11,617 results match your criteria Varicella Zoster


Epidemiology of Toscana virus in South Tuscany over the years 2011-2019.

J Clin Virol 2020 May 22;128:104452. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena, Siena, Italy; S. Maria delle Scotte Hospital, Viale Bracci, 1, 53100, Siena, Italy.

Background: Toscana virus (TOSV) is a Phlebovirus transmitted to humans by phlebotomines and represent an etiological agent of acute aseptic meningitis (AAM) in countries where the virus is endemic, including Italy. Incidence of TOSV infections is closely associated with the geographical distribution of the phlebotomine vectors which in turn is affected by climate changes that determine survival and spread. As a result, TOSV infections show a seasonal trend with a peak of incidence in summer months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104452DOI Listing

Acute myocarditis following varicella zoster infection in an immunocompetent adolescent: An uncommon complication.

Arch Argent Pediatr 2020 Jun;118(3):e284-e287

Department of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Health Sciences, Ankara Child Health and Diseases Hematology Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Ziraat Mah, Ankara, Turkey.

Myocarditis is a serious complication of varicella zoster virus infection. A 15 year-old boy was admitted to the Emergency Department for chest pain, tachycardia and hypotension. An electrocardiogram showed sinus tachyicardia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2020.eng.e284DOI Listing

Concerns on Vaccine against Varicella Caused by Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection.

Virol Sin 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology (CEBSIT), Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-020-00231-4DOI Listing

VARICELLA ZOSTER REACTIVATION CAUSING ASEPTIC MENINGITIS IN HEALTHY ADOLESCENTS: A CASE SERIES AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Alder Hey Children's Hospital NHS Trust, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

We describe 3 cases of adolescent varicella-zoster virus reactivation, complicated by aseptic meningitis, presenting to our institution in a 3-year period. These cases highlight varicella-zoster virus reactivation as an important cause of aseptic meningitis in the differential diagnosis of healthy adolescents, even in the absence of a characteristic exanthem. Evidence-based management recommendations are needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002759DOI Listing

Recombinant Herpes Zoster Vaccine (RZV) after Heart Transplantation: A Single Center Experience.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2020 Apr 30;39(4S):S204. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY.

Purpose: Herpes zoster (HZ) results from reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) presenting as a dermatomal rash. Diminished cellular immunity to VZV increases HZ risk and incidence in solid organ transplant (SOT) is higher than the general population. Immunogenicity and safety of the inactivated varicella vaccine (RZV, Shingrix) has been demonstrated in renal transplant (KT) but data in heart transplant (HT) are lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2020.01.816DOI Listing

Viral Infections in Burns.

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Viral infections after burns are less common than bacterial infections but usually occur in the more severely burned patients and have been associated with poor outcomes. Retrospective reviews and case series were examined to provide an overview of the management of viral infections in the burn patient. The most common viral pathogens in these patients are the herpesviruses, which include herpes simplex, varicella zoster, cytomegalovirus, and human herpesvirus 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/sur.2020.130DOI Listing

Epstein-Barr virus retinitis in an immunocompromised child: A case report.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2020 May 27:1120672120926855. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Linkou Medical Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Introduction: The Epstein-Barr virus is a rare causative pathogen identified in the posterior segment. The majority of cases were presented with a serious condition of acute retinal necrosis, and most of these eyes had poor outcomes. The clinical features and effective treatment options for this condition are still unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1120672120926855DOI Listing

Analysis of the reiteration regions (R1 to R5) of varicella-zoster virus.

Virology 2020 Jul 4;546:38-50. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genome, comprises both unique and repeated regions. The genome also includes reiteration regions, designated R1 to R5, which are tandemly repeating sequences termed elements. These regions represent an understudied feature of the VZV genome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2020.03.008DOI Listing

COVID-19 and herpes zoster co-infection presenting with trigeminal neuropathy.

Eur J Neurol 2020 May 24. Epub 2020 May 24.

