11,782 results match your criteria Varicella-Zoster Virus


Microbial aspects and potential markers for differentiation between bacterial and viral meningitis among adult patients.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0251518. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt.

Objectives: Meningitis is a medical emergency with permanent disabilities and high mortality worldwide. We aimed to determine causative microorganisms and potential markers for differentiation between bacterial and viral meningitis.

Methodology: Adult patients with acute meningitis were subjected to lumber puncture. Read More

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Safety Profile of the Adjuvanted Recombinant Zoster Vaccine in Immunocompromised Populations: An Overview of Six Trials.

Drug Saf 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

GSK, Avenue Fleming 20, 1300, Wavre, Belgium.

Introduction: The adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) has demonstrated high efficacy against herpes zoster in older adults and immunocompromised populations. We present comprehensive safety data from six clinical trials in immunocompromised populations (autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant and renal transplant recipients, patients with hematologic malignancies, patients with solid tumors, and human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults) who are at an increased risk of herpes zoster.

Methods: In all trials, immunocompromised adults ≥ 18 years of age were administered RZV or placebo. Read More

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Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus/Postherpetic Neuralgia.

Cureus 2021 May 8;13(5):e14906. Epub 2021 May 8.

Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine, Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine, New York, USA.

Herpes zoster (HZ) and herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) are the result of reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) from a dormant condition. Although HZ symptoms typically subside after a few weeks, HZO and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) can persist at least 90 days after the appearance of the HZ rash. Presently, there is no gold standard for a disease-modifying therapy for postherpetic neuralgia and the current treatment is focused on early intervention and management of symptoms and dermatological complications. Read More

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Sudden deafness as an initial presentation of varicella: case report and literature review.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May;10(5):5891-5896

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shanghai University (Wenzhou Central Hospital), Wenzhou, China.

Varicella, or chickenpox, is a highly contagious disease transmitted by the varicella zoster virus (VZV). Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) has been defined as a loss of at least 30 dB over at least three frequencies on audiogram within three days and with an uncertain cause. Deafness caused by varicella-zoster virus occasionally occurred in Ramsey hunter syndrome but associated with chickenpox is rare. Read More

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Microfluidic electrical cell lysis for high-throughput and continuous production of cell-free varicella-zoster virus.

J Biotechnol 2021 Jun 4;335:19-26. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Life Science, Gachon University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 13120, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the causative agent of varicella and herpes zoster, is highly cell-associated and spreads via cell-to-cell contact in tissue culture. The lack of cell-free VZV hampers studies on VZV biology as well as antiviral and vaccine development. In the present study, a poly(methylmethacrylate) microfluidic device integrated with arrays of microelectrode was fabricated to continuously electrolyse VZV-infected cells to produce cell-free viruses. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of bloodletting for herpes zoster: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(22):e26169

Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Background: The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of bloodletting therapy for herpes zoster.

Methods: The following electronic databases will be searched from PubMed (1966 to March 2020), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (update to March 2020), EMBASE (1980 to March 2020), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 to March 2020), Wan Fang Data (1980 to March 2020), Chinese Scientific Journal Database (1989 to March 2020), Chinese Biomedical Database (1978 to March 2020) and traditional Chinese medicine Literature Analysis and Retrieval Database (1949 to March 2020). All randomized controlled trials without any limitation of blinding or publication language about this topic will be included, exclude cohort studies and case reports. Read More

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Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Role of Cellular Calcium Disorder in Varicella Zoster Virus-Induced Post-Herpetic Neuralgia.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 17;14:665931. Epub 2021 May 17.

Shenzhen Municipal Key Laboratory for Pain Medicine, Department of Pain Medicine, Shenzhen Nanshan People's Hospital, The 6th Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, China.

As a typical neuropathic pain, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a common complication of herpes zoster (HZ), which seriously affects the normal life and work of patients. The unclear pathogenesis and lack of effective drugs make the clinical efficacy of PHN unsatisfactory. Here, we obtained the transcriptome profile of neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and DRG in rats infected with varicella zoster virus (VZV) by transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) combined with publicly available gene array data sets. Read More

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Elevated Free Phosphatidylcholine Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid Distinguish Bacterial from Viral CNS Infections.

