10,429 results match your criteria Varicella-Zoster Virus


Development of adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine and its implications for shingles prevention.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2018 Jul 20:1-16. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

a GSK , Wavre , Belgium.

Introduction: GSK has developed a two-dose adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (Shingrix, RZV) to protect people aged ≥50 years (50+) against herpes zoster (HZ) and its complications. RZV showed >90% efficacy against HZ, sustained over 4 years of follow-up, in all studied age groups. Areas covered: This article reviews the scientific rationale underlying the design of RZV; the clinical evidence demonstrating immunogenicity, safety, and efficacy in persons 50+; and the public health implications and cost-effectiveness. Read More

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Antiviral effects of Cacicol, an heparan sulfate biomimetic for corneal regeneration therapy, for herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella zoster virus infection.

Antivir Ther 2018 Jul 20. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Department of Ophthalmology, Bicêtre Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Univ.Paris-Sud, Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

Background: Cacicol®, a topical eye biopolymer containing a poly-carboxymethylglucose sulfate solution that is a regenerating matrix therapy agent, intended for wound healing of persistent corneal epithelial defects. Based on the chemical composition, we hypothesized that Cacicol® may compete with natural heparan sulfate (HS) which initiates cell surface attachment of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), varicella zoster virus (VZV) and human adenovirus (HAdV), three viruses associated with corneal infections.

Methods: Cacicol® was compared to vehicle in the following viral strains: (i) HSV-1 SC16 strain and HSV-1 PSLR, a clinical isolate highly resistant to acyclovir and foscarnet, (ii) VZV ATH and VZV FLO, two VZV clinical isolates, (iii) and HAdV-D37 strain. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Th1 memory differentiates recombinant from live herpes zoster vaccines.

J Clin Invest 2018 Jul 19. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

The adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (VZV gE) subunit herpes zoster vaccine (HZ/su) confers higher protection against HZ than the live attenuated zoster vaccine (ZV). To understand the immunologic basis for the different efficacies of the vaccines, we compared immune responses to the vaccines in adults 50- to 85-year-old. gE-specific T cells were very low/undetectable before vaccination when analyzed by FluoroSpot and flow cytometry. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Cost-effectiveness of an Adjuvanted Recombinant Zoster Vaccine in older adults in the United States.

Vaccine 2018 Jul 13. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

University of Minnesota, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address:

In the United States, herpes zoster (HZ) and related complications are estimated to result in approximately $1.3 billion in medical care costs and $1.7 billion in indirect costs annually. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

No evidence for cross-reactivity of virus-specific antibodies with HLA allo-antigens.

Transplantation 2018 Jul 13. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: Antibodies directed against human leucocyte antigens (HLA) can develop through pregnancy, blood transfusions or organ transplants. Anecdotal evidence suggests that virus-specific antibodies may have the capacity to cross-react with HLA, a phenomenon called heterologous immunity, which is well described for T cell alloreactivity.

Methods: To determine whether antibody cross-reactivity between viral antigens and HLA is common, we tested 51 virus-specific human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and parvovirus, for reactivity against HLA class I and class II in single antigen bead assays. Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

Cellular Stress Response to Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection of Human Skin Includes Highly Elevated Interleukin-6 Expression.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Jun 22;5(6):ofy118. Epub 2018 May 22.

Division of Infectious Diseases/Virology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

Background: The infectious cycle of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) after reactivation from the dorsal root ganglia includes replication and assembly of complete enveloped virions in the human skin to cause the characteristic herpes zoster (shingles).

Methods: To pursue studies of innate immunity to VZV infection, we have adapted a fetal skin organ culture model to a human neonatal foreskin explant model.

Results: Abundant expression of VZV IE62, gE, and gC was visualized by confocal microscopy while numerous enveloped virions were observed by electron microscopy in infected skin organ cultures. Read More

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Autoantibody profiling in intraocular fluid of patients with uveitis.

Exp Eye Res 2018 Jul 10;176:141-146. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

A high prevalence of serum antiretinal antibodies (ARAs) in patients with uveitis has been previously described, though their clinical role remains elusive. Assessment of intraocular ARAs may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of diverse uveitis entities. In this study we investigate the prevalence of multiple specific anti-ocular antibodies (AOcAs), including ARAs, in intraocular fluid of patients with uveitis. Read More

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Complex interaction between mutant HNRNPA1 and gE of varicella zoster virus in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.