Fluminense Federal University, Neurology Department, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human neurotropic virus that remains in a latent state within ganglionic neurons throughout the entire neuroaxis after the primary infection. Whenever herpes zoster leads to trigeminal involvement, the ophthalmic division is the most implicated. COVID-19 emerged as a viral cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome that spread all over the world in the last months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14361DOI Listing

What Can Mimic Multiple Sclerosis?

Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2020 Jun 29;41(3):284-295. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA.

This article discusses mimics of multiple sclerosis (MS). Excluded in this discussion are neuromyelitis optica and vasculitis, discussed in other articles in this journal. Covered entities include posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, reversible vasoconstriction syndrome, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Sussac's Syndrome, and chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyneuropathy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.sult.2020.02.003DOI Listing

Herpes zoster might be an indicator for Latent COVID 19 infection.

Dermatol Ther 2020 May 23:e13666. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology , Faculty of Medicine, Suez canal university.

Various cutaneous manifestations have been observed in patients with COVID-19 infection. Herpes Zoster is a viral skin disease caused by varicella zoster that remains dormant in the dorsal root ganglia of cutaneous nerves following a primary chicken pox infection. In this report we describe two cases COVID infection who first presented with herpes zoster. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.13666DOI Listing

Incidence of herpes zoster among varicella-vaccinated children, by number of vaccine doses and simultaneous administration of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.

Vaccine 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, 3800 North Interstate Avenue, Portland, OR 97227, USA.

Introduction: Children may receive measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella (VAR) vaccines separately or as measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV). We examined whether pediatric herpes zoster (HZ) incidence varied by pattern of varicella vaccine administration.

Methods: In six integrated health systems, we examined HZ incidence among children turning 12 months old during 2003-2008. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.006DOI Listing

Non-invasive detection of IgG antibodies from common pathogenic viruses using oral flocked swabs.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 Mar 12:115038. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Pathology & Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Laboratory Medicine, St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Salivary antibodies are useful in surveillance and vaccination studies. However, low antibody levels and degradation by endonucleases are problematic. Oral flocked swabs are a potential non-invasive alternative for detecting viral antibodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2020.115038DOI Listing

Herpesvirus Infections Potentiated by Biologics.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2020 Jun;34(2):311-339

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue CHS 37-121, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1688, USA.

Herpesviruses such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) maintain lifelong latency in the host after primary infection and can reactivate periodically either as asymptomatic viral shedding or as clinical disease. Immunosuppression, including biologic therapy, may increase frequency and severity of herpesvirus reactivation and infection. Licensed biologics are reviewed regarding their risks of potentiating HSV, VZV, and CMV reactivation and infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2020.02.006DOI Listing
June 2020
2.733 Impact Factor

Antiviral Activities of Quercetin and Isoquercitrin Against Human Herpesviruses.

Molecules 2020 May 20;25(10). Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Life Science, Gachon University, Seongnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 13120, Korea.

We previously reported that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of a 70% ethanol extract of (ESE) inhibits varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication in vitro. PGG (1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucose) is a major chemical constituent of the EtOAc fraction of ESE that inhibits VZV but not HCMV replication. In this study, we comprehensively screened the chemical compounds identified in the EtOAc fraction of ESE for potential antiviral properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102379DOI Listing

Response to "Reply to 'Varicella-like exanthem as a specific COVID-19-associated skin manifestation: multicenter case series of 22 patients': To consider varicella-like exanthem associated with COVID-19, virus varicella zoster and virus herpes simplex must be ruled out".

J Am Acad Dermatol 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Dermatology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy; Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.05.072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235556PMC

Varicella-Zoster Virus of the Eyelid.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

TOC Eye and Face, Austin, Texas.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2020.0575DOI Listing

Acute Ataxia in Childhood: Clinical Presentation, Etiology, and Prognosis of Single-Center Experience.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey.

Background: Acute ataxia is a common reason for presentation to the pediatric emergency department and the pediatric neurology clinic in childhood. Its incidence is between 1/100,000 and 1/500,000. Its most common reason is infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000002104DOI Listing

From acute management to ultimate reconstruction: a 15-year follow-up of a pediatric patient with necrotizing fasciitis secondary to varicella infection.

