune evasion strategies employed by SVV remain ill-defined. We analysed whether SVV impairs the cellular response to key antiviral cytokine interferon-γ (IFNγ). Read More

    Appendicitis Caused by Primary Varicella Zoster Virus Infection in a Child with DiGeorge Syndrome.
    Case Rep Pediatr 2017 16;2017:6708046. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Introduction: Chickenpox is caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). Although predominantly a mild disease, it can cause considerable morbidity and in rare occasions even mortality in healthy children as well as increased morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The aetiology of appendicitis is largely unknown but is thought to be multifactorial. Read More

    Prevalence of a history of prior varicella/herpes zoster infection in multiple sclerosis.
    J Neurovirol 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Clinical Neurology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust, Queen's Medical Centre, C Floor S Block, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK.
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection has been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS), but direct causal involvement has been disputed. Nevertheless, knowledge of VZV exposure is important, given the risk of serious complications of first exposure while undergoing immunosuppressive treatment, in particular with fingolimod. We distributed questionnaires to MS clinic patients, requesting information about history of chickenpox, sibling/household/occupational exposure, history of zoster (shingles), and disease-modifying treatment. Read More

    Varicella Coinfection in Patients with Active Monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Ecohealth 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, 41-275 CHS, 650 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.
    From 2006 to 2007, an active surveillance program for human monkeypox (MPX) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo identified 151 cases of coinfection with monkeypox virus and varicella zoster virus from 1158 suspected cases of human MPX (13%). Using clinical and socio-demographic data collected with standardized instruments by trained, local nurse supervisors, we examined a variety of hypotheses to explain the unexpectedly high proportion of coinfections among the sample, including the hypothesis that the two viruses occur independently. The probabilities of disease incidence and selection necessary to yield the observed sample proportion of coinfections under an assumption of independence are plausible given what is known and assumed about human MPX incidence. Read More

    Enhancing case definitions for surveillance of human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 11;11(9):e0005857. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Background: Human monkeypox (MPX) occurs at appreciable rates in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) has a similar presentation to that of MPX, and in areas where MPX is endemic these two illnesses are commonly mistaken. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of two surveillance case definitions for MPX and specific clinical characteristics associated with laboratory-confirmed MPX cases. Read More

    Genetic polymorphism of thymidine kinase (TK) and DNA polymerase (pol) of clinical varicella-zoster virus (VZV) isolates collected over three decades.
    J Clin Virol 2017 Oct 1;95:61-65. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Section Experimental Virology, Institute of Medical Microbiology, German Consulting Laboratory for HSV and VZV, Jena University Clinic, Jena, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Genotypic resistance testing of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) strains to antivirals is of high relevance in immunocompromised patients with VZV reactivations unresponsive to therapy. However, the knowledge on mutations associated with natural gene polymorphism or resistance is limited.

    Objectives: To examine the genotype of the thymidine kinase (TK) and DNA polymerase (pol) of unselected clinical VZV isolates collected between 1984 and 2014 and to verify the phenotype related to novel amino acid (aa) substitutions. Read More

    Prevaccination epidemiology of herpes zoster in Denmark: Quantification of occurrence and risk factors.
    Vaccine 2017 Oct 2;35(42):5589-5596. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Background: Herpes zoster (HZ) is a vaccine-preventable disease caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus. Unfortunately, formulation of recommendations on routine immunization is hampered by a lack of data on disease burden, since most countries do not record cases of HZ in the general population. We developed and validated an algorithm to identify HZ based on routinely collected registry data and used it to quantify HZ occurrence and risk factors in Denmark prior to marketing of the HZ vaccine. Read More

    Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus in donors & opportunistic viral infections in liver transplant recipients.
    Indian J Med Res 2017 Apr;145(4):558-562
    Institute of Liver Disease and Transplantation, Gleneagles Global Health City, Chennai, India.
    Background & Objectives: Opportunistic virus infections are common in liver transplant (LT) recipients. There is a risk of developing infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes-related viruses such as herpes simplex virus-1 and 2 (HSV-1 & 2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Varicella Zoster virus (VZV), reactivation of infection and recurrent infection. This study was conducted to determine CMV seropositivity in donors and its influence on LT recipients and seropositivity of CMV, HSV-1 and 2, EB viral capsid antigen (EBVCA) and VZV in LT recipients and their reactivation. Read More

    Cerebrospinal fluid CXCL13 as a diagnostic marker of neuroborreliosis in children: a retrospective case-control study.
    J Neuroinflammation 2017 Aug 31;14(1):173. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Institute of Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Friedbühlstrasse 51, 3001, Bern, Switzerland.
    Background: Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is a frequent manifestation of Lyme disease in children and its current diagnosis has limitations. The elevation of the chemokine CXCL13 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of adult patients with LNB has been demonstrated and suggested as a new diagnostic marker. Our aim was to evaluate this marker in the CSF of children with suspected LNB and to determine a CXCL13 cut-off concentration that would discriminate between LNB and other central nervous system (CNS) infections. Read More

    PCR-based approach for qualitative molecular analysis of six neurotropic pathogens.
    Acta Virol 2017 ;61(3):273-279
    In the last few years, polymerase chain reaction analysis is frequently required to improve the detection of pathogen infections in central nervous system as a potential cause of neurological disorders and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The goal of this paper is to set up a fast, cheap and reliable molecular approach for qualitative detection of six neurotropic pathogens. A method based on PCR has been designed and implemented to guarantee the qualitative DNA detection of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSVI/II), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), rubella virus (RUBV) and Toxoplasma gondii in the cerebrospinal fluid, where otherwise they are barely detectable. Read More