Autoimmunity 2018 Jul 11:1-5. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

a Laboratory of Genomic Sciences, Department of Studies in Genetics and Genomics , University of Mysore , Mysore , Karnataka , India.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system causing axonal injury, neuronal loss, and atrophy of the central nervous system leading to permanent neurological and clinical disability. Presence of mutations in M9 domain of HNRNPA1 and detection of autoantibodies against this domain in HNRNPA1 qualifies it as a strong candidate for causing MS. These two aspects indicate the presence of a facilitator in associating them. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Herpes zoster ophthalmicus caught in the (Tr)act!

Emerg Radiol 2018 Jul 10. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Radiology, Northport VA Medical Center, 79 Middleville Road, Northport, NY, USA.

To emphasize the utility of contrast enhanced MRI for identifying the extent of disease in herpes zoster ophthalmicus with intracranial extension to help determine proper management. We present a rare case of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZ/HZO) with intracranial extension and MRI demonstration of involvement of the trigeminal nerve, the trigeminal nucleus, and the spinal trigeminal nucleus and tract. Herpes zoster is caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus. Read More

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High Viral Diversity and Mixed Infections in Cerebral Spinal Fluid From Cases of Varicella Zoster Virus Encephalitis.

J Infect Dis 2018 Jul 7. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London.

Background: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) may cause encephalitis, both with and without rash. Here we investigate whether viruses recovered from the central nervous system (CNS; encephalitis or meningitis) differ genetically from those recovered from non-CNS samples.

Methods: Enrichment-based deep sequencing of 45 VZV genomes from cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and vesicles was carried out with samples collected from 34 patients with and without VZV infection of the CNS. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Interleukin-6 and type 1 interferons inhibit varicella zoster virus replication in human neurons.

Virology 2018 Jul 3;522:13-18. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA. Electronic address:

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that, following primary infection (varicella), establishes latency in sensory, autonomic, sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons, where it remains until reactivation (zoster). VZV-specific cell-mediated immune responses maintain VZV latency; thus, immunosuppressed and elderly persons are at risk of reactivation and associated neurological diseases. However, the cytokines produced by the immune system that control VZV in neurons are largely unknown. Read More

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Encephalitis associated with Zika virus infection and reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus in a Brazilian child.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2018 May-Jun;51(3):390-392

Seção de Arbovirologia e Febres Hemorrágicas, Instituto Evandro Chagas, Ananindeua, PA, Brasil.

We report a case of encephalitis associated with Zika virus infection and reactivation of varicella-zoster virus in the central nervous system of a Brazilian child. This case raises the possibility that reactivation of the latent varicella-zoster virus may be a mechanism of neurological impairment induced by acquired Zika virus infection. Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

Imaging Features of Varicella Zoster Virus Cranial Multiple Mononeuropathies.

Eur Neurol 2018 3;79(5-6):315-316. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

UOC Neurology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Institute of Neurology, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.

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Titration of cell-associated varicella-zoster virus with the MV9G reporter cell line for antiviral studies.

J Virol Methods 2018 Jun 30;260:14-20. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu 502-8585, Japan. Electronic address:

Titration of the cell-associated virus (CAV) of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is essential for antiviral studies. A VZV reporter cell line, MV9G, generated in our previous study expresses firefly luciferase upon CAV infection in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that use of the cell line for titration is feasible. In this study, MeWo cells infected with VZV vaccine Oka (vOka) strain or with clinical isolates obtained from patients with varicella or zoster were used as CAV. Read More

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Molecular Aspects of Varicella-Zoster Virus Latency.

Viruses 2018 06 28;10(7). Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, 3015 CN Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Primary varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection causes varicella (chickenpox) and the establishment of a lifelong latent infection in ganglionic neurons. VZV reactivates in about one-third of infected individuals to cause herpes zoster, often accompanied by neurological complications. The restricted host range of VZV and, until recently, a lack of suitable in vitro models have seriously hampered molecular studies of VZV latency. Read More

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The intrathecal polyspecific antiviral immune response (MRZ reaction): A potential cerebrospinal fluid marker for multiple sclerosis diagnosis.