Ann Burns Fire Disasters 2019 Dec;32(4):331-334

American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.

Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive, life-threatening soft tissue infection. The usually aggressive surgical debridement often leaves disfiguring sequelae.We hereby present the case of a 4-yearold boy who presented with post varicella zoster necrotizing fasciitis over his trunk, and follow his journey post reconstruction with split thickness skin grafts and the sequelae of grafting over the trunk. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197905PMC
December 2019

A double-blind, randomized, multicenter, controlled study to evaluate the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of varicella vaccine (VARIVAX™) passage extension 34 (PE34) process administered concomitantly with measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (M-M-R™ II).

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 May 19:1-7. Epub 2020 May 19.

Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

The varicella vaccine passage extension (VAR-PE) process was undertaken to extend the availability of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-containing vaccines. This study (V210-A03; NCT03239873) assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of VAR-PE process in comparison with varicella vaccine commercial product 2016 (VAR) randomized 1:1 in 600 healthy children 12 to 23 months of age administered concomitantly with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. The VZV seroconversion rate at 6 weeks Postdose 1 in the PP population was 100% for both groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1743122DOI Listing

Early impact of the Australian national shingles vaccination program with the herpes zoster live attenuated vaccine.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 May 18:1-9. Epub 2020 May 18.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, Westmead, Australia.

Herpes zoster (shingles) is a painful condition resulting from reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV). The Australian National Shingles Vaccination Program (commenced November 2016) provides free herpes zoster vaccination for eligible adults aged 70 years, with a 5-year catch-up program (until October 2021) for adults aged 71-79 years. Patterns and impact of the program were evaluated by analysis of vaccine distribution and delivery data and specific antiviral prescription data from the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1754702DOI Listing

Evans syndrome in a patient with COVID-19.

Br J Haematol 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare condition characterized by the combination of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). While the precise pathophysiology is not entirely understood, it is believed that dysregulation of the immune system is a primary contributor to the condition. ES has been observed in viral infections including hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster, and Epstein-Barr viruses (1-4). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16846DOI Listing

Zoster patients on earth and astronauts in space share similar immunologic profiles.

Life Sci Space Res (Amst) 2020 May 14;25:119-128. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

NASA Johnson Space Center, 2101 E NASA Pkwy, Houston, TX 77058, United States. Electronic address:

Background: On long-duration spaceflight, most astronauts experience persistent immune dysregulation and the reactivation of latent herpesviruses, including varicella zoster virus (VZV). To understand the clinical risk of these perturbations to astronauts, we paralleled the immunology and virology work-up of astronauts to otherwise healthy terrestrial persons with acute herpes zoster.

Methods: Blood samples from 42 zoster patients - confirmed positive by PCR for VZV DNA in saliva (range from 100 to >285 million copies/mL) were analyzed for peripheral leukocyte distribution, T cell function, and plasma cytokine profiles via multi-parametric flow cytometry and multiplex bead-based immune-array assays. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lssr.2019.10.001DOI Listing

Radiation therapy and the risk of herpes zoster in patients with cancer.

Cancer 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The role and impact of radiation therapy (RT) on the development of herpes zoster (HZ) has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between RT and HZ.

Methods: A propensity score-matched, retrospective cohort study was conducted using institutional cancer registry data and medical records from 2011 to 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32926DOI Listing

Sinus venous thrombosis: a rare complication of varicella zoster virus.

Clin Med (Lond) 2020 Mar;20(Suppl 2):s46

Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7861/clinmed.20-2-s46DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243504PMC

Varicella-zoster virus infection in the pediatric population with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Poland.

J Med Virol 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection in pediatric hemato-oncology patients can be a therapeutic problem when children are exposed to immunosuppression. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of VZV infection, antiviral therapy and outcome in children with ALL treated in polish hemato-oncological centers between 2012 and 2019 years. This study included medical records of 1874 patients, aged 1 to 18 years, with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26008DOI Listing

An Association of Varicella Zoster Virus, Facial Palsy, and Meningitis in a Young Immunocompetent Male.