Cells 2021 May 6;10(5). Epub 2021 May 6.

Research Group Biomarkers for Infectious Diseases, TWINCORE Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research, 30625 Hannover and Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.

The identification of CSF biomarkers for bacterial meningitis can potentially improve diagnosis and understanding of pathogenesis, and the differentiation from viral CNS infections is of particular clinical importance. Considering that substantial changes in CSF metabolites in CNS infections have recently been demonstrated, we compared concentrations of 188 metabolites in CSF samples from patients with bacterial meningitis ( = 32), viral meningitis/encephalitis ( = 34), and noninflamed controls ( = 66). Metabolite reprogramming in bacterial meningitis was greatest among phosphatidylcholines, and concentrations of all 54 phosphatidylcholines were significantly ( = 1. Read More

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Cross-Sectional Study of Varicella Zoster Virus Immunity in Healthy Korean Children Assessed by Glycoprotein Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Fluorescent Antibody to Membrane Antigen Test.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 12;9(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 42415, Korea.

The prevalence of varicella is especially high among children in the age group of 4-6 years in South Korea, regardless of vaccination. We investigated the immune status of healthy children enrolled in day-care centers and compared pre- and post-vaccination immunity. Antibody titers were measured using a glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpEIA) kit, and the seroconversion rate was assessed using a fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) test. Read More

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Genetic changes in plaque-purified varicella vaccine strain Suduvax during in vitro propagation in cell culture.

J Microbiol 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, 28644, Republic of Korea.

Infection by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) can be prevented by using live attenuated vaccines. VZV vaccine strains are known to evolve rapidly in vivo, however, their genetic and biological effects are not known. In this study, the plaque-purified vaccine strain Suduvax (PPS) was used to understand the genetic changes that occur during the process of propagation in in vitro cell culture. Read More

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When infection mimics cauda equina syndrome: a cautionary tale.

Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2021 Jun;103(6):e181-e183

Queen's Hospital Burton, Burton on Trent, UK.

A 63-year-old man presented to the emergency department with low back pain, perineal and genital numbness, together with bilateral lower limb paraesthesia and urinary retention. He was admitted under the orthopaedic service for investigation of suspected cauda equina syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging of his spine did not reveal any evidence of cauda equina compression. Read More

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Unusual Presentation of Ramsay-Hunt Syndrome in Kidney Transplant Patient.

Transpl Infect Dis 2021 May 31:e13658. Epub 2021 May 31.

Hospital das Clinicas, University os São Paulo.

Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) in craniospinal sensory neurons and is characterized by a painful erythematous rash in the affected dermatome. Although Kidney transplant recipients who are chronically maintained on immunosuppressive regimens are considered at risk, there are only a few cases described. We report a well-documented case 50 year-old male kidney transplant recipient who presented Ramsay Hunt Syndrome with neurological finds. Read More

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Intradermal Vaccination: A Potential Tool in the Battle Against the COVID-19 Pandemic?

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 20;14:2079-2087. Epub 2021 May 20.

Primary Care Unit ASL RM 1, Rome, Italy.

This narrative review is the final output of an initiative of the SIM (Italian Society of Mesotherapy). A narrative review of scientific literature on the efficacy of fractional intradermal vaccination in comparison with full doses has been conducted for the following pathogens: influenza virus, rabies virus, poliovirus (PV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis bacterias (DTP), human papillomavirus (HPV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JE), meningococcus, varicella zoster virus (VZV) and yellow fever virus. The findings suggest that the use of the intradermal route represents a valid strategy in terms of efficacy and efficiency for influenza, rabies and HBV vaccines. Read More

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Varicella-Zoster Meningitis in an Immunocompetent Male without Fever or Rash.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2021 6;2021:9940393. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpesvirus that primarily causes chickenpox and can reactivate later in life. Chickenpox occurs mostly in children and is characterized by a typical generalized vesicular rash. Following the primary infection, VZV can remain latent and can reactivate decades later to produce Zoster, being more common in the elderly as well as immunosuppressed individuals. Read More

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Long -term persistence of antibodies against varicella in fully immunized healthcare workers: an Italian retrospective cohort study.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 25;21(1):475. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology, Aldo Moro University of Bari, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124, Bari, Italy.