J Neuroimmunol 2018 Aug 28;321:66-71. Epub 2018 May 28.

Laboratory of Immunology, Habib Bourguiba University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sfax, Tunisia.

We tested the performance of MRZ-reaction, an intrathecal humoral immune response against-Measles (M), Rubella (R) and Varicella Zoster (Z) viruses, in multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis. The MRZ-reaction was significantly more positive in MS than in non-MS group with a specificity of 91.9%. Read More

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Long-term outcomes of varicella zoster virus infection-related myelitis in 10 immunocompetent patients.

J Neuroimmunol 2018 Aug 1;321:36-40. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

The PLA General Hospital, Department of Neurology, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To describe the clinical presentation and long-term disease outcomes of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection-related myelitis (VZVM) in immunocompetent patients.

Method: A series of 10 immunocompetent patients with VZVM were retrospectively observed and followed (3-96 months).

Results: The onset of myelitis was timed in relation to the appearance of VZV-associated rash (-3 to 50 days). Read More

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August 2018
4 Reads

Multiple-Point Evaluation Algorithms for Enhanced Precision of Pathogen-Specific Cerebrospinal Fluid/Serum Antibody Index Calculation.

SLAS Technol 2018 Jun 1:2472630318783483. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

3 Private scholar, Oberhaching, Germany.

The determination of pathogen-specific antibody indices (AIs) of CSF and serum is an essential cornerstone in assessing neurological diseases and demands reliable high precision. Various companies provide ELISA kits for the detection of respective antibody concentrations and base AI calculation on a single CSF/serum pair of optical densities (ODs), combined with selection rules. The remainder of OD measurements is not used. Read More

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Effectiveness of real-time PCR for diagnosis and prognosis of varicella-zoster virus keratitis.

Jpn J Ophthalmol 2018 Jul 11;62(4):425-431. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36-1 Nishi-cho, Yonago Tottori, 683-8504, Japan.

Purpose: To determine the efficacy of real-time PCR for the diagnosis and prognosis of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) keratitis.

Study Design: Retrospective case series.

Methods: Patients: 545 consecutive patients with keratitis were examined to quantify copy numbers of VZV DNA by real-time PCR. Read More

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Dihydropyrimidinone/1,2,3-triazole hybrid molecules: Synthesis and anti-varicella-zoster virus (VZV) evaluation.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Jun 13;155:772-781. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Laboratory of Biomolecular and Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia (FSSM), Marrakesh, Morocco. Electronic address:

By combining the structural features of dihydropyrimidinone and 1,2,3-triazole heterocycles, novel hybrid compounds were synthesized using a simple and convenient method. A series of novel mono and bis 1,2,3-triazole was synthesized via copper-catalyzed Huisgen azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC) under microwave irradiation. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antiviral activity against varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Read More

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Evaluation of the effect of chickenpox vaccination on shingles epidemiology using agent-based modeling.

PeerJ 2018 20;6:e5012. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Background: Biological interactions between varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles), two diseases caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV), continue to be debated including the potential effect on shingles cases following the introduction of universal childhood chickenpox vaccination programs. We investigated how chickenpox vaccination in Alberta impacts the incidence and age-distribution of shingles over 75 years post-vaccination, taking into consideration a variety of plausible theories of waning and boosting of immunity.

Methods: We developed an agent-based model representing VZV disease, transmission, vaccination states and coverage, waning and boosting of immunity in a stylized geographic area, utilizing a distance-based network. Read More

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June 2018
4 Reads

A case of cerebellar ataxia associated with VZV infection.

eNeurologicalSci 2018 Jun 12;11:9-10. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Department of Neurology, Kyoto, Hakuaikai Hospital, Kyoto, Japan.

The varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic virus that becomes latent in the sensory ganglia, but later causes various neurologic complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis, meningoencephalitis, cranial neuropathy, and peripheral neuropathy [1]. While acute cerebellitis is one of the most frequent acute cerebellar diseases associated with VZV in childhood, VZV rarely causes cerebellitis in adults, with or without skin manifestations, and only a few isolated cases of adult VZV cerebellitis have been reported. We report a case of acute cerebellitis associated with VZV infection after a herpetic rash in an 80-year-old male. Read More

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Periodontal health and gingival diseases and conditions on an intact and a reduced periodontium: Consensus report of workgroup 1 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions.