Case Rep Neurol 2020 Jan-Apr;12(1):136-139. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Medical Education, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Varicella zoster is a secondary infection caused by the virus of chickenpox, after becoming latent in neurons of dorsal root ganglia or trigeminal ganglia. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) can be reactivated years later to produce shingles (zoster), generally in immunocompromised adults to produce neurological deficits and rash. Meningeal involvement of VZV is also reported and can be diagnosed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000506192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204867PMC

Design, synthesis, chemical characterization, biological evaluation, and docking study of new 1,3,4-oxadiazole homonucleoside analogs.

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2020 May 13:1-20. Epub 2020 May 13.

Laboratory of Biomolecular and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Science Semlalia, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco.

Herein, we report the synthetic strategies and characterization of some novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole homonucleoside analogs that are relevant to potential antitumor and cytotoxic activities. The structure of all compounds is confirmed using various spectroscopic methods such as H-NMR, C-NMR, HRMS, and FTIR. These compounds were evaluated against three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, SKBR3, and HL60 Cell Line). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15257770.2020.1761982DOI Listing

Evaluation of Varicella Immunity during Pregnancy in Apulia Region, Southern Italy.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 May 10;8(2). Epub 2020 May 10.

Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, Via Aldo Moro 2, Siena 53100, Italy.

Varicella is a highly contagious, infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus. Those at higher risk of severe complications are immunocompromised individuals, adults, non-immune pregnant women, and newborns. According to the gestational time, when varicella-zoster virus infection is acquired during pregnancy, serious complications can potentially occur for both the woman and the fetus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020214DOI Listing

Acute zoster plasma contains elevated amyloid, correlating with Aβ42 and amylin levels, and is amyloidogenic.

J Neurovirol 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 12700 E. 19th Avenue, Mail Stop B182, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Herpes zoster is associated with an increased dementia and neovascular macular degeneration risk and a decline in glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Because amyloid is present and pathogenic in these diseases, we quantified amyloid, Aβ40, Aβ42, and amylin in 14 zoster and 10 control plasmas. Compared with controls, zoster plasma had significantly elevated amyloid that correlated with Aβ42 and amylin levels and increased amyloid aggregation with addition of exogenous Aβ42 or amylin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-020-00830-7DOI Listing

Past infections are associated with low levels of anti-citrullinated protein autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis.

J Med Invest 2020 ;67(1.2):182-188

Department of General Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan.

Background : Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, is believed to occur as the result of actions of genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we examined the relation of past histories about infectious diseases with the levels anti-citrullinated protein autoantibodies (ACPA) in RA. Methods : Results of a questionnaire about histories of infectious diseases were obtained from 85 patients with RA, and were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2152/jmi.67.182DOI Listing
January 2020

[S2k guideline for the diagnosis and therapy of zoster and post-zoster neuralgia].

GMS Infect Dis 2020 12;8:Doc01. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergy, Division of Evidence-based Medicine (dEBM), Berlin, Deutschland.

This guideline is aimed at registrars and consultants in dermatology, ophthalmology, ENT, pediatrics, neurology, virology as well as infectiology, anaesthesia and generell medicine as well as policymakers and payers and purchasers of care. It was developed by dermatologists, virologists, ophthalmologists, ENT physicians, neurologists, pediatrician and anesthetists using a formal consensus process (S2k).The guideline provides an overview of clinical and molecular diagnostics as well as antigen detection, antibody culture and viral culture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3205/id000045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7187398PMC

Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder Attack Triggered by Herpes Zoster Infection.

Mult Scler Int 2020 25;2020:6151258. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Unit of Neurosciences, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Italy.

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder is a severe autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by recurrent inflammatory events primarily involving the optic nerves and spinal cord. Recently, a triggering role of infectious events in the development of NMOSD has been suggested. Varicella zoster virus is the most common viral infection involved, though the linkage with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies is so far unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6151258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7196994PMC

Use of Machine Learning Techniques for Case-Detection of Varicella Zoster Using Routinely Collected Textual Ambulatory Records: Pilot Observational Study.