Background: Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV), and in infants, adolescents, adults, pregnant women, and the immunocompromised it can be serious. The best way to prevent chickenpox is immunization with the varicella vaccine. Protective levels of antibodies induced by the varicella vaccine decline over time, but there is currently no formal recommendation for testing anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG levels in immunized healthcare workers (HCWs). Read More

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Effect of the varicella vaccination implementation on the development of herpes zoster in children and adolescents.

Dermatol Ther 2021 May 24:e14995. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Dermatology, Medeniyet University, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Herpes zoster (HZ) is an infectious disease caused by latent varicella-zoster virus reactivation. There are conflicting reports on the varicella vaccine's effect on the incidence of HZ in children and adolescents. This study aimed to determine the impact of the single dose of varicella vaccination on HZ prevalence during childhood and adolescence. Read More

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Promotion of healthcare personnel vaccinations among newly employed doctors and nurses: Evidence-guided strategy.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 20;39(26):3480-3485. Epub 2021 May 20.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: Healthcare personnel vaccinations are important to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases in hospitals. We evaluated the seroprevalence, vaccination rates, and barriers to vaccination among newly employed nurses and doctors.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a university hospital in the Republic of Korea from 2017 to 2020. Read More

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Transdermal drug delivery systems for fighting common viral infectious diseases.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) have many advantages and represent an excellent alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. TDDS are more convenient and less invasive tools for disease and viral infection treatment, prevention, detection, and surveillance. The emerging development of microneedles for TDDS has facilitated improved skin barrier penetration for the delivery of macromolecules or hydrophilic drugs. Read More

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Intratracheal inoculation of human varicella zoster virus (VZV; MAV strain) vaccine successfully induced VZV IgG antibodies in rhesus monkeys.

Lab Anim Res 2021 May 22;37(1):14. Epub 2021 May 22.

Xenotransplantation Research Center, Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul, Korea.

Background: The objective of this study was to investigate whether the use of live attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) MAV vaccination can efficiently induce VZV antibody production in naive rhesus monkeys as an approach to prevent simian varicella virus (SVV) reactivation in animals immunosuppressed for transplantation studies.

Results: Clinically available human VZV vaccine was used to induce the production of anti-VZV antibodies in rhesus monkeys. A vial of the vaccine was subcutaneously injected at 0 week, and the second and third vaccination was performed at 5 and 6 weeks by intratracheal inoculation. Read More

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Assessment of the FilmArray ME panel in 4199 consecutively tested cerebrospinal fluid samples.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Region Västra Götaland, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, Gothenburg, Sweden; Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Objectives: In central nervous system infections, early and correct management is of utmost importance. Rapid syndromic panel testing can potentially provide valuable guidance. The FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis (ME) panel detects 14 pathogens through multiplex PCR. Read More

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Tumor-like herpes simplex infection in an HIV patient.

An Bras Dermatol 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Dermatology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

A 56-year-old man, HIV-positive, presented with a 3-day history of multiple indurated erythematous nodules with superficial and well-defined erosions on his right gluteus. Skin biopsy showed ballooning-necrotic keratinocytes and cultures were positive for herpes simplex 2. Genital herpes simplex infection recurrences may not be restricted to the anterior part of the genitalia and clinical presentation in the lumbar area or gluteus must be differentiated from varicella-zoster virus infection. Read More

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Lesson of the month: Late, disseminated herpes zoster reactivation in a stem cell transplant recipient: implications for post-transplant prophylaxis and immune monitoring.

Clin Med (Lond) 2021 05;21(3):e309-e312

Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK.

Varicella zoster reactivation is a known risk following stem-cell transplantation, but has become more infrequent since universal antiviral prophylaxis. We report an unusual case of late, disseminated reactivation in a 27-year-old man with positive pre-transplant serology, and discuss implications for post-transplant prophylaxis and immune monitoring. Read More

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Cutaneous manifestations of infections: an update for general physicians.