J Periodontol 2018 Jun;89 Suppl 1:S74-S84

Division of Periodontology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Japan.

Periodontal health is defined by absence of clinically detectable inflammation. There is a biological level of immune surveillance that is consistent with clinical gingival health and homeostasis. Clinical gingival health may be found in a periodontium that is intact, i. Read More

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June 2018
5 Reads

Periodontal health and gingival diseases and conditions on an intact and a reduced periodontium: Consensus report of workgroup 1 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions.

J Clin Periodontol 2018 Jun;45 Suppl 20:S68-S77

Division of Periodontology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Japan.

Periodontal health is defined by absence of clinically detectable inflammation. There is a biological level of immune surveillance that is consistent with clinical gingival health and homeostasis. Clinical gingival health may be found in a periodontium that is intact, i. Read More

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June 2018
6 Reads

Structure of the herpes simplex virus portal-vertex.

PLoS Biol 2018 Jun 20;16(6):e2006191. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Medical Research Council, University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Herpesviruses include many important human pathogens such as herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster virus, and the oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Herpes virions contain a large icosahedral capsid that has a portal at a unique 5-fold vertex, similar to that seen in the tailed bacteriophages. The portal is a molecular motor through which the viral genome enters the capsid during virion morphogenesis. Read More

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An Atypical Presentation of Varicella Zoster (VZV) Vasculopathy.

J Vasc Interv Neurol 2018 Jun;10(1):23-24

Department of Neurology, UTHealth McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX, USA.

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Study of Complications of Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection in Hospitalized Children at a Reference Hospital for Infectious Disease Treatment.

Hosp Pediatr 2018 Jul;8(7):419-425

School of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Objectives: Varicella is a disease with potentially severe complications. We aimed to investigate characteristics of hospitalized children with varicella in Brazil in the prevaccine period and to identify predictors for requiring intensive care treatment.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted from May 2011 to April 2014. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Adverse events after vaccination among HIV-positive persons, 1990-2016.

PLoS One 2018 19;13(6):e0199229. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes immune dysregulation, potentially affecting response to vaccines in infected persons. We investigated if unexpected adverse events (AEs) or unusual patterns of AEs after vaccination were reported among HIV-positive persons. We searched for domestic reports among HIV-positive persons to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) during 1990-2016. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Varicella zoster lumbosacral plexopathy: a rare cause of lower limb weakness.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jun 17;2018. Epub 2018 Jun 17.

General Medicine, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.

This is a rare case of Varicella zoster virus (VZV) lumbosacral plexopathy in an 84-year-old women presenting with lower limb weakness and rash. Contrast-enhanced MRI showed enhancement of the left L3-L5 descending nerves and left lumbosacral plexus consistent with inflammatory/infectious aetiology. Cerebrospinal fluid PCR confirmed VZV DNA and cerebrospinal fluid serological testing was positive for VZV immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG antibodies. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Postherpetic neuralgia: New hopes in prevention with adult vaccination and in treatment with a concentrated capsaicin patch.

Scand J Pain 2012 10 1;3(4):220-228. Epub 2012 Oct 1.

Oslo University Hospital, Department of Pain Management and Research, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

Background and purpose Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a complication of acute herpes zoster (HZ). The evidence base for management of PHN has increased by recent publications. Therefore, we reviewed incidence of HZ, prevalence, risk factors, and mechanism of PHN pain, prevention and treatment of PHN with special interest in studies on adult vaccination and topical application of lidocaine and concentrated capsaicin patch. Read More

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October 2012

Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of viral central nervous system infections.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Jun 18;73:85-90. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA and Doha, Qatar.

Background: Central nervous system (CNS) viral infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. No data are available regarding their epidemiology in Qatar.

Design: We retrospectively evaluated all cerebrospinal fluid findings from January 2011-March 2015 at Hamad Medical Corporation. Read More

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June 2018
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Seroepidemiology of varicella zoster virus infection in Vojvodina, Serbia.