JMIR Med Inform 2020 May 5;8(5):e14330. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Cardiac Thoracic Vascular Sciences and Public Health, University of Padova, Unit of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Public Health, Padova, Italy.

Background: The detection of infectious diseases through the analysis of free text on electronic health reports (EHRs) can provide prompt and accurate background information for the implementation of preventative measures, such as advertising and monitoring the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns.

Objective: The purpose of this paper is to compare machine learning techniques in their application to EHR analysis for disease detection.

Methods: The Pedianet database was used as a data source for a real-world scenario on the identification of cases of varicella. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/14330DOI Listing

Impact of Syrian refugees on congenital TORCH infections screening in Turkey.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2020 Apr 28. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SBÜ Gülhane Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Aim: To demonstrate the effect of the Syrian refugee population on the prevalence of congenital TORCH (Toxoplasmosis, Other [syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19], Rubella, Cytomegalovirus [CMV] and Herpes) infections and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of population-based TORCH screening during pregnancy in Turkey.

Methods: Pregnant women (n = 9754) were enrolled. Ultrasonographic findings, immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG seropositivity, avidity, amniocentesis and DNA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results were compared. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.14273DOI Listing

New insights into IFN-γ in rheumatoid arthritis: role in the era of JAK inhibitors.

Authors:
Masaru Kato

Immunol Med 2020 Apr 25:1-7. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Rheumatology, Endocrinology and Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is now entering a new era, the era of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors. JAK inhibitors target multiple cytokines including IL-6 and exhibit a beneficial treatment effect in patients with RA and inadequate response to conventional synthetic or biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Since the treatment effect of JAK inhibitors is promising even for patients refractory to anti-IL-6 therapy, it needs to be considered how multiple cytokines play roles in the pathogenesis of RA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/25785826.2020.1751908DOI Listing

Central nervous system infections produced by varicella zoster virus.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2020 Jun;33(3):273-278

Department of Neurology.

Purpose Of Review: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella, establishes latency, then reactivates to produce herpes zoster. VZV reactivation can also cause central nervous system (CNS) disease with or without rash. Herein, we review these CNS diseases, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000647DOI Listing

Viral Loads in Ocular Fluids of Acute Retinal Necrosis Eyes Infected by Varicella-Zoster Virus Treated with Intravenous Acyclovir Treatment.

J Clin Med 2020 Apr 22;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Ophthalmology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513, Japan.

Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rare viral endophthalmitis, and human herpesvirus is the principal pathogen. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to avoid visual impairment by ARN, and pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) is required in advanced cases. In this study, we evaluated the transition of viral load in ocular fluids of ARN eyes with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) after intravenous acyclovir treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9041204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230916PMC

Visual outcome and poor prognostic factors in acute retinal necrosis syndrome.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2020 Apr 23. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital, University of Lausanne, Fondation Asile des Aveugles, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of selected clinical parameters on the mid-/long-term visual outcome of patients with acute retinal necrosis (ARN) DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study METHODS: SETTING: Two University Hospitals (Parma, Italy; Lausanne, Switzerland).

Participants: Thirty-nine non-HIV patients (39 eyes) with ARN, as confirmed by polymerase chain reaction on intraocular samples. The following potential predictors were tested using linear regression models: age, sex, etiology, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) on admission, delay between ARN symptom onset and treatment initiation, and surgery (performed or not). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-020-04701-zDOI Listing

Herpes Zoster Infection as a Presentation for Hidden Diabetes Mellitus.

Cureus 2020 Mar 22;12(3):e7363. Epub 2020 Mar 22.

Adult Endocrinology, Faiha Specialized Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolism Center, College of Medicine, University of Basrah, Basrah, IRQ.