Clin Med (Lond) 2021 05;21(3):174-176

St John's Institute of Dermatology, London, UK

Infection rashes can present in a number of different ways, some giving a reactive pattern in the skin to infection elsewhere in the body, while others reflect infection within the affected skin itself. Recognising the possible systemic symptoms, characteristic distribution and morphology of rashes can lead to a high degree of accuracy in making a clinical diagnosis in the clinic room/at the bedside that can be confirmed with a few simple laboratory tests. Read More

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Can COVID-19 Increase the Risk of Herpes Zoster? A Narrative Review.

Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

GSK, Rixensart, Belgium.

Herpes zoster (HZ) is associated with substantial morbidity. It is caused by reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) following decline in cell-mediated immunity, which is commonly age-related, but also occurs in individuals with immunosuppressive diseases and/or treatment. Since coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has been associated with T cell immune dysfunction and there have been reports of HZ in COVID-19 patients, we have performed a review of available literature on whether COVID-19 could trigger HZ. Read More

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Genital herpes zoster: a rare location that can mimic genital herpes.

Sex Transm Dis 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Dermatology, Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Spain.

Abstract: Herpes zoster is an acute, cutaneous viral infection caused by the reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) Genital dermatomes are involved in only up to 2% of cases and is probably under recognized. We present a series of 7 genital herpes zoster cases diagnosed in our Unit of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. None of our patients was positive for HIV test and only one was taking immunosuppressive medication. Read More

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Segmental Zoster Paresis: A Literature Review.

Pain Physician 2021 May;24(3):253-261

Department of Anesthesiology, Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Herpes zoster is an acute infectious skin disease that is induced by the re-activation of the virus incubated in nerve ganglions following initial infection with varicella-zoster virus in childhood. Herpes zoster mainly affects sensory nerves, resulting in severe acute pain, which is also the most common reason for medical intervention in this patient group. The concurrent involvement of motor nerves could induce the symptoms of segmental zoster paresis, which is manifested by localized asymmetric myasthenia, whose range generally follows the distribution of myomere with skin rashes. Read More

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LOW IMMUNITY AGAINST VACCINE PREVENTABLE DISEASES IN TURKISH HIV COHORT.

Turk J Med Sci 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Background and aim HIV infection increases the risk of serious disease resulting from common vaccine-preventable infections. Vaccinations are particularly important for HIV infected adults. We aimed to investigate the immunity rates against measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis A, B and tetanus in newly diagnosed HIV patients. Read More

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P2X7 receptor antagonist BBG inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress and pyroptosis to alleviate postherpetic neuralgia.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, 230001, Anhui Province, China.

Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common complication of acute herpes zoster. The treatment of PHN remains a challenge for clinical pain management. The present study investigated the P2X7 receptor antagonist brilliant blue G (BBG) whether inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress and pyroptosis (a necrotic form of cell death) and alleviates PHN. Read More

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Varicella Outbreak in Children from Silvassa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, India.

Indian Pediatr 2021 May;58(5):483-484

State Health Society, IDSP, National Health Mission, Shri VBCH Campus, Silvassa, India.

Study describes epidemiological and laboratory findings of the fever with skin-rash cases (n=247) reported from Dadra and Nagar Haveli during 2018-19. For laboratory diagnosis, 33 sera and 5 blister swabs were obtained from 36 suspected cases. Varicella-zoster-virus DNA PCR and IgM EIA confirmed 33 cases and sequencing revealed circulation of clade-1 viruses. Read More

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Anti-CD20 antibody therapy and risk of infection in patients with demyelinating diseases.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 May 1;52:102988. Epub 2021 May 1.

Danish Multiple Sclerosis Center, Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Background: Anti-CD20 antibody therapy may be associated with an increased risk of infections. We therefore investigated risk factors for infection in patients with demyelinating diseases treated with anti-CD20 antibody therapy.

Methods: In this retrospective uncontrolled study, patients ever treated with anti-CD20 antibodies at an academic clinic were identified through the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR). Read More

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