Epidemiol Infect 2018 Jun 18:1-9. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Division of Genetics, Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Biology,University of Patras,Patras,Greece.

The present cross-sectional serosurvey constitutes the first effort to describe the varicella zoster virus (VZV) seroepidemiology in Serbia. An age-stratified serum bank of 3570 residual samples collected between 2015 and 2016 in each of the seven districts of the Vojvodina Province was tested for IgG anti-VZV antibodies with an enzyme immunoassay. Results were standardised into common units according to the European Sero-Epidemiology Network (ESEN2) methodology. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Safety and efficacy of upadacitinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and inadequate response to conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (SELECT-NEXT): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2018 Jun 18;391(10139):2503-2512. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

AbbVie Inc, North Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Upadacitinib is a selective inhibitor of Janus kinase 1 and was efficacious in phase 2 studies in patients with moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis. We aimed to assess the efficacy of upadacitinib in patients with inadequate response to conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs).

Methods: This study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at 150 sites in 35 countries. Read More

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Seroprevalence and social determinants of varicella in Turkey.

East Mediterr Health J 2018 Jun 10;24(3):295-301. Epub 2018 Jun 10.

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey.

Background: In Turkey, varicella vaccine was introduced into routine childhood immunization in 2013, with a single dose administered to children aged 12 months. However, there is limited information on the morbidity (incidence and seroprevalence), mortality and burden of disease of varicella in the overall Turkish population.

Aim: To determine varicella seroprevalence and its social determinants in Manisa Province, Turkey in children aged > 2 years before single-dose varicella vaccination was introduced in 2013. Read More

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Analytical validation of viral CNS Flow Chip kit for detection of acute meningitis and encephalitis.

J Virol Methods 2018 09 12;259:54-59. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada, Avda. Fuerzas Armadas, 2, Granada, 18014, Spain.

A new molecular assay (Viral CNS Flow Chip kit, Master Diagnóstica, Spain) has been developed for the detection of eight viruses causing acute meningitis and encephalitis, i.e. herpes simplex viruses 1-2, varicella zoster virus, human enterovirus, human parechovirus, Toscana virus, human cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus. Read More

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September 2018

Varicella-zoster virus and urologic practice: a case-based review.

Can J Urol 2018 Jun;25(3):9301-9306

Department of Urology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA.

Introduction: Each year, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) affects nearly one million people in the United States, often in the form of herpes zoster, or shingles. The urologic system is a rare but often debilitating target. This paper reviews the epidemiology, symptomatology, diagnosis, and management of VZV as it relates to urologic practice. Read More

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Case of Gianotti-Crosti syndrome following varicella zoster virus vaccination.

J Dermatol 2018 Jun 13. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Department of Dermatology, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Aichi, Japan.

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June 2018
1 Read

Vaccine Development for Varicella-Zoster Virus.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:123-142

Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the first and only human herpesvirus for which a licensed live attenuated vaccine, vOka, has been developed. vOka has highly safe and effective profiles; however, worldwide herd immunity against VZV has not yet been established and it is far from eradication. Despite the successful reduction in the burden of VZV-related illness by the introduction of the vaccine, some concerns about vOka critically prevent worldwide acceptance and establishment of herd immunity, and difficulties in addressing these criticisms often relate to its ill-defined mechanism of attenuation. Read More

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January 2018

Antiviral Drugs Against Alphaherpesvirus.

Authors:
Kimiyasu Shiraki

Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:103-122

Department of Virology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.

The discovery of acyclovir and penciclovir has led to the development of a successful systemic therapy for treating herpes simplex virus infection and varicella-zoster virus infection, and the orally available prodrugs, valacyclovir and famciclovir, have improved antiviral treatment compliance. Acyclovir and penciclovir are phosphorylated by viral thymidine kinase and are incorporated into the DNA chain by viral DNA polymerase, resulting in chain termination. Helicase-primase plays an initial step in DNA synthesis to separate the double strand into two single strands (replication fork) and is a new target of antiviral therapy. Read More

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January 2018

Neurological Disorders Associated with Human Alphaherpesviruses.