The incidence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) is high among patients with herpes zoster (HZ) due to complex immune defects. The DM and HZ affect each other's course aggressively. We introduced three cases of HZ for two men and one woman who were nondiabetic at presentation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174859PMC

Predictors of infectious meningitis or encephalitis: the yield of cerebrospinal fluid in a cross-sectional study.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Apr 23;20(1):304. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Clinic for Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses are recommended in patients with meningitis and/or encephalitis, but evidence regarding its diagnostic yield is low. We aimed to determine predictors of infectious pathogens in the CSF of adult patients presenting with meningitis, and/or encephalitis.

Methods: Consecutive patients with meningitis and/or encephalitis form 2011-17 at a Swiss academic medical care center were included in this cross-sectional study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05022-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181581PMC
April 2020
2.613 Impact Factor

Persistence of varicella zoster virus specific plasma cells in adult human bone marrow following childhood vaccination.

J Virol 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Childhood immunization with the live-attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine induces protective immune responses. Routine VZV vaccination started only two decades ago and thus there are few studies examining the longevity of vaccine-induced immunity. Herein, we analyzed the quantity of VZV-specific plasma cells (PCs) and CD4 T cells in the bone marrow (BM) of healthy young adults (n=15) following childhood VZV immunization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02127-19DOI Listing

A mysterious case of jaundice after development of skin vesicles.

Gastroenterology 2020 Apr 19. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Hepatitis Research Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.04.031DOI Listing

Seropositivity of selected chronic infections and different measures of obesity.

PLoS One 2020 22;15(4):e0231974. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Chair of Epidemiology at UNIKA-T Augsburg, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München, Augsburg, Germany.

The impact of sex-specific body fat distribution on the susceptibility to five chronic infections, helicobacter pylori and human herpesviruses 3 to 6 (i.e. varicella-zoster, Epstein-Barr, cytomegalo- and human herpesvirus 6), has not previously been examined. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231974PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176148PMC

Cutaneous Vasculitis and Central Nervous System Infarctions due to Varicella Zoster Virus Vasculopathy in an Immunocompromised Patient.

Case Rep Transplant 2020 6;2020:5049627. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection commonly presents as varicella during childhood, and zoster, later in life. Here, we present a rare and interesting case of VZV infection that manifested with both cerebral and spinal infarctions and cutaneous vasculitis in the absence of a classic vesicular rash in an immunocompromised patient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5049627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7165345PMC

Compliance with international guidelines in adults with encephalitis.

J Clin Virol 2020 Jun 14;127:104369. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, UT Health McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX, United States.

Background: Encephalitis is associated with significant neurological disability and mortality. Many guidelines are published for encephalitis management but compliance with them is unknown.

Objectives: To evaluate the appropriate management and compliance to the current guidelines in adults with encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7194944PMC

Conjunctival swab sample using varicella-zoster virus antigen kit enables rapid diagnosis of herpes zoster ophthalmicus.

Australas J Dermatol 2020 Apr 21. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Dermatology, Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka City, Kanagawa, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajd.13299DOI Listing

The influence of spaceflight on the astronaut salivary microbiome and the search for a microbiome biomarker for viral reactivation.

Microbiome 2020 Apr 20;8(1):56. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

JES Tech, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Spaceflight impacts astronauts in many ways but little is known on how spaceflight affects the salivary microbiome and the consequences of these changes on astronaut health, such as viral reactivation. In order to understand this, the salivary microbiome was analyzed with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and saliva viral titers were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with primers specific for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) from 10 astronauts pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight.

Results: Streptococcus was the most abundant organism in the saliva, making up 8% of the total organisms detected, and their diversity decreased during spaceflight. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-020-00830-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7171750PMC

Hypertrophic genital herpes in an HIV-infected female patient: Imiquimod as an alternative treatment.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Apr 18;95:153-156. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Infectious Diseases Post-Graduate Program, Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is the leading cause of genital ulcers worldwide. In Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) co-infected individuals, rare hypertrophic pseudo-tumoral forms have been described as simulating squamous cell carcinoma or other viral infections such as those caused by Varicella zoster, Molluscum contagiosum and HPV induced lesions. Here, we report a case of hypertrophic genital herpes in an HIV-infected patient effectively treated with surgery and topical 5% imiquimod after the recurrence of lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.04.025DOI Listing