    Trends in the burden of varicella in UK general practice.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Oct 30;145(13):2678-2682. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Faculty of Epidemiology & Population Health,London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine,Keppel Street,London WC1E 7HT,UK.
    Childhood varicella vaccination has not yet been introduced in the UK. To inform decision-making about future vaccine programmes, data on the burden of varicella in general practice over a 10-year period (01/01/2005-31/12/2014) was calculated by age and ethnicity, using anonymised data from >8 million individuals in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Varicella consultations peaked at 20 603 in 2007, then decreased annually in all age groups to 11 243 in 2014. Read More

    Pattern II and pattern III MS are entities distinct from pattern I MS: evidence from cerebrospinal fluid analysis.
    J Neuroinflammation 2017 Aug 29;14(1):171. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Molecular Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background: The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is currently based solely on clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features. However, histopathological studies have revealed four different patterns of lesion pathology in patients diagnosed with MS, suggesting that MS may be a pathologically heterogeneous syndrome rather than a single disease entity.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with pattern I MS differ from patients with pattern II or III MS with regard to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings, especially with reference to intrathecal IgG synthesis, which is found in most patients with MS but is frequently missing in MS mimics such as aquaporin-4-IgG-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-IgG-positive encephalomyelitis. Read More

    The immunoinhibitory PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in inflammatory blood vessel disease.
    J Leukoc Biol 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA; and.
    Because of their vital function, the wall structures of medium and large arteries are immunoprivileged and protected from inflammatory attack. That vascular immunoprivilege is broken in atherosclerosis and in vasculitis, when wall-invading T cells and macrophages (Mϕ) promote tissue injury and maladaptive repair. Historically, tissue-residing T cells were studied for their antigen specificity, but recent progress has refocused attention to antigen-nonspecific regulation, which determines tissue access, persistence, and functional differentiation of T cells. Read More

    The Safety and Immunogenicity of Live Zoster Vaccination in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Before Starting Tofacitinib: A Randomized Phase II Trial.
    Arthritis Rheumatol 2017 Oct 6;69(10):1969-1977. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, New Hampshire.
    Objective: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of herpes zoster, and vaccination is recommended for patients ages 50 years and older, prior to starting treatment with biologic agents or tofacitinib. Tofacitinib is an oral JAK inhibitor for the treatment of RA. We evaluated its effect on the immune response and safety of live zoster vaccine (LZV). Read More

    Ramsay Hunt Syndrome: A Diagnostic Challenge for General Dental Practitioners.
    Contemp Clin Dent 2017 Apr-Jun;8(2):337-339
    Department of Oral Pathology, MNR Dental College and Hospital, Andhra Pradesh, India.
    Ramsay hunt syndrome is not just a syndrome but it's rather an infectious disease caused by reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus in geniculate ganglion. This was first explained by J. Ramsay Hunt as a triad of complications like otalgia, mucosal and cutaneous rashes with or without trigeminal facial palsy. Read More

    Serum C-Reactive Protein and Congestive Heart Failure as Significant Predictors of Herpes Zoster Vaccine Response in Elderly Nursing Home Residents.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Jul;216(2):191-197
    Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine.
    Background: Elderly long-term care residents often exhibit a myriad of risk factors for immune dysfunction, including chronic inflammation and multiple comorbid conditions, which undoubtedly contribute to their enhanced susceptibility to infection. Hence, understanding the factors required for optimal vaccine responsiveness is critical.

    Methods: We examined 187 elderly nursing home residents (aged 80-102 years) and 50 community-dwelling seniors (aged 60-75 years) immunized with the live-attenuated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine. Read More

    Keratitis in association with herpes zoster and varicella vaccines.
    Drugs Today (Barc) 2017 Jul;53(7):393-397
    Department of Ophthalmology, Mason Eye Institute, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, Missouri, USA.
    The objective of this review was to collect reports of keratitis in association with herpes zoster virus (HZV) or varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccines. HZV vaccination is intended for at-risk adult populations and VZV vaccination is intended for all pediatric patients. We reviewed the literature and reports of keratitis in association with herpes zoster or varicella vaccine from the National Registry of Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects and the World Health Organization. Read More

    Low Varicella Zoster Virus Seroprevalence Among Young Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Aug 19. Epub 2017 Aug 19.
    1 Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; 2 Department of Microbiology, Kinshasa School of Medicine, Kinshasa, DRC; 3 Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA 4 McKing Consulting, Expanded Programme on Immunization, Kinshasa, DRC; 5 OpGen, Inc. Gaithersburg, MD; 6 Department of Social and Behavioral Health, School of Rural Public Health, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX; 7 Programme on Immunization, Kinshasa, DRC;8 Kinshasa School of Public Health, Kinshasa, DRC; 9National Institute for Biomedical (INRB), Kinshasa, DRC.
    Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles) and is associated with significant global morbidity. Most epidemiological data on VZV come from high-come countries and to date there are limited data on the burden of VZV in Africa.

    Methods: We assessed the seroprevalence of VZV antibodies among children in the Democratic Republic of Congo in collaboration with the 2013-2014 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Read More

    Herpesviruses excretion in saliva of pediatric transplant recipients.
    Transpl Infect Dis 2017 Aug 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    University Pediatric Hospital "Centro Habana", Havana, Cuba.
    Background: Saliva samples could be used for follow-up of herpesviruses infection in pediatric transplant recipients.

    Objective: With the aim of determining the frequency of herpesviral infections in saliva samples after transplantation, and the association with viremia and complications, a pilot longitudinal follow-up of pediatric Cuban transplanted recipients (kidney and liver) was performed.

    Methods: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, human herpesevirus-6 (HHV6), varicella zoster virus, and human herpesvirus-8 were serially assayed in saliva and serum samples from 27 transplanted patients, during 32 weeks after the graft. Read More

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