Authors:
Jun-Ichi Kawada

Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;1045:85-102

Department of Pediatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is the most common cause of sporadic fatal encephalitis worldwide, and central nervous system (CNS) involvement is observed in approximately one-third of neonatal HSV infections . In recent years, single-gene inborn errors of innate immunity have been shown to be associated with susceptibility to HSV encephalitis . Temporal lobe abnormalities revealed by magnetic resonance imaging-the most sensitive imaging method for HSV encephalitis-are considered strong evidence for the disease. Read More

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January 2018

Herpes zoster with cutaneous dissemination: a rare presentation of an uncommon pathology in children.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jun 12;2018. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Hospital de Braga, Braga, Portugal.

Herpes zoster, caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation, affects mainly the adult population, although it can occur in children. This happens when primary infection (varicella) has occurred at a very young age or in immunocompromised patients. Complications are rare in healthy individuals. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Unintended widespread facial autoinoculation of varicella by home microneedling roller device.

JAAD Case Rep 2018 Jul 6;4(6):546-547. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Dermatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Redwood City, California.

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July 2018
1 Read

Herpes Viruses and Senile Dementia: First Population Evidence for a Causal Link.

J Alzheimers Dis 2018 ;64(2):363-366

Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Little France, Edinburgh, UK.

Three articles have very recently appeared that are of especial relevance to the causes of dementia and its potential treatment. The first two (Tsai et al., published in PLoS One in November 2017; Chen et al. Read More

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January 2018

Varicella infection in the Middle East: Prevalence, complications, and vaccination.

J Res Med Sci 2018 26;23:19. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait.

Varicella (chickenpox) is the primary infection of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), it is a mild self-limiting infection, but it is also highly contagious and can cause severe complications among high-risk group of individuals. It is usually a childhood infection providing lifelong immunity, but adults without varicella history are also susceptible to infection. High-risk group of individuals is more likely to develop serious complications. Read More

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Burden of herpes zoster in 16 selected immunocompromised populations in England: a cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink 2000-2012.

BMJ Open 2018 Jun 7;8(6):e020528. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

GSK, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Objectives: Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of varicella-zoster virus which remains latent in individuals after a varicella infection. It is expected that HZ will be more frequent in immunocompromised (IC) individuals than in immunocompetent (IC-free). This study assessed the incidence rate (IR) of HZ in individuals with a wide set of IC conditions and in IC-free individuals. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Should Antiviral/Anti-Varicella Zoster Virus Treatment Be Used in Patients With Giant Cell Arteritis?

J Neuroophthalmol 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology (YJL), Stanford University Byers Eye Institute, Palo Alto, California; and Neurology and Ophthalmology (SK), University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska.

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June 2018
1 Read

Effect of Tetrodotoxin Pellets in a Rat Model of Postherpetic Neuralgia.

Mar Drugs 2018 Jun 5;16(6). Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China.

Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is nerve pain caused by a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. Medications are used to reduce PHN but their use is limited by serious side effects. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a latent neurotoxin that can block neuropathic pain, but its therapeutic index is only 3⁻5 times with intravenous or intramuscular injection. Read More

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June 2018
6 Reads

Analysis of IE62 mutations found in Varicella-Zoster virus vaccine strains for transactivation activity.

J Microbiol 2018 Jun 1;56(6):441-448. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea.

Live attenuated vaccine strains have been developed for Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV). Compared to clinically isolated strains, the vaccine strains contain several non-synonymous mutations in open reading frames (ORFs) 0, 6, 31, 39, 55, 62, and 64. In particular, ORF62, encoding an immediate-early (IE) 62 protein that acts as a transactivator for viral gene expression, contains six non-synonymous mutations, but whether these mutations affect transactivation activity of IE62 is not understood. Read More

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Inactivated varicella zoster vaccine in autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplant recipients: an international, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet 2018 May 24;391(10135):2116-2127. Epub 2018 May 24.

Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Background: Recipients of autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplants (auto-HSCT) have an increased risk of herpes zoster and herpes zoster-related complications. The aim of this study was to establish the efficacy and safety of an inactivated varicella zoster vaccine for the prevention of herpes zoster after auto-HSCT.

Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial, participants were recruited from 135 medical centres (ie, stem-cell transplant centres and hospitals) in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. Read More

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May 2018
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